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Taƙaitaccen Tarihin Ƙa’idojin Rubutun Hausa

Tarihin rubutu da karatu irin na boko a ƙasar Hausa da muka sani ya biyo matakai-matakai a tsawon tarihi, wanda daga nan ne aka samar da ƙaidojin rubutun da kuma samar da Daidaitacciyar Hausa.

Tun daga farko dai abin da ya dace mu fahimta shi ne Turawan Mishau ne suka soma ƙokarin daidaita rubutun Hausa a cikin littattafansu da suka samar, sai dai wannan ba yana nufin cewa a wannan lokaci ne aka soma daidaita rubutun Hausa ba, an yi

haka a baya kodayake ba tare da an gane cewa ƙa’idoji ne ko daidaitawa ake yi ba.

Kamar yadda muka sani an soma yin rubutun Hausa ne da kuma daidaita shi a cikin Ajami, zuwan Boko ya ƙara masa muhibba da martaba a tsakanin masana, saboda haka muna iya cewa daga abin da Ajami ya tanadar ne aka samar da tsarin rubutun Bokon Hausa.

Ƙa’idojin farko na rubutun Boko da aka samu a rubuce su ne waɗanda R. H. Robinson ya gabatar a 1848 ƙarƙashin ƙungiyar CMS, inda bayan samar da baƙaken Hausa da wasullansu an fito da batun haruffan nan da ke da lanƙwasa, wato d da k da b waɗanda aka dinga yi masu ɗigo a ƙarƙashi domin a bambanta da waɗanda ba su da lanƙwasa.

Bayan Robinson sai kuma Raberan Schon wanda ya rayu tsakanin 1803-1889, ya yi rubuce-rubuce da dama da suka haɗa da: Vocabulary of the Hausa Language (1843)

Dictionary of the Hausa Language (1876)

Grammar of the Hausa Language (1862)

Magana Hausa (1885)

Duk da cewa Schon bai ziyarci ƙasar Hausa kai tsaye ba, amma ta hulɗa da waɗanda suka ziyarta da kuma ‘yan ƙasa da ya haɗu da su a cikin rayuwarsa ya sa ya shiga cikin aikin raya da rubuta Hausa domin na baya.

Shi ma ya tabbatar da kusan dukkan baƙaƙe da wasullan Hausa da Robinson ya samar, waɗanda kuma har yau ana amfani da su, sai dai babbar matsalar da ya fuskanta ita ce ta haruffa masu lanƙwasa da ya bari kamar yadda Robinson ya samar da su, don ya rasa yadda zai yi da su. Haka kuma ya ci karo da matsalar hamza, da kalmomi irin su:

/Tsami/, wanda ya rubuta kamar haka, /Sami/

/‘Ya’ya/ da ya rubuta kamar haka /Yaya/

/Waje/ ya rubuta kamar haka, /Waze/

Wani da ya yi wa rubutun Hausa bauta shi ma shi ne Charles H. Robinson (1861-1925), shi ma manazarcin harshe ne kuma ɗan Mishau, ya iya Larabci sosai, ya kuma naƙalci Ajami gwargwado. Ya yi rubuce-rubuce da dama da suka haɗa da:

Specimen of Hausa Literature (1896)

Hausa Grammar (1897)

Dictionary of the Hausa Language (1899)

Tun farkon nazarinsa ya san da haruffa masu lanƙwasa, saboda haka ya bar su da ɗigo a ƙarƙashin haruffan d da b da k. Sai dai shi ma ya samu matsala wajen raba da kuma haɗa kalmomi ta yadda da yawa suka ba shi ruwa.

Alal misali yana rubuta wasu jimloli kamar haka:

/Akakama/  a maimakon /Aka kama/

/Anayaki/ a maimakon /Ana yaki/

Wani ɗan Mishau da ya taka rawar gani wajen rubuta da daidaita Hausa shi ne Hans Vischer, Ɗan Hausa (1876-1945). Da farko aikin Mishau ya fara, daga baya kuma ya shiga aikin mulkin mallaka, inda ya zauna a ƙasar Hausa, ya naƙalci Hausar da al’adun Hausawa har aka dinga kiran sa Ɗan Hausa, saboda sajewar da ya yi.

Shi ne ya samar da makarantar Boko ta gwamnati ta farko a ƙasar Hausa, ya kuma kasance jami’i mai kula da sha’anin Ilimi a ƙasar Hausa. Shi ne ya fito da ƙa’idonjin rubutun Hausa na farko a shekarar 1912, wato Rules for Hausa Spelling, inda ya tabbatar da baƙaƙe da wasullan Hausa da muke gani yanzu, ya kuma nemi ya gyara matsalar haruffa masu lanƙwasa, inda a maimakon yadda ake rubuta su a da a ƙarƙashin haruffan d da b da k, sai ya maido su a sama da alamar hamza, domin a gan su a fili a kuma faɗe cikin sauri wajen karatu.

Ga yadda ya tsara su da sauran wasu daga cikin dokokin da ya samar.

/‘b/  /‘d/  /‘k/

/Mache/ a maimakon /Mace/

/‘Ya/ a madadin /Y/

/Rigas Sarki/ a maimakon /Rigas Sarki/

/Sayam Masa/ a madadin /Sayar Masa/ 

/Farri/ a matsayin /Fari/

/Fatta/ a madadin /Fata/

/Sayesaye/ a madadin /Saye-saye/

Wanda ya biyo layi shi ne Raberan G.P Bargery (1876-1960), shi ma kamar sauran da ya biyo bayansu ya bauta wa Mishau, a cikin haka ya inganta rubutun Hausa da ƙa’idojinsa.

Babbar gudunmuwar da ya bayar ita ce ta samar da ƙamus na Hausa-English Dictionary and English–Hausa Vocabulary. A cikin wannan gagarumin aiki da ya yi a shekarar 1934, ya ci gaba ne daga inda Hans Vischer ya tsaya, ta amincewa da haruffa masu lanƙwasa, sai dai shi ma ya rubuta su a saman haruffa da hamza, kamar yadda Vischer ya yi. Sai dai ya sake canza wasu haruffa masu aure ko tagwaye, irin su /Ch/  ta koma /C/, wato ya rubuta /Caca/ a maimakon /Chacha/, ya soke amfani da nannagen haruffa a cikin kalmomi, wato irin su /sh/ ko /ts/ a tsakanin kalma ya mayar da su zuwa /s/ ko /t/ alal misali, /shashshaka/ ake rubutawa a da, shi kuma ya rubuta kamar haka, /shasshaka/ ko kuma /tsatstsafa/ ya mayar da ita kamar haka, /tsattsafa/.

Haka kuma shi ne ya fara bayani a fili bambancin da ke tsakanin ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa na Karin Harshe da Daidaitacciyar Hausa, inda yake bambanta su a cikin aikinsa, misali:

/Sayar da shi/, a maimakon /Sayad da shi/, wanda Katsinanci ne.

/Rigar Sarki/, a maimakon /Rigas Sarki/, wanda Katsinanci ne.

Bargery ne kuma ya fara tabbatar da samuwar karin sauti a cikin rubutun Hausa, yana sanya alamar – a ƙarƙashin kowane harafi mai ɗauke da karin sauti na ƙasa, na sama saboda yawan fitar sa a cikin harshen bai ba shi wata alama ba. Haka yana nuna yadda ake rubuta dogo da gajeren wasali.

Daga Bargery sai ɗalibinsa R. C. Abraham (1890-1963), ma’aikacin gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ne wanda ya taɓa zama ADO a Kano. Ya bauta wa Hausa gwargwadon iyawarsa, inda ya rubuta littattafai da suka haɗa da Principles of Hausa a 1934 da A Modern Grammar of Spoken Hausa a 1941 da Dictionary of the Hausa Language a 1949 da kuma The Language of Hausa People, a 1959.

Kodayake aikin Abraham ya kasance na zamani, duk da haka daga abin da Bargery da Gwamnatin Arewa ta shirya ne ya  gina nasa. Sai dai ya kasance mai kawo nasa canjin shi ma, domin shi ne ya fara rubuta haruffan Hausa masu lanƙwasa kamar yadda suke a halin yanzu, wato a shekarar 1938.

Haka kuma ya bambanta tsakanin haruffan /n/ biyu, wato ra-gare da ra-kaɗe, misali a hanci da tankaɗe. Ya kuma nuna inda karin sauti ke fita da tsawon wasali, inda yake sa wannan alamar – a saman dogon wasali da kuma – a ƙasan harafi mai karin sauti na ƙasa, kamar yadda Bargery ya yi.

Daga wannan lokaci ne aka tabbatar da samuwar Daitattaciyar Hausa da ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa. Dukkan abubuwan da suka faru a baya za a ga ɗaiɗaikun mutane ne ke yi da kulawar hukuma, sai dai hukumar ba ta sa baki ba sosai da sosai sai a shekarar 1955 da aka kafa Hukumar Kula Da Lamurran Hausa, wadda hukuma ce da ta yi ƙoƙarin daidaita Hausa da samar da ƙa’idojin rubuta Hausar.

Ta yi abubuwa da dama, ita ce ta gyara da tantance duk waɗansu kalmomin aro da na kimiyya da fasaha. Wannan hukuma ce kuma ta waiwayi aikin da Hans Vischer ya yi domin daidaita tunani da zamani, ta samar da kundin da ta kira Rules for Hausa Orthography a 1958.

A daidai wannan lokaci ne aka tsayar da karin Hausar Kano a matsayin Daidaitacciyar Hausa, sai dai an shelanta cewa duk inda aka sami kalmomi da a cikin garin Kano kaɗai ake furta su, ana iya maye gurbinsu da waɗansu daga kare-karen Hausa can daban da suka fi karɓuwa.

Bayan da Turawan mulkin mallaka suka bar ƙasar Hausa, an yi ta ƙoƙari daga ‘yan gida a daidaita rubutun Hausa. Taro na farko da aka yi shi ne a  birnin Bamako na ƙasar Mali a shekarar 1966, ƙarƙashin jagorancin Hukumar UNESCO, inda aka tattauna yadda za a daidaita rubutun Hausa a Yammacin Afrirka. A wannan taron ne aka amince a rubuta Hausa kamar haka:

Haruffa masu lanƙwasa /ɓ/ da /ƙ/ da /ɗ/ kamar yadda suke yanzu.

Aka samar da tagwayen haruffa /sh/ da /ts/ da /gy/ da /ky/ da /ƙy/ da /gw/ da /kw/.

A kuma raba /su/ da /na/ wato /su na/ ko /ka na/ ko /ki na/ da /ya na/ dss.

A shekarar 1970 kuma an yi wani taron a jami’ar Ahmadu Bello, Zaria inda aka sake kallon aikin da Hukumar Kula Da Lamurran Hausa ta yi a 1958, aka samar da sababbin bayanai kamar haka:

A dinga rubuta /ko’ina/ ba /ko ina/ ba

Haka a rubuta /yake/ ba /ya ke/ ba, ko /yakan/ ba /ya kan/ ba, /suna/ ba /su na/ ba.

Da kuma /mutum/ ba /mutun/ ba

Da /malam/ ba /malan/ ba

/Ranar kasuwa/ ba /ranak kasuwa/ ba

A shekarar 1972 kuma an sake gudanar da wani taro a a jami’ar Bayero Kano, wanda shi ma ya yi ƙoƙarin daidaita ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa, an amince da ‘yan gyare-gyare da dama, waɗanda za iya cewa su ne har yau ake amfani da su a duk faɗin duniyar Hausa.

Ga kaɗan daga abubuwan da aka amince da su a wurin taron, kamar yadda Farfesa M.K.M.Galadanci ya kattaba:

Universal nouns are written as one word

/komai/ ba /ko mai/ ba

/kowa/ ba /ko wa/ ba

/koyaushe/ ba /ko yaushe/ ba.

Where the pre-verbal pronoun precedes the tense marker it is written as one word.

/yakan/ ba /ya kan/ ba

/yana/ ba /ya na/ ba

Where the tense marker precedes the pre-verbal pronoun it is written separately. /za mu/ ba /zamu/ ba

/za su/ ba /zasu/ ba.

A short possessive is joined to the preceding nominal

/dokina/ ba /doki na/ ba

/rigarsa/ ba /rigar sa/ ba

/zanenta/ ba /zanen ta/ ba.

But the long possessive is written separately:

/wani doki nawa/ ba /wani dokinawa/ ba

/wata riga tawa/ ba /wata rigatawa/ ba

/wani zane nata/ ba /wani zanenata/ ba.

The pronoun object is written separately:

/ya ba ni/ ba /ya bani/ ba.

/mun sa shi/ ba /mun sashi/ ba

/ana kiran ka/ ba /ana kiranka/ ba.

Haka kuma an jaddada cewa /saboda/ da /wataƙila/ kalmomi ne a cure wuri guda, ba a rubuta su a ware ba, wato /sabo da/ ko /wata ƙila/ ba da sauran su.

Taron ƙarshe da aka yi na daidaita rubutun Hausa shi ne wanda aka yi a Niamey, a ƙasar Nijar a shekarar 1980, ƙarƙashin jagorancin Ƙungiyar Haɗa Kan Afirka, (OAU). An shirya wannan taro ne don a mayar da hankali wajen daidaita rubutun Hausa a Nijeriya da Nijar, shi ma wannan taro ya amince da  muhimman bayanai da suka haɗa da:

Tabbatar da gajerun wasullan Hausa: i, e, a, o, u.

Tabbatar da dogayen wasullan Hausa: ii, ee, aa, oo, uu.

Da kuma baƙaƙen Hausa kuda 33.

Daga lokacin da aka rushe Hausa Language Board (Hukumar Kula Da Lamurran Hausa) da aka kafa a 1958 sai aka mayar da yawancin ayyukanta ga Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya da ke ƙarƙashin Jami’ar Bayero, Kano, ita ce mai kula da ƙa’idoji da daidaita rubutun Hausa, kuma tun daga 1982 ta yi iyakacin ƙoƙarinta na yin wannan aiki tuƙuru.

Ita ce ke shirya tarurrukan inganta harsunan Nijeriya (musamman na Hausa da Fulfulde da Kanuri). Ta kuma samar da aikin fassara kalmomin zamani zuwa Hausa da kuma Ƙamusun Hausa cikin Hausa da ta buga a shekarar 2007, bayan sama da shekara 30 ana bincike da nazari da bita.

Inda ake ke nan yanzu, a cikin tsawon tarihi, sai dai an gudanar da ‘yan ƙwarya-ƙwaryan tarurruka nan da can domin jawo hankali kan sake zama na musamman game da yadda za a sake bitar halin da ake ciki game da sababbin da tsofaffin matsaloli da ke jibge a tsawon zamani, sai dai da yake ba tarurrukan a-zo-a-gani ba ne ba a cimma matsaya a hukumance ba.

Domin ganin an shawo kan wannan lamari, Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya Da Kimiyyar Harshe na Jami’ar Jihar Kaduna a shekarar 2019 ya shirya taron ƙasa da ƙasa domin sake bitar batutuwan da suka shafi daidaitacciyar Hausa da ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa don sake samar da matsaya.

Taron da ya samu halarcin masana daga sassa daban-daban na duniya, an kuma kawo batutuwa da ake ganin matsaloli ne aka tattauna su. An kuma gabatar da maƙaloli daban-daban da suka shafi lamurran da ke ci wa fagen tuwo a ƙwarya.

Kamar yadda aka saba game da tarurruka irin waɗannan, an sake zama na musamman a shekarar 2021 a NTI, Kaduna, ƙarƙashin jagorancin Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya Da Kimiyyar Harshe na Jami’ar Jihar Kaduna, inda aka zaƙulo masana da malamai da ɗalibai daga sassa daban-daban domin yin matsaya bisa ga abubuwan da aka tattauna a taron Kaduna na 2019, game da ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa a ƙarni na 21.

Taron ya yi armashi, domin Farfesoshi da Daktoci sama da 40 suka yi wa batutuwan da aka zo da su daga taron 2019 turgeza, aka samar da matsaya da za a iya kiran ta da KASU, KADUNA 2021!

Inda muke ke nan a halin yanzu, sai dai abin da zan ƙara a nan shi ne, a waɗannan tarurruka biyu na 2019 da 2021 da aka yi a Kaduna, kusan dukkan waɗanda ke da ra’ayi da ya saɓa wanda ake da shi a hukumance ba wanda ya zo ko suka taro domin wakiltar su, don jin me ya jawo adawa da matsayar da ake da ita da su, suke da ita. Duk da haka wannan bai hana an tattauna matsalolin da ra’ayoyin masu adawar da su, an kuma yi matsaya, a ilmance ba!

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