Hausa Language Academic Website

Thursday, 25 January 2018

Kwatanci Na Kamanci Da Bambanci Tsakanin Jimlar Tambaya Da Jimlar K’orewa Ta Hausa Da Ta Fulatanci (4)

 

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DAYI RILWANU

 

KUNDIN NEMAN DIGIRIN FARKO (B.A. HAUSA) DA AKA GABATAR A SASHEN HARSUNAN NIJERIYA TSANGAYAR FASAHA DA ILIMIN ADDININ MUSULUNCI JAMI’AR USAMANU ‘DANFODIYO SAKKWATO

https://www.amsoshi.com/tuntubi-masu-gudanarwa/

BABI NA BIYU


MA’ANAR JIMLA DA RABE-RABEN TA


2.0     SHIMFID’A


A babi na biyu, an yi waiwaye ne kan ma’anar da masana suka bayar na Jimla da rabe-raben ta wato Jimlar tambaya da Jimlar korewa da Sassauk’ar Jimla da kuma Jimlar Umurni. Sannan an nuna yadda kowace jimla take daga cikin jimlolin da aka ambata, a cikin harshen Hausa da na harshen Fulatanci (Fulfulde). Haka kuma an waiwayi ma’anar jimla a harshe Fulatanci (Fulfulde) ita ma kamar yadda masana suka bayar da ita, saboda wannan bincike ya shafi harsuna biyu ne wato harshen Hausa da kuma harshen Fulatanci (Fulfulde). An nad’e babin da jawabin kammalawa a tak’aice.

2.1     M’ANAR JIMLA DAGA MASANA NAHWUN HARSHEN HAUSA


Masana nahawun Hausa da dama sun ba da gudummuwarsu wajen fito da ma’anar jimlar Hausa gwargwadon fahimtarsu, irin wad’annan masana sun had’a da:

Sani, M.A.Z. (1999) Cewa ya yi “Jimla magana ce cikakkiya mai ma’ana wadda aka gina bisa wasu k’a’idojin harshen na musamman”.

Ibrahim, A.B. (2006) Ya kira jimla da cewa “jimla zance ne k’umshe da cikakkiyar ma’ana wanda aka gina bisa tsarin nahawun harshe”.

Daudu G.K. (2009) Ya bayyana ma’anar jimla a harshen Fulatanci kamar haka:

Jumlaawol kangol woni maadi kalima ji ko hokkata haala ka ma’ana focciigol don nahawu.”

 

Fassara:                Jimla ita ce gini na kalmomi masu bayar da wani zance mai ma’ana bisa wata tsararriyar k’a’ida ta nahawu

 

Bisa la’akari da irin bayani da masana suka ambato a kan ma’anar Jimla, za a iya fahimtar cewa, jimla ba komai ba ce illa wani zance da aka gina bisa wata tsararriyar k’a’ida ta nahawun harshe da masu amfani da shi suka yarda ko suka aminta da ita.

2.2     IRE-IREN JIMLOLIN HAUSA


Masana sun yi k’ok’ari matuk’a wajen samar da nau’o’in jimlar harshen Hausa. Duk da cewa ra’ayinsu ya bambanta game da tsarin rabon nau’o’in jimlar, a wannan nazarin an d’auki ra’ayin masanan da suka raba jimla zuwa gida hud’u cewa harshen Hausa yana da jima nau’i uku ne don haskaka wa masu nazari saboda su fahimci inda aka dosa. Ga yadda abin yake

  1. Jimlar tambaya

  2. Jimlar Korewa



  • Sassauk’ar jimla



  1. Jimlar umurni


Wannan shi ne rabon da wasu masana suka yi game da nau’in jimlar Hausa. Duk da cewa akwai masu wani ra’ayi na daban wad’anda suka raba jimlar Hausa zuwa gida uku wato kamar haka:

  1. Sassauk’ar jimla ko mik’ak’k’iya

  2. Sark’ak’k’k’iyar jimla



  • Had’ad’d’iyar jimla


Wannan bincike ya za’bi tsarin rabon da aka fara gabatarwa ne domin gudanar da nazarin kwatanci  da bambanci tsakanin jimlolin harshen Hausa da na Fulatanci (Fulfulde). Jimlolin da Nazarin ya za’ba sune Jimlar Tambaya da Jimlar Korewa.

 

2.3     JIMLAR TAMBAYA


A wannan kaso za a mayar da hankali ne kan bayanin jimlar tambaya. A harshen Hausa akwai ke’ba’b’bun kalmomi da ake amfani da su wajen gina jimlar tambaya wad’annan kalmomi ana amfani da su a cikin jimlar don su bambanta ta da sauran jimloli.

Wad’annan kalmomi suna iya zama tamkar doka a lokacin gudanar da tsarin ginin jimlar tambaya a harshen Hausa. Akwai kuma alamar da ake amfani da ita, wadda ita ta ke nuna cewar jimlar ta tambaya ce. Kalmomin da ake amfani da su a harshen Hausa wajen gina jimlar tambaya sun had’a da:

  1. Wa

  2. Yaushe



  • Ina



  1. Yaya

  2. K’ak’a

  3. Ko


Zuwan wad’annan kalmomi tare da alamar tambaya ‘D?d’  a cikin jimla shi ne ke nuna cewa jimlar ta tambaya ce.

Dokar da take samar da jimlar tambaya a harshen Hausa ita ce:

  1. Dole ne kalmomin tambaya su zo a farkon jimla.

  2. Dole a sami alamar tambaya a k’arshen jimlar tambaya.


HAUSA

  1. ‘DWad’ Musa yaa kama ‘D?d’

  2. ‘DMed’ yaa sami Garba ‘D?d’

  3. ‘DYaushed’ za a dawo karanta ‘D?d’


Harshen Fulatanci shi ma yana da nasa ke’ba’b’bun kalmomi da yake gina jimlar tambaya da su. Wad’annan kalmomi kusan yanayin aikin su iri d’aya ne da na harshen Hausa sai dai tsarin rubutun su ya bambanta. Ga yadda suke zuwa a cikin jimla.

  1. Moye

  2. Koye



  • Ndey



  1. Toye

  2. Noye


Wad’annan su ne kalmomin da harshen Fulatanci ke amfani da su wajen gina jimlar tambaya. Ga yadda suke zuwa a cikin jimla

FULATANCI (FULFULDE)

  1. ‘DMoyed’ non Garba nanngi ‘D?d’

  2. ‘DKoyed’ non hebii Musa ‘D?d’

  3. ‘DNdeyed’ non d’unngartata janngirde ‘D?d’


2.4     JIMLAR KOREWA


A wannan mataki kuma za a mayar da hankali ne a kan nazarin jimlar korewa a harshen Hausa akwai wasu kalmomi na musamman da aka tanada domin yin sharad’i da su, kafin a gina ita wannan jimla kuma ta amsu, sannan da wad’annan kalmomi ne ake iya ganeta ko nuna irin korewar zance da aka samu a cikin jimla.

Kalmomin kuma, ana amfani da su wajen nuna korewar zance a cikin jimla ta hanyar bin wasu k’a’idoji da aka za’ba na amfani da su don nuna yadda korewa ta auku. Masana sun fito da tsarin kalmomin korewa da fasalin da ake amfani da su a cikin jimla, domin nuna irin korewar da aka samu. Wasu daga cikinsu sun nuna cewa korewa kad’ai ake samu ba tare da sun nuna k’orewar yanki ce ko ta jimla ce baki d’aya, daga cikinsu akwai Kraft C.H. da Kirk Greene (1973:37-40 da 61-64). Haka kuma akwai wad’anda sun ka yi bayani kan cewa ana samun korewa iri biyu da ta yankin jimla da ta jimla gaba d’aya. Daga cikinsu akwai: Amfani A.H. (2006). Ga yadda kalmomin korewa suke:

  1. Ba (baa……..ba)

  2. Ba (ba……..ba)



  • Ba (baa……….)



  1. Ba (ba…………)

  2. Ba (baabu……..)

  3. Ba-i (ba-i………ba)



  • Kaada/karka….


Wad’annan sune kalmomin korewa da harshen Hausa ya tanada domin nuna korewa a cikin jimla. Ga misalin yadda suke a cikin jimlar kamar haka:

Hausa

  1. Ba (baa……..ba)        =       ‘Dbaad’ Audu ya sayaa ‘Dbad’

  2. Ba (ba…………ba)    =       Binta ‘Dbad’ ta tafi makaranta ‘Dbad’



  • Ba (baa………)          =       ‘DBaad’ kud’i a banki



  1. Ba (ba………..)          =       agwgwa ‘Dbad’ ta tashi sama sosai

  2. Ba (baabu…..)           =       ‘DBabud’ ruwa a randa

  3. Ba-i (ba-i…….ba)        =       ‘DBaid’ da ce a hana bara ‘Dbad’



  • K’aada/kar ………….. =       ‘DK’aada/karkad’ tafi


Abin lura a nan shi ne duk kalmomin da aka saka a cikin baka biyu sune kalmomin da ke nuna korewa a cikin jimlar. ‘DBaad’ sannan kuma, wannan shi ne bayani da kuma misalin korewa na jimlar Hausa a tak’aice.

JIMLAR KOREWA TA FULATANCI


Korewa a harshen Fulatanci kamar yadda fasalin ginin jimlar korewa a harshen Hausa ya ke k’umshe da wasu muhimman kalmomi da aka tanada don amfani da su wajen nuna korewa. To harshen Fulatanci (Fulfulde) shi ma yana da wasu ke’ba’b’bun kalmomi da ake amfani da su wajen nuna korewa sai dai kalmomin korewa na Fulatanci (Fulfulde) suna da yawa kuma suna zuwa ta yanayin zancen da aka fad’a na korewa. Ga misalin wasu daga cikin kalmomin korewa na Fulatanci (Fulfulde) kamar Haka:

  1. Walaa

  2. Haanaa



  • Taa



  1. Ya


Wad’annan   sune mafi yawan kalmomin da harshen Fulatanci ke amfani da su wajen nuna korewa a cikin jimla. Ga yadda korewar ta ke a cikin jimlar Fulatanci (Fulfulde), kamar haka:

FULATANCI

  1. Walaa =        ceede ‘Dwalaad’ der banki

  2. Haanaa =       ‘DHaanaad’ d’un ha d’a tornd’e



  • Ya =       Hajo ‘Dyad’ hayi Njangirde



  1. Taa =       Taa    Dillu/Yehu


Abin lura a nan shi ne duk kalmomin da aka saka a cikin baka biyu misali kamar haka: ‘Dhaanaad’ da ‘Dwalaad’ su ne aka yi amfani da su domin nuna korewar jimlar a cikinn harshen Fulatanci (Fulfulde). Haka kuma shi ne tak’aitaccen bayani a kan abin da ya shafi korewar jimla a harshen Fulatanci (Fulfulde).

 

 

2.5     SASSAUK’AR JIMLA


A tsarin na sassauk’ar jimlar Hausa tana da wasu dokoki da ake ginata kamar haka: suna da aiki da kuma kar’bau (SAK), wato jimla ta kan d’auki suna da abin da aka fad’a game da suna. Ga misalin tsarin sassauk’ar jimla ta Hausa kamar:

HAUSA

  1. Ali yaa               ci                tuwo


 

Sn                                  Aik             sn kr’b

Daga misalin da aka gani a sama za a fahimci cewa jimlar Hausa tana d’auke da suna da kuma abin da aka fad’a game da suna (Np) da (pred.p)     .

Haka abin yake a tsarin sassauk’ar jimlar harshen Fulatanci: (Jumlowol koungol) suma suna amfani da yankin suna da kuma abin da aka fad’a game da suna kamar yadda za a gani a k’asa. Misali:

  1. Ali nyaami                  nyiiri


sn                          aik                        sn kr’b

  1. Ay sa nyaami                  Kanyaamee


sn                          aik                        sn kr’b

Abin la’ari a nan shi ne kamar yadda aka gani suma dai suna da tsari irin na harshen Hausa, domin kowane daga cikinsu yana amfani da tsari na yankin suna da kuma yankin abin da aka fad’a game da suna.

2.6     JIMLAR UMURNI


Wannan jimla ta umurni tana d’auke da wani tsari da ya bambanta ta da sauran jimlolin da ake da su a Hausa. Haka kuma, ita jimlar umurni tana da wani tsari kamar haka:

  1. Ta kan zo da kalma d’aya rak a matsayin jimla cikakkiya, mai ma’ana.

  2. Kuma kalmar da take zuwa da ita, ita ce kalmar aikatau.



  • Haka kuma ta kan k’are da alamar motsin rai !


Ga misalin yadda jimlar umurni ta ke a harshen Hausa kamar haka:

  1. Tashi!

  2. Rubuta!

  3. Harba!

  4. Zauna!


Duk wad’annan misalai ne na jimlar umurni kamar yadda aka gani kalma d’aya rak ta ke zuwa da shi a matsayin jimla, haka kuma tana k’arewa da alamar motsin rai.

Kamar yadda tsarin jimlar umurni take a harshen Hausa haka abin yake a harshen Fulatanci (Fulfulde) wato ita ma tana d’auke da wani tsari da ya bambanta da sauran jimloli da ake da su a harshen Fulatanci (Fulfulde). Ita ma jimlar umurni ta Fulatanci tana da wani tsari kamar haka:

  1. Ta kan zo da kalma d’aya rak a matsayin jimla cikakkiya mai ma’ana.

  2. Kuma,tana da kalmar da take zuwa da ita, ita ce kalmar aikatau.



  • Haka ita ma tana k’arewa da alamar motsin rai!


Ga misali kamar haka:

  1. Ummaa! /toofa!

  2. Windu!

  3. Fiid’u!

  4. Jood’a!


Wannan shi ne tsari na jimlar umurni a harshen Fulatanci (Fulfulde) kamar yadda aka gani daga misalai da ke sama.

Abin lura a nan kuma shi ne duk jimloli da aka yi bayaninsu da kuma yadda tsarin gini kowace jimla take, to amma sai dai binciken ya mayar da hankali ne kan jimloli biyu daga cikin jimloli da aka ambata domin a kwatanta kamanci da bambanci na jimlar korewa da ta tambaya ta Hausa da ta Fulatanci (Fulfulde).

2.7     NAD’EWA


A wannan babi na biyu an yi waiwaye, ma’anar jimlar Hausa da kuma Jimlar Fulatanci kamar yadda masana suka kalleta a gurguje, haka kuma an waiwayi rabe-raben jimlolin Hausa da kuma yadda tsarin kowace jimla a harshen Hausa da kuma harshen Fulatanci (Fulfulde). Daga k’arshe sai na rufe babin da jawabin kammalawa wato nad’ewa a tak’aice.

 

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/tuntubi-masu-gudanarwa/

 

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