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Waiwayen Sarautun Mata Na Daular Gobir Da Yadda Za A Farfaɗo Da Su

Abstract: This paper discusses on issues concerning different positions held by womenfolk in Gobir Kingdom. The reasons that motivated this research paper has to do with an observation made, that women played an important role as rulers in different Hausa Kingdoms, Gobir inclusive (such as Queen Amina of Daura, Daurama and Inna of Gobir). The socio-cultural and political contributions as well as the role played by these great women rulers in the development of their societies were being neglected by researchers. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate different positions held by women in Gobir Kingdom from ancient time to date and study their contributions to the development of their societies. The study also intends to provide suggestions on how to revive some useful ones for positive development of the societies. The methods adopted by this paper include a review of related literature and interviews were also conducted in the Gobirawa societies. The data collected was analyzed using a descriptive and historical approach to socio-political issues concerning women in leaderships. The paper concludes that their had been women in leaderships positions in the Gobirawa societies from ancient time to date those contributed to the development of the Kingdom in general.

Waiwayen Sarautun Mata Na Daular Gobir Da Yadda Za A Farfaɗo Da Su 

Sakina Adamu Ahmad
Sashen Nazarin Hausa, Jami’ar Jihar Sakkwato
Sakeena6060@gmail.com
08060142160

Fadar Gobir

Tsakure

Wannan takarda tana magana ne a kan sarautu da muƙaman mata a al’ummar Gobirawa. Dalilan da suka ja hankalina game da wannan bincike sun haɗa da ganin cewa an samu fitattun mata jarumai da suka shahara a wasu dauloli na ƙasar Hausa (kamar Sarauniya Amina da Daurama da Inna ta Gobir da sauransu), kuma manazarta lamurran rayuwa da al’adu na mantawa da yin bincike kan ire-iren gudunmawar da suka bayar ga cigaban ƙasa, kamar ta Gobir. Wannan ya ba ni zumma domin gudanar da bincike a kan lamarin sarautu da wasu muƙaman mata a al’ummar Gobirawa. Don haka, manufar wannan bincike ita ce binciko muƙamai da matsayin da mata suke da, da gudunmawar da suka bayar a al’ummar Gobirawa tun kafa ta zuwa yau. Takardar ta ba da shawarwarin hanyoyin da take ganin za a iya sake farfado da matsayin da mata ke da domin taimako da kawo haɗin kan al’umma. Daga cikin dabarun bincike da wannan takarda ta yi amfani da su sun haɗa da bitar wasu ayyukan masana masu alaƙa da bincike, ta kuma tsara yin hira da dattawa mata da maza daga al’ummar Gobirawa domin samun sahihan bayanai da aka tace aka fayyace dalla-dalla. Sakamakon bincike ya nuna cewa akwai sarautu da wasu muƙamai da mata suka riƙa a daular Gobir a zamunnan da suka gabata, waɗanda suka taimaka wajen haɗin kai da kawo cigaban rayuwa.

 

1.0  Gabatarwa

Mata suna da babban matsayi a cikin addini da al’adun al’ummomi daban-daban. A cikin addinin musulunci akwai mata masu tarihin irin su Sarauniya Bilƙisu, wadda Hausawa ke yi wa kirari da ‘Mai gadon zinari’, ta yi zurfin tunanin da maza ba su yi ba (Ƙ27:22-44). Mace ce ta koyar da sahabbai bayan wafatin manzon Allah, wannan mata ita ce sayyida Aisha. Mace ta sadaukar da dukiyarta wajen tallafa wa musulunci, wadda ita ce Khadijah (Ghadanfar 1994: 19-41). Dalilin wata mata aka saukar da hukunci a alƙur’ani (Ƙ58:1-4). Darajojin da mata suke da su suna da yawa bayan lalurorin haihuwa da shayarwa da tarbiyyar al’umma.

A al’ummar Hausawa akwai matan da suka zama kallabi tsakanin rawunna, waɗanda tarihi ya adana su, kuma ake yawan ambatonsu. Matan suna da yawa, kuma sun danganci zamunna daban-daban. Za a ɗora wannan bincike bisa sikelin zamanin da al’adun Bahaushe ba su cuɗanya da wasu al’ummu ba, kamar yadda (Bunza, 2011:4) ya karkasa zamunnan Hausawa, domin ganin irin rawar da mata ke takawa a zamanin da ya gabata, ya kawo zamunnan Hausawa kamar haka:

1.      Zamanin da Al’adun Hausawa ba su garwaya da kowace irin al’ada ba.

2.      Al’adun Hausawa gabanin Musulunci

3.      Al’adun Hausawa bayan Musulunci

4.      Al’adun Hausawa gabanin Mulkin mallaka

5.      Al’adun Hausawa bayan ‘Yancin kai

6.      Al’adun Hausawa a ƙarnin da muke ciki (ƙn. 21)

           Wannan bincike ya yi waiwayen matan da suka yi fice a rukuni na biyu, watau jaruman mata da suka riƙe sarautu kafin jihadi a daular Gobir. Dalili shi ne, wannan lokacin Bahaushe yana riƙe da al’adunsa tsintsa, ba su samu garwaya da addinin musulunci ko tasirin wasu baƙin al’adu ba. Na biyu, komawa wannan zamanin shi zai ba mu damar sanin ko matan Hausawa suna da damar riƙe muƙamai na sarautu da mulkin al’umma. Manufar wannan bincike ita ce, fito da tsarin sarautun mata ta la’akari da tsarin sarautu a Gobir domin adana tsintsar waɗannan muƙamai kar su ɓace, a riƙa tuno da su, a kuma sabunta su idan da hali, ta yadda za a riƙa amfani da su a cikin al’umma. Ana iya yin haka ta sake tsara fasalinsu domin su dace da zamani, a riƙa amfani da su wajen karrama matan da suka yi bajinta a cikin al’ummar Hausawa a yau.

1.1       Ƙasar Gobir

Ƙasar Gobir daɗaɗɗiyar daula ce daga cikin daulolin ƙasar Hausa, wadda take da yawan tarihi. Mutanenta sun yi farin jini a lokacin da ta yi wa ƙasashen ƙasar Hausa garkuwa daga maharan ƙasashen Arewa. Mutanenta sun yaɗu a ɓangarori da yawa, sai dai, duk da ƙarfin da daular ta yi, da yawan mutanenta sun manta da daulolinsu da rayuwarsu da magabata suka aiwatar a shekarun baya. Yaƙin jihadi a ƙasar Hausa ne dalilin faɗuwar daular tasu. A zamanin da, ƙasar Gobir na daidai da inda ƙasar Sakkwato take yanzu, haɗi da wasu ƙasashe da suka yi iyaka da Nijeriya daga Arewa maso Yamma. A yanzu da wuya a samu wata taswira da sunan Gobir. sai dai garuruwansu suna nan daram suna ci gaba da aiwatar da rayuwarsu da al’adunsu. Garuruwan sun haɗa da Wurno da Isa da Sabon-Birni da Gwadabawa a Nijeriya. Akwai wasu Masarautun Gobirawa a Jumhuriyar Nijar kamar a Tsibiri da Madawa da Agadas (Gobir da Boyd 1981:62-3).

1.2       Dabarun Bincike

A ƙarƙashin wannan bincike, an bi hanyoyin da suka dace wajen tara bayanai da kuma tsara shi kamar haka:

(i)        Hanya ta farko ita ce, ta binciko rubuce-rubucen masana da suka shafi sarautu da muƙaman da mata ke riƙewa a cikin al’ummar Hausawa a zamanin da ya gabata. Sa’annan aka waiwayi matsayin da mata suke da shi a daular Gobir, domin sanin yadda sarautun suka faro da yadda suke a yanzu, don a san yadda za a farfaɗo da su.

(ii)       Haka ma an bi hanyar amfani da tambayar masana da suka san al’amarin, musamman kan sarautun mata a ƙasar Gobir, domin sanin irin rawar da matan ke takawa a cikin al’umma, da yadda al’umma ke kallon sarautun da ci gaban da aka samu ta hanyar shugabancin matan.

(iii)      An jingina wannan bincike kan Ra’in Madubin Ƙyallaro Al’adu (Referencial Theory of Culture). Wannan ra’in ya shafi binciken da ake yi na zahiri da ya danganci Harshe da Adabi da Al’ada a matsayin madubin ƙyallaro al’adun al’umma da suka shafi haƙiƙanin rayuwa. Waɗannan sun haɗa da irin fasahohin harshe da maganganun azanci da imanin al’umma da sauransu (Muktar 2010:38). Wasu masana ilmin harshen a ƙasar Indiya da Japan da Siwizlan suka fara amfani da Ra’in a farkon shekarar 1900 sai dai ra’in bai samu karɓuwa a wannan lokaci ba. Daga baya Thomas C. Hodson ya sake gabatar da shi, har ya samu karɓuwa ga duniya a shekarar 1939. William Laboɓ da William Stewart da Heinz Kloss na daga cikin ɗaliban wannan ra’in (Abdurrahman 2017: 84).

A ganina, wannan Ra’in, ya dace da wannan bincike ta amfani da adabi da tarihi wajen fito da daɗaɗɗun al’adun al’ummar Hausawa da suka danganci gano salsalar asalin sarautun mata da aka faro, tun Bahaushe bai cuɗanya da wasu baƙi ba. Ta hanyar gano waɗannan al’adu, zai bayar da damar sake farfaɗo da su a riƙa amfani da su, domin bunƙasa al’adun Hausawa na gargajiya.

1.3       Wasu Matan da suka yi Bajinta Kafin da Bayan Musulunci

Kamar yadda aka kalato a cikin tarihin ƙasar Hausa, an yi matan da suka yi abin a-zo-a -gani. Hausawa kan ce ‘Yabon gwani ya zama dole’. Duk da cewa Bahaushe ya fi mutunta mace a gidan mijinta saboda haka yake a tsarin al’adunsa da addininsa. Shi ya sa yake da karin maganar ‘Uwargida sarautar mata.’ Duk da haka an samu tsirarun matan da suka cira tuta, har ake yaba musu saboda bajintarsu. A nan za a kalli matan ta fuska biyu; waɗanda suka yi fice ta addini da waɗanda suka yi fice ta fuskar mulki. Duk da cewa zamani ya yi nisa, sanin dukkan waɗannan matan zai yi wuya, domin da yawansu sun rayu lokuttan da karatu da rubutu ba su yawaita ba, amma ba a rasa samun birbishinsu a cikin rubuce-rubucen magabata na farko ba. Daga cikin waɗannan matan akwai:

1.3.1    Sarauniya ‘Yargoje

Sarauniyar ‘Yargoje ‘ya ce ga sarkin Zamfara na farko mai suna Dakka. Ta rayu a shekarar 1310-1350, a yankin Zamfara, har ta yi shugabancin Dutsi, wanda ta mayar da babban birnin a yankin Zamfara na yanzu kusa da mahadar Gulbin Gagare. Tarihi ya nuna cewa, kafin zamaninta ba wata mace da ta taɓa riƙa matsayin sarauta a yankin. A zamanin ‘Yargoje, duk mata ne mataimakanta ta fuskar tafiyar da mulki. Ta yi iya ƙoƙarinta wajen yaƙe-yaƙe da abokan gabanta har ta rinjaye su, sa’annan ta kare ƙasarta daga masu kawo mata farmaki (Bawa, 2015:11-12). An bayyana cewa, akwai fitilarta da take amfani da ita idan za ta yi taro da mataimakanta ajiye a gidan tarihi na Waziri Junaidu.

1.3.2    Bakwa Turunku

Bakwa Turunku mace ce mai kamar maza da ta fito daga yankin zazzau. Zazzau yanki ne wanda yake ɗaya da cikin manyan biranen ƙasar Hausa. Birnin Zazzau na da ƙarfin mulki da kasuwanci a yankin mazauna Sahara bayan faɗuwar daɗaɗɗiyar daular Songhai. Ta yi mulkinta a shekarar 1536-1566, kuma Ita ce uwar Sarauniya Amina. Tana zaune a tsohon birninta na Turunku, sai ta riƙa fuskantar matsalar ruwa da rashin walawar wurin zama, wanda hakan ya zame mata matsala wajen gudanar da rayuwar al’ummarta da bunƙasa tattalin arzikinta. Bayan ta ci garin Kufena da yaƙi, sai ta ƙara gaba, ta gina sabon birninta a shekarar 1536, wanda aka fi sani sa garin Zazzau a yau (www.whenweruled.com).

1.3.3    Amin Sarauniyar Zazzau

Ahmed, (2015:1) ya bayyana Amina Sarauniyar Zazzau a matsayin matar da ta maye gurbin uwarta Magajiya Bakwa, tun tana da shekara 16. Sunan Magajiya take ne da ake kiran sarakuna mata da shi. Ta yi zamaninta na mulki a shekarar 1576-1610. An haifi Amina a shekarar 1533 a zamanin sarkin Zazzau Nohir, wanda shi ne kakanta. Amina ta fi mahaifiyarta shahara a fagen mulki, kuma ta yi yaƙe-yaƙe da manyan garuruwa da ƙasashe har ta mamaye su, suka zama ƙarƙashin mulkinta. Ta yi kasuwanci, ta tara dukiya, sa’annan ta shimfiɗa mulki, ta gina ganuwar da ta zagaye birninta wacce aka fi sani da suna ganuwar Amina.

1.3.4    Sarauniya Daurama

Tarihi ya nuna Sarauniya Daurama ita ce sarauniya ta tara daga cikin ‘ya’ya goma sha bakwai na Abduldari ɗan Najib (Hausal na biyu). Waɗannan ɗiyan Sha bakwai duk mata ne, kuma su ne suka fara yin sarautar Hausa Bakwai a zangon sarauta na farko. Daga cikinsu tara sun yi sarauta a tsohon birnin, inda takwas suka yi a sabon birni. Daurama sarauniya da take da tarihi a ƙasar Hausa, wadda har ake danganta samuwar ƙasashen Hausa bakwai da Banza bakwai ta dalilinta (Adamu, 2011:47-48).

1.3.5    Umm Hani Al-fulani

Bello (????) a cikin littafinsa Infaƙul Maisur ya yi maganar Umm Hani al-Fulani malamar addini ce, wadda ta shahara a lokacinta. Ta rayu a ƙarni na 17 zuwa 18, wacce take daga cikin tawagar Fulani Wangarawa da suka zo don yaɗa addini a yankin sudan suka iso ƙasar Hausa (Yahaya, 1988:10). An ruwaito daga Shaykh Waldeede da Shaykh At-Taahir, waɗanda suka ce, wannan baiwar Allah ta yi bushara da bayyanar Shaihu Usmanu bn Fodiyo, tun kafin a haife shi. Wannan ya sanya mutane suke ganin ta a matsayin Waliyyiya.

1.3.6    Modibbo Hauwa’u

Shi ma Ɓoyi, (2010:35) ya ambato Modibbo Hauwa’u mahaifiyar shaihin malamin addinin musulunci wanda ya jaddada addini a ƙarni na sha takwas. Gidansu Shehu Usmanu gida ne na malanta da tarbiyya ta addinin musulunci, don haka ya tashi da karatu mai inganci. Mahaifiyarsa Hauwa’u na ɗaya daga cikin malamai mata na zamaninta da suka san karatun addini. Don haka ta tsaya tsayin daka ta koyawa ɗanta karatun alƙur’ani da ilimin farko da yaro ke buƙata, kafin daga baya ya fita wajen wasu malamai ɗaukar karatu. Tarihi ya nuna ba ita kaɗai ce macen da Shehu ya yi karatu wurinta ba, akwai kakarsa Rukayya.

1.4       Sarautun Mata a Ƙasar Gobir

Mata suna da sarautun da suke riƙe da su lokaci mai tsawo a yankin Gobir, kuma har yau ana aiwatar da waɗannan sarautu. Sai dai sarautun sun fara rauni, akwai hasashen idan tafiya ta yi nisa wasu daga cikinsu su ɓace. Ga sarautun kamar haka:

(i)        Inna ta Gobir

Inna na nufin Uwar Gari ko kuma sarauniya. Ita ce ta biyu ga bayar da umurni a fadar Gobir. Sarautar Inna Sarautar mata ce da ta daɗe a cikin daular Gobir, kuma har yanzu akwai ta. Sarkin Gobir Ibrahim shi ya fara naɗa taubashiyarsa sarauta Inna ‘Yarbukuma. Asalin sarautar kannen sarki mata ke yin ta. A lokacin da aka naɗa sarki, zai nemo wacce da ya fi shiri da ita a cikin ‘yan uwansa mata ya naɗa ta sarautar. Sukan zauna kan kujerun da aka tanadar musu, a gaban ‘yan kallo, makaɗa na cashewa don taya su murna. Inna tana shiga irin ta sarakuna ta naɗa rawani da sanya kayan alfarma, ta hau abin hawa kamar doki, ta ɗaura sulken yaƙi. Idan lalurar hawan salla ko wani muhimmin abu ya taso. Inna na iya karɓar riƙon ƙwarya gari idan sarki zai yi tafiya, kamar yadda Inna Yarbukuma ta riƙe sarauta a zamanin da Sarkin Gobir Ibrahim ya sauka a shekarar 1880s (Boyd 1982:5-2).

Akwai Sarautun Inna da dama a yankin daular Gobir, kamar Inna ta Sabon-birni a cikin yankin Arewacin Nijeriya, da Inna ta Tsibiri da Inna ta Madawa waɗanda suke cikin wani yanki na Jumhuriyar Nijar. Inna Ta Allah, ta bayyana wa Jean Boyd irin aikinsu ga al’umma da ya haɗa da:

(i)     Ita ce shugabar mata ‘Yan bori. Suna yin wannan bori, don samun mu’amala da iskoki don su nemi magani ga iskoki, su kuma suna bai wa mutane kamar maganin rashin haihuwa da maganin masu jego da maganin hauka ko cire miyagun iskoki da magungunan mata na hakin maye da buwaya da sauransu. Shi ya sa ake kiranta Uwar ‘Yan bori.

(ii)   Tana sauraren matsalolin mata don ta yi masa magani. Tana zuwa wurin Alƙali don nema wa wanda aka yi wa hukunci rangwame. Haka ma tana kai kokenta ga ɗan-uwanta sarki don nema musu rangwame.

(iii)                         Inna tana fita roƙon ruwa da tawagarta, su yi kaɗe-kaɗe, don su samu ruwa.

Tsoho (2013:82-83) ta bayyana Inna tana da sarautu ashirin da ɗaya da ke ƙarƙashinta, sha uku na maza ne, takwas na mata ne kamar haka:

a.                  Magajiya Girma,

b.                  Magajiya Mairunji,

c.                   Magajiya Maitubali,

d.                 Magajiya Maidambuwa,

e.                  Magajiya Maitsamiya,

f.                    Magajiya ta Maisunawa,

g.                  Magajiya MaiZabga,

h.                  Magajiya Tadogari.

(ii)       Argiji- Bayan sarautar Inna, akwai Argiji wadda sarauta ce da ta shafi matan sarki. Uwar gidan sarki ita ake ɗora wa wannan nauyi. Don haka tana da babban matsayi na tafiyar da wasu muhimman lalurorin gidan. A duk lokacin da sarki ya shigo cikin gida za ta zo ta tarbe shi, ko ba lokacin girkin ba ne.

(iii)     Maitakalmi- Muƙami ne na mace ta biyu a cikin gidan sarki, bayan uwargida. ita kuwa duk wasu lalurori da uwargidanta ta kasa, ita ke kula da su.

(iɓ)      ‘Yarbaraya- Wacce ita ce amarya wani lokaci kuma matar da sarki ya fi so. Ba ta da shamaki da ɗakin sarki duk lokacin da ta buƙaci hakan.[1]

(ɓ) Jekadiya- Wadda aikinta shi ne kula da hidimomin cikin gida, kai saƙo wurin sarki da amso saƙo daga sarki zuwa cikin gida. Sarkin babban mutum ne da bai yi wa abu kaɗan ya sanya ya shigo cikin gida, amma ta hanyar Jekadiya yake isar da saƙonsa.

A halin yanzu sarautar Inna ta yi rauni, domin kuwa tun da Inna Atumbula 1974-2003 ta Gobir ta rasu a garin Sabon-birni, ba a sake naɗa wata Inna ba.[2] Wani Kansila ya saye gidanta ya gine ya shige, saboda shari’ar musulunci da aka yi a zamanin Bafarawa. An kwashe kayan gidanta an mayar da su a wani gari kusa da Sabon-birni da ake kira Alƙalawa. Sai dai har yanzu Inna ta Tsibiri da ta Madawa suna nan raye.[3] Su ma ba wanda ya sani ko in sun mutu a yi ma wurarensu yadda aka yi wa Inna Atumbula.

1.5       Ina Mafita

Idan muka lura da lokacin da aka fito, na rashin ba mata dama a cikin al’amurran tafiyar da al’umma saboda tasirin addini da al’adar Bahaushe, za a ga cewa, masarautar Gobir ta yi namijin ƙoƙari na riƙe wannan muƙami da daɗaɗɗiyar al’ada tasu. Sai dai su ma ga alama idan ba a agaza musu ba, sarautun za su salwanta a daina jin ɗuriyarsu idan tafiya ta miƙa. Saboda haka, ya kamata a sake sabunta sarautun, a farfaɗo da su ta yadda ana iya laƙaba wa wasu mata na wannan zamani muƙamansu a matsayin lambar girma ta karramawa ga duk macen da ta yi abin a-zo-a-gani. Misalin ana iya samar da sarautu kamar haka:

a.      Mai babban ɗakin Illela,

b.      Innar Gobir,

c.       Sarauniyar Bodinga ,

d.     Magajiyar Tureta,

e.      Mowar Silame,

f.        Jekadiyar Sakkwato,

g.      Gimbiyar Shuni,

h.      Zarumar Dogondaji,

i.        Iyar Argungu,

j.        Kilishin Wurno da sauransu.

1.6       Kammalawa

Wannan bincike ya gano cewa mata da rawar da suke takawa wajen tafiyar da sarautun ƙasar Hausa tun kafin zuwan Musulunci. Bayan musulunci, sai aka taƙaita sarautun ga maza. Wannan ya sa kaɗan daga cikin masarautun ƙasar Hausa ke ba mata wannan damar. Daular Gobir na ɗaya daga cikin daulolin da suka cije kan wannan al’ada, amma yanzu an wayi gari ko a wurinsu abin ya yi sanyi. Zamani riga, ya kamata a sake farfaɗo da sarautun don su dace da zamani domin a riƙa bayar da su don nuna wa mata an yaba da gudummuwarsu a cikin al’umma. Wannan shi zai sa al’adar ta ci gaba da rayuwa, masu tasowa su san da ita, a nuna wa mata suna da amfani a cikin al’umma.

1.7       Manazarta

Abdurrahman, Ado. ( 2017). Ra’o’in Bincike kan Al’adun Hausawa. Katsina: Kanki Classical Media Enterprises.

 

Adamu, M. U. (2011) Sabon Tarihin Asalin Hausawa. Kaduna: Espee Printing and advertising. Alƙur’an Surah 27, Aya 22-44.

 

Bawa, A. B. (2015). History and Gender: A Cursory look at the Forgotten Female Heroines in the Former Zamfara and Gobir Kingdoms. Maƙalar da aka gabatar a 60th Congress of Historical Society of Nigeria, University of Abuja. Nigeria.

 

Bello, M. (????). Infaƙul Maisur. Sankore: institute of Islamic- African Studies International. Online.

 

Boyd, J. (1982). The Contribution of Nana Asma’u Fodio to Jihadist Moɓement of Shehu Ɗanfodiyo from 1820-1865. London: Kundin Digiri na biyu a Polythecnic of North.

 

Bunza, A. M. (2011). Al’adun Hausawa Jida da Yau: Ci Gaba ko Lalacewa? Takardar da aka Gabatar a sashen Harsunan Nijeriya da Kimiyyar Harshe, Tsangayar Fasaha, Jami’ar Jihar Kaduna, a taron Bukukuwan ɗalibai na Makon Hausa, ƙarƙashin Kungiyar Nazarin Hausa.

 

Ɓoyi, U. M. (2010). Mujaddadi Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo: Rayuwarsa da Ayyukansa. Sokoto: Al’ameen Press limited.

 

Dandalin Bashir Ahmad. (2015). Sarauniya Amina of Zazzau. Online.

 

Ghadanfar, A. G. (1994). Great Women of Islam. Saudi Arabia: Darussalam Publishers and Distributers.

 

Gobir, S. H da Boyd, J. (1981). “Hawan Idi a Sabon Birni, Ɗabi’a da Al’adun Gobirawa.” Zaruma: A Cultural Magazine of Sokoto State.

 

Muktar, I. (2010). Introduction to Stylistics Theories: Practice and Criticism. Revised Edition. Abuja: Usman Al’amin Publishers.

 

Tsoho, S. M (2013). Kirarin Mata a Ƙasar Sakkwato. Kundin digiri na biyu, Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya: Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo Sakkwato.

 

Yahaya, I. Y. (1988) Hausa a Rubuce. Tarihin Rubuce-rubuce cikin Hausa. Zaria: NNPC.

 



[1] Hira da Malam Bala Ubandawaki a garin sabon birni. Ranar 01/07/2018, Ƙarfe 2 na rana.

[2] Hira da Kabiru Bunu, Dan Sarkin gobir da ya rasu a ranar 01/072018. Ƙarfe 1:30 na rana.

[3] Hira da Nasiru Gwanda wanda yake zaune a garin sabon birni. Ranar 28/06/2018. Ƙarfe 10 na safe.

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