Takarda Wadda Aka Gabatar A Taron Ƙara Wa Juna Sani Na Ƙasa Da Ƙasa, A Kan Nazarin Hausa Cikin Farfajiyar Gidan Chadi Domin Girmama Farfesa Nina Pawlak, Wanda Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Fassara da Hikimomin Al’umma Tare da Haɗin Guiwar Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya da na Kimiyyar Harshe da Harsunan Ƙetare, Jami’ar Bayero Kano Suka Shirya, Daga Ranar 7 Zuwa 9 Ga Watan Janairu, Shekarar 2020.

Littattafan Hausa

Nazarin Kura-kuren Rubutu A Cikin Wasu Littattafan Ƙagaggun Labarai Na Hausa


                                                    Ibrahim Baba (Ibrahim Garba Nayaya)

(Masters in View), Department of Nigerian Languages, Bauchi State Uniɓersity, Gaɗau.

07066366586, 08125351694

Ibrahimba182@gmail.com

 

Da

Abubakar Umar Akuyam

Goɓernment Comprehensiɓe Day Secondary School, Misau

08039093730

auakmisau@gmail.com

 

Da

Hafsat Muhammad

School of Educational Serɓices, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare

08062514117

Hafsatmuhammad189@gmail.com

 

Tsakure

Harshen Hausa ɗaya ne cikin harsunan da suka shahara a Afirka, musamman Nijeriya ta Arewa. Daga cikin abubuwan da suka ƙara yaɗa wannan harshe na Hausa akwai rubuce-rubucen jaridu na Hausa, mujallun Hausa da littattafan Hausa musamman na ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa. Rubutun Hausa yana tafiya da ƙa'idoju; wanda kaucewa waɗannan ƙa'idoji kan sauya ma'anar saƙon da aka nufata a cikin waɗannan wallafe-wallafe. Wannan takarda ta nazarci ire-iren waɗannan kura-kurai da aka fi samu a cikin littattafan Hausa, da kuma yadda za a kiyaye waɗannan kura-kurai. A cikin takardar, an zaƙulo kura-kurai guda biyar kacal cikin waɗannan kura-kurai, aka rubuta yadda suka rubuta, sannan aka kawo yadda ya kamata su kasance a Daidaitacciyar Hausa da kuma ƙa'ida karɓaɓɓiya. Wannan aiki ya wakana ta hanyar bibiyar rubuce-rubucen masana da bibiyar waɗannan litattafai na Hausa.

 

1.0       Gabatarwa

            Rubutu hanya ce ta isar da saƙo a tsakanin al’umma, wannan kuwa ya samo asali tun lokacin da al’umma ta buɗe idanuwanta ga harkar rubutu a daɗin duniya. Al’ummar Hausawa na daga cikin al’ummar da ta ɗauki rubutu a matsayin hanyar isar da saƙwanninta, musamman ta hanyar wallafe-wallafen littattafai, shafukan jaridu da mujallu da muƙalu da sauran shafukan sa-da-zumunta da zamani ya zo da su kamar: Facebook, 2go, Whatsapp, Twitter, Instagram da sauran dangoginsu. Daga cikin hanyoyin da ake yin rubutu domin isar da saƙwanni akwai littattafan ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa waɗanda a yau suka mamaye Ƙasar Hausa.

 

2.0 Ma’anar Ƙagaggun Labarai

            Masana sun tattauna wajen bayyana ma’anar ƙagaggun labarai. Misali: Yahaya da wasu (1992:65) sun bayyana shi da cewa, Na ɗaya daga cikin rukunin adabin Hausawa na zamani da masana adabin Hausa suka bayyana shi da zube, wanda shi ne na farko a cikin rukunin, kafin waƙa da wasan kwaikwayo.

            Shi kuwa Mukhtar (2016:2) a wata lakca da ya gabatar cewa ya yi, “Shi ƙagaggen labari cike yake da zantukan hira da nishaɗi, wanda ba da gaske ya taɓa faruwa ba, saboda ana samar da shi ne kawai don nishaɗantarwa”.

            Duba da waɗannan ma’anoni da suka gabata, za mu iya kallon ma’anar ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa da cewa, su ne ire-iren labaran da ake samu a rubuce ko da ka, domin samun abokin hira da ɗebe kewa ta hanyar karantawa ko sauraro. Tun bayan da Hausawa ‘yan ƙasa suka iya rubutu, sai suka riƙi hanyar rubuta ƙagaggun labarai a matsayin wata hanya ta sana’a, musamman ta la’akari da yadda ake ƙara samun yawaitar masu karantawa, wanda hakan sai ya haifar da yawaitar marubuta waɗannan ƙagaggun labarai, ciki kuwa maza da mata, matasa da manya.

2.1 Tarihin Rubutun Ƙagaggun Labarai Na Hausa

            Yahaya (1988:77) ya bayyana tarihin rubuce-rubuce na ƙagaggun littattafai bai daɗe sosai ba, domin an same su ne bayan shigowar Turawa, musamman masu bincike da yaɗa addinin Kirista irin su J.F. Schon. Schon ya yi rubuce-rubuce duk da kasancewar mafi yawan littattafan na shi sun fi kama da na yaɗa addinin Kirista, face littafinsa na Letafin Magana Hausa (1857) da ya yi kama da zube, sai na ƙarshe wato, African Proɓerbs, Tales and History (1886) da ya fi kama da ƙagaggun labarai. Yunƙurin haɓakarsu kuwa, ya biyo bayan zuwan Turawa ‘yan mulkin mallaka a waɗannan rubuce-rubucen a cikin zube na Hausa. Misali an samu Frank Edgar, Fletcher, Rattray R.S. da Whitting. Sai kuma lokacin da aka kakkafa makarantun boko a Jihar Arewa. Misali a Lardin Sakkwato a 1905 ƙarƙashin shugabancin Mr. Burden, wadda aka rufe ta sakamakon rashin kai yara. Sannan a 1909 Gwamna Lugard ya sa Mr. Harns Ɓischer wato (Ɗan Hausa) ya sake buɗe wata makarantar a Kano.              

2.2 Kafa Hukumomi da Ƙungiyoyin Rubuta Ƙagaggun Labarai

            Baya ga samar da ɗaiɗaikun waɗancan rubuce-rubuce, an yi ƙoƙarin haɓaka rubutattun ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa ta hanyar kafa hukumomi waɗanda za su samar da sabbin littattafan ƙagaggun labarai, da kuma fassara wasu rubuce-rubuce. Waɗannan hukumomi da ƙungiyoyi da aka kafa, sun taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen samar da sabbin littattafan ƙagaggun labarai. Don haka a nan, za mu kalli haɓakar waɗannan littattafai da fuskoki biyu, wato ta fuskar hukumomi da kuma ƙungiyoyi.

2.3 Gudumawar Hukumomi/Kamfanoni Wajen Samar da Litattafan Ƙagaggun Labarai

            Tun bayan da rubuce-rubucen Hausa suka fara bayyana, sai aka ga dacewar samar da wani tsari wanda zai taimaka wa harkar rubuce-rubucen, wannan ya sanya aka fara kafa hukumomi da kuma kamfanoni domin samar da ɗab’i. Waɗannan hukumomi sun yi hoɓɓasa wajen ɗaukar nauyin da aka ɗora musu, daga cikin su kuwa akwai:

2.3.1    Hukumar Gudanarwa ta Makarantar Midil Katsina

            An kafa wannan Hukuma a shekarar 1927, kuma ta yi nasarar samar da wasu littattafai waɗanda suka haɗa da:

i.          Hausa Stories na Malam H.B.G. Nuhu.

ii.         Littafin Karatu na Hausa na Malam Bello Kagara.

iii.       Takobin Gaskiya na Malam Nagwamatse.

2.3.2    Hukumar Fassara (Translation Bureau)

            An kafa ta a shekarar 1927, kuma ta samar da littattafai da dama, kamar yadda Maƙera (2009) da Lawan (2011) suka bayyana a cikin Abu Sabe (2013:1-5). Daga cikin littattafan da aka samar a ƙarƙashin wannan hukuma sun haɗa da: 

i.          Dare Dubu da ɗaya (1933) na Mamman Kano da Frank Edger 

ii.         Littafin Hausawa da Maƙwabtansu

iii.       Labaru Na Da da Na Yanzu (1931)

iɓ.        Fassara littafin kiwon lafiya (1931) (Muktar, 2004:18).

            A cikin shekarar 1933 ne aka canja sunan daga Hukumar Fassara zuwa Hukumar Talifi, wato Literature Bureau a Turance. An yi hakan saboda la’akari da ayyukanta ba su tsaya a fassara ba, har da sanya gasa domin samar da littattafan ƙagaggun labarai. An naɗa Dr. R.M. East a matsayin Shugaba, sannan an samar da wasu littattafai a yayin gasar farko da Hukumar ta sanya, musamman guda biyar da suka yi nasara waɗanda suka haɗa da:

i.          Ruwan Bagaja (1933) na Malam Abubakar Imam.

ii.         Ganɗoki (1933) na Malam Bello Kagara.

iii.       Shehu Umar (1933) na Malam Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.

iɓ.        Idon Matambayi (1933) na Malam Muhammadu Gwarzo.

ɓ.         Jiki Magayi (1933) na John Tafida da R.M. East.

2.3.3    Kamfanin Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo

An kafa wannan kamfani a shekarar 1945, musamman la’akari da aka yi da yadda Gwamnatin Mulkin Mallaka ta Arewacin Nijeriya ta zaɓi ‘yan Arewa a shekarar 1939 domin su taimaka a cikin yaƙin duniya na ɗaya, saboda buƙatuwar a yawaita labaran yaƙi ta taso. Wannan Hukuma, an naɗa Alhaji Abubakar Imam ya zama Edita; yayin da Mr. Rupert M. East ya zama mataimakinsa. Daga shekarar da aka kafa ta, wato 1945 zuwa ƙarshen 1949 ta samar da littattafai kamar:

i.    Ikon Allah na Dr. R.M. East da Alhaji Abubakar Imam.

ii.   Kyaftin Makama na Abdulkadir Makama.

iii.  Zamanin Nan Namu na E.M. Rimmer da Ahmadu Ingawa.

iɓ.  Bala Da Babiya na Nuhu Bamalli.

ɓ.   Mango Park Mabuɗin Kwara na Alhaji Nuhu Bamalli.

ɓi.  Yawon Duniya Hajji Baba na Alhaji Abubakar Tunau Mafara ya fassara (Abu-Sabe, 2013:7, Mukhtar, 2010:19). 

2.3.4    Hukumar NORLA (Northern Region Literature Agency)

An kafa wannan hukumar a shekarar 1953, kuma aka damƙa ta ga Alhaji Abubakar Imam; domin ya gudanar da azuzuwan yaƙi da jahilci da kuma samar da littattafai don waɗannan azuzuwan. Wannan Hukuma, ta ci gaba da gudanar da ayyukanta har zuwa shekarar 1959, lokacin da aka rushe ta aka mayar da aikinta zuwa Kamfanin Gaskiya. A tsakanin waɗannan shekaru, wato daga shekarar 1953 zuwa 1959, wannan Hukuma ta samar da littattafai guda shida (6), waɗanda suka haɗa da:

i.          Hali Zanen Dutse na Sarkin Musulmi Alhaji Abubakar na III.

ii.         Littafin Addini na Alhaji Halliru Binji.

iii.       Tarihin Fulani na Wazirin Sakkwato Alhaji Junaidu.

iɓ.        Littafin Mamaki na Abdullahi Maƙarfi.

ɓ.         Littafin Mafarki na M.M. Kumasi.

ɓi.        Motsi Ya Fi Zama na Malam Aminu Kano, da sauransu. (Mukhtar, 2010:20).   

 

2.3.5    Hukumar Northern Nigerian Publishing Company NNPC

Wannan Hukuma an kafa ta a shekarar 1960, kuma ta yi hoɓɓasa wajen samar da littattafai. Cikin littattafan da ta samar sun haɗa da:

i.          Nagari Na Kowa (1959) na Jabiru Abdullahi.

ii.         Tauraruwa Mai Wutsiya (1969) na Umaru Dembo da sauransu. (Yahaya, 1988:213)

            Bayan haka, a cikin shekara ta 1981 wannan Hukuma ta sa gasar ƙagaggun labarai inda ta buga uku daga cikin waɗanda suka yi nasara.

i.          So Aljannar Duniya (1980) na Hafsatu Abdulwaheed

ii.         Ahmadi Na Malam Amah (1980) na Magaji Ɗanbatta

iii.       Mallakin Zuciyata (1980) na Sulaiman Ibrahim Katsina.

            Haka kuma baya ga waɗannan kamfanoni da hukumomi an samu wallafe-wallafe da dama a cikin shekarun 1970, misali:

i.  Dare Ɗaya na Abdullahi Ka’oje wanda aka buga a shekarar 1973.

ii. Kitsen Rogo na Abdulƙadir Ɗangambo wanda aka buga a shekarar 1978 da dai sauransu. (Mukhtar, 2010:20)

2.3.6    Hukumar Al’adu Ta Arewa (Federal Department of Culture)

Wannan Hukuma an kafa ta a shekarar 1982. Ita ma ta yi ƙoƙari wajen samar da littattafan ƙagaggun labarai, cikinsu akwai:

i.          Turmin Danya (1982) na Sulaiman Ibrahim Katsina.

ii.         Tsumagiyar Kan Hanya (1982) na Musa Muhammad Bello.   

iii.       Ƙarshen Alewa Ƙasa (1982) na Bature Gagare.

iɓ.        Zaɓi Naka (1982) na Munir Mamman Katsina. 

            Baya ga waɗannan, a shekarar 1984 wata al’adar rubuce-rubuce na ƙaggagun littattafai ta sake kunno kai wadda Malumfashi (1984) ya kira su da ‘Adabin Kasuwar Kano’, wato Kano Market Literature a Turance. An samu wani jigo na soyayya wanda ya yi tasiri sosai da sosai a cikin wannan adabin. Daga cikin waɗanda suka share fage akwai irin su littafin:

i.          Rabin Raina (1984) na Talatu Wada Ahmed.

ii.         Soyayya Gamon Jini (1986) na Ibrahim Hamza Abdullahi.

iii.       In Da Rai (1987) na Idris Imam.

iɓ.        Budurwar Zuciya (1987) na Balaraba Ramat Yakubu.

ɓ.         Kogin Soyayya (1988) na A.M. Zahraddeen.

ɓi.        Idan So Cuta Ne (1989) na Yusuf M. Adamu (Muktar, 2010: 21).

2.4       Kafa Ƙungiyoyin Marubuta Ƙagaggun Labarai Na Hausa

            Bayan ɓullowar Adabin Kasuwar Kano a 1984, kamar yadda Malumfashi (1984) ya raɗa wa suna, sai ƙagaggun labarai suka fara yawaita, musamman ma waɗanda suke da jigon soyayya. Wannan sai ya haifar da kakkafa ƙungiyoyi na marubuta daban-daban. Mukhtar (2004:27), ya jero ire-iren ƙungiyoyin da aka samar tun a wancan lokaci, cikinsu akwai:

i.          Ƙungiyar Raina Kama.

ii.         Ƙungiyar Marubuta ta Himma.    

iii.       Ƙungiyar Marubuta ta Mikiya.

iɓ.        Ƙungiyar Marubuta ta Ɗan haƙin da ka Raina.

ɓ.         Ƙungiyar Marubuta ta Soyayyar Zamani.

ɓi.        Ƙungiyar Marubuta ta Kukan Kurciya.

ɓii.       Ƙungiyar Marubuta ta Nijeriya (ANA) da sauransu.                    

            Kafa waɗannan ƙungiyoyi ya haddasa samuwar tarin marubuta mata da yawan gaske waɗanda littattafansu suka mamaye kasuwannin ƙasar Hausa.

2.5 Wasu Cikin Littattafan Ƙagaggun Labarai Na Hausa da Marubutunsu a Yau

            Nayaya da Baba (2018:54) sun haƙaito ire-iren littattafan ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa, cikin waɗannan litattafan akwai:

i.          In da Alƙawari (1992) na Bala Anas Babinlata.

ii.         Duniya Sai Sannu (1997) na Ado Ahmad Gidan Dabino, MON.

iii.       Mafarkin Khadija (2014) na Maimuna Idriss Sani Beli.

iɓ.        Rayuwar Bilkisu (2016) na Ayuba Muhammad Ɗanzaki.

ɓ.         Firgita Samari (2005) na Kabir Yusuf Anka.

ɓii.       Amon ‘Yanci (2013) Halima Ahmad Matazu.

ɓiii.     Jarrabi (2014) na Abubakar Auyo.

ɗ.         Me Zan Yi Da Ke (2016) na Maryam Rabi’u Ado.

ɗi.        Marubuciya (2019) na Jiddah Haulat Nguru.

ɗiii.     Rumaisa (2014) na Fauziyya D. Suleiman.

ɗiɓ.      Adon Dawa (2011) na Jamila Umar Tanko.        

            Idan an dubi waɗannan littattafai, za a ga mafi yawan jigonsu ya karkata ne a kan soyayya (duk da akwai waɗanda ba jigon soyayya suke ɗauke da su ba), wannan shi ya ƙara tabbatar da sauyin jigo da aka samu tsakanin wallafe-wallafen baya, da waɗanda suka tsiro daga shekarar 1984, da kuma waɗanda ake haifa a yanzu. Wannan kuwa na da alaƙa da yanayin da aka samu na sauyin zamani da kuma wanzuwar baƙin al’adu a cikin al’adun Hausawa.

2.6     Marubuta Ƙagaggun Labaran Hausa          

            Kafin mu kawo marubuta ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa, ya kamata mu bayyana ma’anar marubuci. Nayaya da Baba (2018:53) sun hakaito ma’anar marubuci daga masana. Misali, Wikipedia ta bayyana da cewa, "Marubuci shi ne wanda yake amfani da rubuta kalmomi ta hangar mabambantan salo da dabara domin sadarwa ta hanyar hikimarsu". A wani wurin kuma, ta bayyana da cewa, "Marubuci shi ne mai shirya mabambanta ayyukan adabi da rubutun hikayoyi kamar rubutattun labaru, gajerun labarai, tatsuniyoyi, wasanni, tsara labarai, insha'i da kuma rahotanni da labarai, da muƙalu waɗanda suka yi dai-dai da ra'ayin jama'a. Rubutun marubuta ana buga shi a ɗaukacin wuraren watsa labarai".

             Collins English Dictionary ta bayyana da cewa, "Marubuci shi ne wanda yake rubuta littattafai, labarai, da muƙalu a matsayin aiki".

             Kafar bayanai ta Difference Between ta bayyana marubuci da "Shi ne wanda yake rubuta littafi, muƙala, da kuma dukkanin akin adabi".

             Shi kuwa Gidan Dabino (2006:1)  ya bayyana marubuci da, "Marubuci shi ne wanda ta hanyar amfani da fasahar rubutu yakan ƙirƙiri wani yanayi na gaske ko na almara ko tunani ya kuma yi amfani da shi don gina wasu mutane da abubuwa wadanda yake amfani da su don isar da sako ga al'ummar da ke karatun rubutunsa. Shi wannan sako ana tsara shi ne ta hanya ta musamman mai cike da hikima da hazaka don isarwa a saukake, kamar ta hanyar yin amfani da haruffa zuwa kalmomi zuwa jimloli zuwa siɗarori da shafuka har zuwa cikakken littafi".

            Nayaya da Baba (2018: 55) sun jero wasu daga cikin marubutan ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa. Misali;

i.          Bilkisu Ibrahim Nabature.

ii.         Zuwaira Isa.

iii.       Fauziyya D. Suleiman.

iɓ.        Hadiza Nuhu Gudaji.

ɓ.         Naja’atu Haruna Saleh.

ɓi.        Muhammad Lawal Barista.

ɓii.       Maryam Kabir Mashi.

ɓiii.     Abubakar Auyo.

iɗ.        Nura Sada Nasimat.

ɗ.         Zaidu Barmo Katsina da sauransu.

3.0 Nazarin Kura-kurai A Wasu Littattafan Ƙagaggun Labarai Na Hausa

            Babu shakka littattafan ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa cike suke da kura-kurai ta fuskoki da dama, samuwar waɗannan kura-kuran kan juya saƙon da aka nufa, ko kuma a kasa fahimtar abin da ake son bayyanawa. Misali, idan aka zo rubuta waɗannan jumlolin:

Ba shi ya ci (giɓe him let him eat),         ko       Bashi ya ci  (He was credited).

Ya ƙi ya je (He refuse to go),                  ko      Yaƙi ya je  (He went for a war).

Ta kai ya wuce (He passed through it),    ko       Takai ya wuce (Takai has passed). 

Kusato (Come close),                               ko       Ku sato  (Go and steal).

Ka bari ya shiga  (Let him enter),             ko      Kabari ya shiga (He entered graɓe).

Da wa ya raba? (With whom he distributed?), ko Dawa ya raba (He distributed some corn).  (Nayaya da Baba, 2018:53).           

             Idan aka lura da waɗannan misalai da ke sama, za a ga haɗe kalma a yayin rubutawa ko rabewa shi ne zai bayyana ma’anar abin da ake son faɗi. To idan aka yi kuskure wajen rubuta abin dab a shi ake nufi ba, to ma’anar ce za ta sauya zuwa wata ma’ana wadda ba ita aka nufata ba. Akwai kuma kalmomin da wasu jimlolin da tsarin sauti ko hawa da sauƙar muryya ne yake tantance su, sai a fahimci abin da ake son nufata. Misali:

Mace= A mace na ganta jiya.

Cuta= Cuta ta kama shi.

Wuri= Kowa ya zo da wuri.

Tasa= Tasa ya bayar.

Shayi= Ina shayinka?

Sauke= Allah ya sauƙe ta lafiya.

Wata= An ga wata.

Nasara= Nasara ya samu. (Na-Sara).

Fashi= Sun yi fashi.   (Baba, ba a buga ba).

          A wannan nazari, an taƙaitu zuwa ga kura-kurai guda biyar, wanda duk abin da ake magana a kai, to misalinsa kawai za a nuna koda akwai wani kuskure a nan.

3.1    Rashin Sanya Alamomin Kyautata Rubutu

            Babu shakka rashin sanya alamomin kyautata rubutu bisa ƙa’ida kuskure ne wanda hakan kan haifar da gushewar saƙon da marubuci yake son isarwa a littafinsa. Alamomin kyautata rubutu sun haɗa da: Aya, Waƙafi, Karan-Ɗori, Alamar Motsin Rai, Alamar Tambaya, Ruwa Biyu, Waƙafi Mai Ruwa, Zarce, Baka Biyu da sauransu. Ga wani wuri da ba a sanya su ba:

                                Rahma tace dan wannan me saukine ga dady

    yana zuwa ai sai mutambayeshi.....................

                    (Tababa na 1, Shari na 21, na A'isha Abdallah Bagwanje).

          Cikin wannan misalin da ya gabata, ba a sanya alamomin zancen wani. Ga yadda rubutun ya kamata ya kasance:

                             Rahma ta ce, "Dan wannan me sauƙi ne, ga Daddy

     yana zuwa, ai sai mu tambaye shi....................".

            Kamar yadda wasu lokuta ba a sanya alamomi a muhallansu, haka kuma a wasu wuraren ma ana sanya su alhali bai cancanci a sanya ba. Misali:

                             Tsabar haushi ma ta rasa me za ta ce masa ta ji daɗi.

               Wato ma abin haka ne, ka-fin bikin ba abin da bai

               ce mata ba akan shi ba abinda ya shalle shi da auren

               haɗa wani kin zuwa zance. Namiji ke-nan....

                                 (Aaliyah na Azeezah Idris Gombe, shafi na 225).

              A nan, ba a sanya alamar Karan-Ɗori a tsakanin waɗannan kalmomi ‘kafin’ da ‘ke nan’, kamar yadda Marubuciyar littafin ta sanya. Sannan a shafin dai, akwai inda ta rubuta ‘ya ce’, sai ta sanya Karan-Ɗori a tsakani kamar haka ‘ya-ce’, wanda duk waɗannan kuskure ne.

 

3.2 Haɗe Kalma ko Rabawa a Muhallin da Bai Dace Da Yin Hakan Ba

               Haɗe kalma a muhallin rabewa, ko rabe kalma a muhallin haɗewa na daga cikin kuskuren marubuta a yau, hakan kuma na sauya ma’anar kalma ko kuma ma a kasa fahimtar saƙon da marubucin yake son isarwa. Ga misali:

                         Bayan da na dawo ne Hajiya ta saka muka fara jin

                         gidan rediyo, fara jin da mu kai shi ne wai anyi hatsari

                        a can Katsina mota biyu sun haɗu…..

                      (Sauyin Allah na Raihanat Aliyu S.Rafi Azare, shafi na 25).

            A nan, an haɗe kalmomin nan, maimakon ‘anyi’ maimakon ‘an yi’.

           A Hausa, akwai (W) iri biyu, jakada da ɗafa ƙeya. Cikin su kowacce akwai yadda ƙa’ida ta bayar a rubuta. Ita ɗafa ƙeya (W), tana zuwa a jikin kalmar da aka yi wa ɗafin, yayin da jakada (W) take zuwa a rabe. Ana rarrabe ‘jakada w’ da ‘ɗafa ƙeya w’ da cewa shi kullum ɗauke yake da karin sautin ƙasa (\) kuma ba ya iya ɗaukar ɗafi ko a raɓa masa wata ƙwayar ma’ana. (Yakasai da Mu’azu, 2010). Misali:

i. Usman ya tsone wa Ali idanu.

ii. An cuna wa ɓarawo kare.

iii. Na saya wa Sadiƙ keke.

           To amma idan ‘w’ ta zo a matsayin ɗafa ƙeya ko gaɓar kalma, musamman ga kalmomin aikatau, ana haɗe ta da kalmar da ta zo da ita. A nan kalmar tana tashi ne a matsayinta na aikatau ta koma suna ɗan aikatau. Misali:

i. Yana sayarwa idan ana buƙata.

ii. ‘Yan tawaye sun daɗa kutsawa.

iii. Maryam tana rubutawa da kyau. (Sa’id, 2004:13-14, Wurma, 2005:89-90)

             Amma da yawa cikin marubuta ba sa la’akari da muhallan bayyanar su. Ga wani misali:

                           ..., amma ban nunawa Johara na ji haushin abinda ta

                           faɗa ba, muka ɗan yi hirar mu ba yabo ba fallasa,

                           sannan na yi mata sallama ta taho gida.

                                      (Jininmu Ɗaya na Abida Muhammad).

            Amma bisa ƙa'ida, ga yadda ya kamata ya kasance:

                          ..., amma ban nuna wa Johara na ji haushin abin da ta

                          faɗa ba, muka ɗan yi hirar mu ba yabo ba fallasa,

                         sannan na yi mata sallama ta taho gida. 

3.3 Rashin Kula Da Inda Ake Tashi Da Babban Harafi

            Akwai wurare da wajibi ne a tashi da babban harafi, misali inda aya ta bayyana da kuma duk inda aka samu sunan yanka. A wasu lokutan marubuta ba sa la'akari da waɗannan wurare, maimakon ƙaramin harafi; sai su rubutu da ƙaramin harafi, wanda kuma ƙa'ida ita ce farawa da babban harafi. Misa,  duk inda Aya ko Alamar Tambaya ko Alamar Motsin Rai ko Alamar Zancen Wani suka fito, to harafin farkon da zai zo, babba ne. Ga wani misali:

                          Ɗayan ya ce, “alhaki dai ba a kanmu yake ba, yana

                          wuyan waziran da suka sa muka aikata haka.”

                   (Tekun Labarai na ɗaya, 2015, shafi na78. Ɗanladi Z. Haruna).

           A nan, farkon kalmar da ta zo a cikin wannan alama, babba ya kamata ta zo, saɓanin yadda Marubucin ya rubuta.

           Haka zalika, dukkanin sunan yanka ana rubuta harafin farko ne da babban harafi, amma za ka iske wasu cikin marubuta na farawa da ƙaramin harafi. Misali:

                               Sai dai ni na kasance mai murna. na gane

                               cewa Muhammad (S.A.W) annabi ne.

                      (Ɗan Musulmi 2014 na Rahma Abdulmajid)

            A nan wurin, an samu kura-kurai guda biyu, amma wanda muke magana a kansa shi ne tashi da babban harafi a sunan yanka, to a nan, Annabi yana komawa kan Muhammad (S.A.W), ke nan ya kamata ya zama kamar haka:

                           Sai dai ni na kasance mai murna. na gane

                           cewa Muhammad (S.A.W) Annabi ne.

            Ga wani misali:

                             Hadiza ta harare ta ta ce, "a'a kin manta Allah

                             Talatu ba na son rainin wayo, malam Balaraben

                       me, Me zanci da shi?"

                            (Babban Dare na 1, na Amina Dauda Abubakar).

             Maimakon haka, ga yadda ya dace a rubuta:

                          Hadiza ta harare ta ta ce, "A'a kin manta Allah

                          Talatu ba na son rainin wayo, Malam Balaraben

                         me, me zan ci da shi?"   

3.4 Hargitsa Kalmomin Dirka

          Kalmomi ne ‘yan ƙanana waɗanda suke taimaka wa jimloli su dire sosai da sosai. Kalmomin dirka da aka fi sani, su ne: ‘ne’ da ‘ce’ da ‘ke nan’.

          A Hausa, ba a liƙa wa kalmomin dirka kowace irin kalma walau a gaba ko a baya. Duk inda suke, suna fitowa ne su kaɗai. Ga misali:

                      ni             ne             amma ba        nine             ba

                      ke             ce             amma ba        kece             ba

                      ke             nan           amma ba        kenan          ba (Wurma, 2005:63).

             Marubuta da dama ba sa la’akari da muhallan sanya waɗannan kalmomi na dirka, wato su na sanya su a hargitse ko kuma su haɗe su da kalmar da ta zo kafinta. Misali:

                          Alhaji ya ce, “Ba ita bane gata nan”.

                         (Sauyin Allah na Raihanat Aliyu S.Rafi Azare, shafi na 27).

               A nan, an samu kura-kurai guda biyu, na farko dirka ‘ce’ ya kamata a sanya maimakon ‘ne’, na biyu kuma sai aka haɗe su, wanda a rabe ya kamata su a rubuta su.

                         In ba wata mai matsayi bace sai kaga ana yi maka

                         Kallon biyu ahu.

                         (In Da Alƙawari, shafi na105, na Bala Anas Babinlata).

           Idan an lura, za a ga kalmomin ‘ba’ da ‘ce’ ba a haɗe ya kamata su zo ba, kamar yadda kalmomin ‘ka’ da ‘ga’ su ma ba a haɗe suke ba.

           A wasu muhallan kuma za a ga marubuta kan sanya dirka, jinsin namiji a muhallin da jinsin mace za a sa wa. Misali:

              Shekarata goma sha huɗu amma idan kika ganni sai ki ce

             ‘yar shekara sha bakwai ne,…..

                (Sauyin Allah na Raihanat Aliyu S.Rafi Azare, shafi na 26).

3.5 Sanya Alamar Hamza A Muhallin Da Ba Nata Ba

             Alamar Hamza waƙafi ne da ake sanyawa a saman gaɓar kalma (ba a ƙasa ba) domin rabawa tsakanin gaɓar da ta ƙare da wasali da kuma maƙwabciyarta da ta farad a wasali (ba a amfani da wannan alama a farkon kalmar da ta fara da wasali). Ana amfani da wannan alama ne saboda dalilai biyu: Na farko domin nuna cewa ba ɗaurin wasali ko tsawon wasali ake nunawa ba, na biyu kuwa domin sauƙaƙa furuci. (Bunza 2002:184-186). Misali: Ma’ana, da’awa, mu’amala, a’a, ba’a, mu’amala, ɗa’a, Sa’adatu, Mu’azu, ɗabi’u.

            Marubuta ba su fiye kula da muhallan wannan alama ta Hamza ba, hakan ya sanya suke sanya ta inda bai dace ba. Misali:

                      “Student lafiya ba’a zo an ɗauke ki bane?”.

                   (Sauyin Allah na Raihanat Aliyu S.Rafi Azare, shafi na 5).

4.0 Kammalawa

                   Cikin abin da ya gabata a wannan takarda, an bayyana ma’anar ƙagaggun labarai, taƙaitaccen tarihin samuwarsu, wasu cikin marubutansu da wasu cikin littattafan ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa. A cikin takardar, an kawo wasu jimloli masu ma’ana mabambanta domin fayyace misalai, sannan aka bayyana yadda ma’anar kowace daga ciki. A takardar, an zaƙulo wasu misalai daga cikin litattafan ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa, sannan aka bayyana yadda ya dace su kasance a matsayin daidai. Lalle kula da kiyaye waɗannan ƙa’idoji na rubutu zai sanya rubuce-rubucen litattafan ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa su ƙara armashi. Ke nan, mayar da hankali ga kiyaye waɗannan ƙa’idoji wajibi ne ga marubuta da masu aikin ɗab’in littattafai na Hausa.     

 

MANAZARTA

Tuntuɓi masu takarda.