Kida daya ne daga cikin hanyoyin nishadantarwa a tsakanin al'ummar Hausawa wansa suka gada, sannan hanya ce ta samun abin masarufin yau da gobe. Tun a wancan lokacin, Hausawa na da kayan kade-kadensu na gargajiya wadanda da su suke amfani wajen yin wakokinsu. Bayan samuwar kayan kidan Turawa, sai mawakan musamman na zamani suka koma amfani da wadannan kayan kida ka'in da na'in. Daga cikin kayan kidan Turawa wanda Hausawa suka koma amfani da su akwai fiyano. Cikin wannan takarda, an tattaro bayanai ne game da wannan kayan kida na fiyano, da kuma yadda a yau ya maye gurbin kayan kidan Hausawa na gargajiya wadanda suka gada iyaye da kakanni. Wannan bincike kuwa, ya wakana ne ta hanyar bibiyar masu sana'ar kidan fiyano da kuma mawakan da ake yi wa wannan kida na fiyano.

fiyano

Kiɗan Fiyano A Wajen Hausawa

Na

Ibrahim Baba (Ibrahim Garba Nayaya)

Ɗalibi a Matakin Digiri na Biyu, Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Jihar Bauchi, Gaɗau

07066366586, 08125351694

Email: ibrahimba182@gmail.com

 

Da

Audu Baba

Goɓernment Day Junior Secondary School, Nguru

08069580413

Email: abdullahibabanguru@gmail.com

 

Da

Shu’aibu Usman Tanko

Sashen Nazarin Harshen Hausa, Kwalejin Shari’a da Addinin Musulunci ta Atiku Abubakar dake Nguru, Jihar Yobe 

07039772011

Email: shaaibuusmantanko@gmail.com

 

1.0 Gabatarwa

   An jima ana yin waƙoƙi a ƙasar Hausa, inda waɗannan mawaƙa ke amfai da kayan kaɗe-kaɗe iri daban-daban. Wannan ya nuna kowacce sana'a a ƙasar Hausa tana da irin kayan kiɗanta, haka zalikan su ma mawaƙan kowanensu na da na shi irin kayan da yake amfani da su na kiɗa wajen yin waƙarsa. Bayan ɗaukan lokaci ana wannan aiki na waƙa da kayan kaɗe-kaɗe na gargajiya, A-daki-Gora, A-daki-Buzu, Amada, Ba'ala, Akayau, Badujalar Gargajiya, Bambaro, Begel, Bindi, Barankaci, Buta, Duma,Caki, Dundufa, Farai, Gurmi, Gangar dutse, Galuji, Garaya, Gangi, Goge, Jakkuta-jakkuta, Kacau-kacau, Kalangu, Kuge, Kanzagi, Kukuma, Kuntugi, Kuntu,  Ƙwarya, Ƙaho, Taushi, Sarewa da sauransu.

Sai aka samu sabbin kayan kiɗa na zamani wanda mawaƙan zamani suka koma amfani da waɗannan kayan kaɗe-kaɗe saɓanin na gargajiya. Daga cikin kayan kiɗan da zamani ya zo da shi akwai Fiyano, wanda samuwarsa sai ya buɗe sabon babi na wasu mawaƙa wanda yawancinsu matasa ne maza da mata, sannan mafi yawan waƙoƙinsu su na bayani ne a kan soyayya.

   Wannan takarda, ta yi kyakkyawan tsokaci a game da makaɗan fiyano a ƙasar Hausa, da kuma yadda kiɗan fiyano ya yi tasiri a kan sauran kayan kaɗe-kaɗe na gargajiya.

1.1 Asalin Kiɗan Fiyano

   Encyclopedia Americana (2003), ta bayyana cewa, a shekarar 1709, Bartolommeo Cristofori ya ƙirƙiri wani abin kiɗa da ake kira graɓicembalo col piona e forte. Wanda yake samar da sautin piano (soft) da forte (loud). Daga haka aka samu sunan pianoforte ko fortepiano. Daga haka aka gajerce sunan zuwa piano. Binta (2011:76) ta bayyana cewa “Ana jin mutumin da ya fara ƙirƙiro fiyano, shi ne Bartolemo Cristofori ɗan ƙasar Italiya. Mawaƙi kuma ƙwararre a kan sanin kayan kiɗa wanda kuma iyalan Medici suka riƙe shi. Amma zuwa ƙarshen 1700, kiɗa da fiyano ya zamo abin zaɓi ga masu haɗa kiɗa da kuma su kansu mawaƙan".

   Zainab (2009:83) ta bayyana asalin fiyano daga ƙasar Italy aka ƙirƙire ta tun a ƙarni na sha tara (19), kuma Pianoforte shi ne cikakken sunanta, kuma sunan asali. Pianoforte ita ce nau’in fiyano na farko da aka fara samu. Mawaƙi mai amfani da fiyano ana kiransa pianist. Akwai wasu abubuwa da suka haɗu, suka tayar da fiyano kamar strings da keys da pedal da pianostool.

   Enclyclopedia Americana (2003) da Concise English Dictionary (2006), sun ƙara bayyana cewa, fiyano na da nau'o'i biyu cikinsu akwai: Grand Piano da Upright Piano. Grand piano ita ce wadda take da madannai guda tamanin da takwas (88), hamsin da biyar (55) farare, baƙaƙe talatin da shidda (36). Ana latsa madannan tsawon inci 3/8 (9.6 mm). Ita Upright piano tana da wasu ɓangarori na grand piano, sai dai akwai ‘yan bambance bambance tsarinsu.

2.0 Ma'anar Fiyano

   Masana sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu wajen bayyana ma'anar fiyano. Misali: Gusau (2008:347) ya ayyana “Fiyano wata ala ce ta yin kiɗa wadda Hausawa suka samu daga Turawa. Sun sami wannan ala bayan yaƙin basasar Nijeriya wajejen shekarun 1970 lokacin da wasu ƙabilun Kudancin Nijeriya suka fantsamo cikin Arewa. Fiyano abu ce wadda ake kaɗawa ta bayar da amo nau’i-nau’i, mai diri ko mai zaƙi ko mai kauri gwargwadon yadda ake buƙata. Turawa sukan gwama masa jita da tasoshi da ganguna a lokacin kaɗa shi. Fiyano abin kiɗa ne na Turawa wanda suke haɗa shi da jita da wasu tasoshi da nau’o’in amo na jita da ganguna da kayan bushe-bushe da buge-buge da sauransu”. Zainab (2009:83), ta bayyana fiyano da cewa, "Fiyano abin kiɗa ne da ake amfani da madannai fari da baƙi (keyboard) wadda ke girke a kan tebur don samar da sautin kiɗa. Fiyano wata na’ura ce wadda ake amfani da madannai (keyboard) fari da baƙi. Kowane yana aiki kuma da irin sautin kiɗa da yake bayarwa ko kiɗan da ake buƙata. Fiyano tana amfani da wutar lantarki da kuma batir. Tana daga cikin sanannun kayan kiɗa na duniya". Binta (2011:76) kuwa, ta bayyana cewa “Fiyano wata na’ura ce mai amfani da wutar lantarki wadda take bayar da amo na kiɗa iri daban-daban. Mutum ɗaya yana iya amfani da fiyano ya yi waƙa kuma ƙungiyar makaɗa ma suna yin amfani da fiyano domin rera waƙoƙinsu. Haka nan Kiristoci suna yin kiɗan fiyano a coci”. Gusau (2016:27), ya sake bayar da ma'anar fiyano da cewa, "Na'ura ce wadda ake iya samar da da amo iri-iri na yawancin kayan kiɗa. Ana iya adana amo daban-daban da fiyano ta daddanna wasu mabuɗan amo da aka shirya masa. Fiyano yana da mazauni wanda ake ɗora shi a kansa. Mutum ɗaya yake sarrafa kiɗa da fiyano".

    Fiyano abin kiɗa ne mai girma wanda ake da madannai fari da baƙi a jere. Ana buga fiyano a zauna a gabanta, sannan a latsa madannan. Akwai kiɗa kala-kala a har dubu bakwai da ɗari biyar (7,500) a cikin fiyano. Lokacin da Hausawa suka sami wannan abin kiɗa, sai suka cusa masa amon kiɗa na gargajiya kamar molo da ganga, da kotso, da shantu, da tafi, da busa, da kaca-kaura, da duma da sauransu. Fiyano yana da amon kiɗan zamani da na gargajiya. Ana ɗaukar fiyano a yi kiɗa da ita nan take (liɓe performance). Fiyano koyon shi ake yi, sai a hankali ake fahimtarsa. An ci gaba da amfani da fiyano ana aiwatar da waƙoƙin Hausa. Daga baya an samu kiɗan komfuta wanda ita ma tana da nata kaɗe-kaɗen. Kodayake asalin kaɗe-kaɗen nata daga fiyano ne. Ma’ana daga fiyano ake turawa a cikin kwamfuta. Ana tattara kiɗan fiyano a mayar da shi a kwamfuta. Ana amfani da waya (midi cable) wajen haɗa fiyano da kwamfuta. Kwamfuta tana da abin da ake kira (softwares) kamar Sonar. Daga cikinsa ne ake ƙirƙirar duk wani kiɗa. Akwai abin tace murya (cool edit) da (sound edit) a cikinsa.

 

2.1 Ire-iren Kiɗan Fiyano

   Kiɗan fiyano ba kala guda ba ne, ma'ana ba sauti ɗaya ake samu na amo daga fiyano ba, akwai sautuka kala-kala, muhimmai daga ciki kuma sanannu guda uku ne. Su ne:

2.1.1 Raps ko Rapping.

   Rapping-Wikipedia da The Free Encyclopedia sun nuna Raps na nufin “karatu da sauri ko magana da sauri”. Raps wani salo ne na waƙa wanda ake jin tashin sautin murya da sauri-sauri mai kama da da magana.

2.1.2 Reggae Reggae.

   An samo asalin wannan kiɗa ne daga ƙasar Jamaica tun a shekarar 1960, wanda mutanen Jamaica ke amfani da shi wajen kaɗe-kaɗe da raye-rayensu, kuma yana daga cikin tsofaffin nau’o’in kiɗa kamar Ska da Rocksteady. Kiɗan Reggae ya fi sauri a kan Rocksteady amma kuma ya fi kiɗan Ska tsauri. Ƙamusun Reggae- Wikipedia da The Free Encyclopedia, sun bayyana cewa, asalin kalmar ta fara bayyana a cikin ƙamusun Ingilishi ta Jamaica a shekarar 1967. Waƙar Reggae salonta yana fitar da damuwa a zuciya. Duk waƙa da aka yi da wannan salo tana da abin da ake kira code, wani nau’in kiɗa daban.

2.1.3 Hip Hop.

   Wani salon kiɗa ne wanda ake yin rap a cikinsa. Salon waƙar Rap da na Hip Hop suna da kamanci, suna maye gurbin juna a wasu lokuta.

 

3.0 Samuwar Fiyano A Ƙasar Hausa

   Gusau (2008:6) ya bayyana fiyano wani abin kiɗa ne baƙo ga Hausawa da suka samu ta hanyar hulɗa ta Turawa”. Binta (2011:77) ta bayyana cewa “Shigowar kiɗan fiyano zuwa ga Hausawa yana da dangantaka da sha’awar kallo da sauraron kaɗe-kaɗen finafinan Indiya da Hausawa suka tsinci kansu a ciki. Domin kuwa waɗannan fina-finai na Indiya su ne suka zamanto fitilu masu haske ga yawancin masu shirya fina-finan Hausa. Ƙoƙarin kwaikwayon kaɗe-kaɗen waɗannan finafinai ne ya sa Hausawa suka dinga amfani da kiɗan fiyano suna rera waƙoƙin Hausa suna sakawa a cikin fina-finai da ake kira na Hausa. Ado Ahmad Gidan Dabino ya fito da fim ɗinsa mai suna 'In Da So Da Ƙauna', wanda aka yi kiɗan fiyano na farko a fim”. Gusau (2011:8) ya bayyana cewa, “Daga bisani, bayan Hausawa sun iya karatu da rubutu na ajami da kuma na boko, sai aka samu wasu mutane suna rubuta waƙoƙi, amma sai su ɗora musu rauji na karin murya, sa’an nan su rera su tare da amon kiɗa (sauti na kiɗa)…Har wayau, kayan kiɗan da ake amfani da su wajen rera waɗannan waƙoƙi sun ƙunshi kayan kiɗa na zamani ne kamar mandiri da fiyano da jita da gangunan Turawa da makamantansu”. Samuwar waƙoƙin fiyano na Hausa ya kawo wani sabon al’amari ga manazarta waƙoƙin Hausa. Hakan kuwa ya faru ta yadda waƙoƙin suka zo da wata siga. Ga su kamar rubutattun waƙoƙi, amma sun yi kama da waƙoƙin baka. Har a kan jinjina kafin a iya rarrabewa tsakanin waƙoƙin na baka ko rubutattu. Wanda ya zama wani ƙalubale ga manazarta waƙoƙin Hausa. Domin kowa da yadda yake kallonsu. Wasu na yi masu kallon waƙoƙin baka, wasu na cewa rubutattun waƙoƙi ne. Wasu kuwa sun kira su da waƙoƙin zamani. Waƙoƙin fiyano na Hausa sun samu karɓuwa sosai da sosai wajen mutane don waƙoƙin kullum sai ƙara bazuwa da karɓuwa suke yi. Kuma suna samun masu saurare musamman matasa maza da mata. Haka kuma, kullum manazarta suna saurarensu, suna aiki a kansu. Yaɗuwar waɗannan waƙoƙi na fiyano ta nuna cewa sun samu karɓuwa, kuma sun yi tasiri. Saboda duk abin da ba ka da sha’awa a kansa, ba za ka mayar da hankali akai ba. Don haka, yawan jin su a ko’ina, a wayoyin hannu, da motoci, da kantuna, da gidajen rediyo na gida da na waje ya nuna cewa sun samu karɓuwa. Daɗin daɗawa, waƙoƙin a kullum ƙara yawaita suke yi, mawaƙan na ta ƙara samun basirar rera waƙoƙin. Har ta kai sukan yi irin waɗannan waƙoƙi a ƙungiyance.

3.1 Wuraren Da Ake Kiɗan Fiyano (Situdiyo)

   Shagunan da ake kiɗan fiyano ana kiransu da situdiyo. Gusau (2016:27) ya bayyana situdiyo da cewa, "Ɗaki ne da ake shiryawa wanda ake sarrafa murya tare da samar da amo na kiɗa ta amfani da wasu na'urori". Wasu daga cikin wuraren da ake yin kiɗan fiyano a wasu sassan yankunanmu sun haɗa da:

3.1.1 Sahibul Bushira Musical Studio, Galadima Maikyari Street Nguru.

3.1.2 Mazeeka Sound Studio Nguru.

3.1.3 Barewa Multi-Media, Shy Plaza, Ƙofar Gadon Ƙaya, Kano.

3.1.4 Taskar Ala Global Limited, Farm Centre, Kano.

3.1.5 Lafazi Entertainment, Habiba House, Zoo road, Kano.

3.1.6 Prince Zango Sound Studio, Kaduna.

3.2 Masu Yin Kiɗan Fiyano A Ƙasar Hausa

   Bayan samun fiyano aƙasar Hausa, an samu makaɗa da dama da suka sayo ta, kuma suka buɗe shaguna a wurare daban-daban domin yin kaɗe-kaɗe na fiyano. Daga cikin makaɗan fiyano a ƙasar Hausa akwai:

3.2.1 Ahmad Mahmud Gusau

3.2.2 Basiru Bala Maigoro, Sokoto

3.2.3 Dauda Adamu Kahuta (Rarara)

3.2.4 Faruƙ Nagudu

3.2.5 Rabi'u Dalle

3.2.6 Firdausi Yar Dubai

3.2.7 Aminu Garba Maidawayya

3.2.8 Usaini Kaɗo Ƙofar Na'isa

3.2.9 Zainab A Baba

3.2.10 Adamu Hassan Nagudu

3.3 Mawaƙan Da Ake Yi Wa Kiɗan Fiyano

   Mafi yawan mawaƙan da ake yi wa kiɗan fiyano matasa ne, imma dai mata ne ko kuma maza, domin a yanzu ire-iren kiɗan fiyano ne ya mamaye dukkanin waƙoƙin da ake rerawa, sawa'un waɗannan waƙoƙi sun ƙunshi jigon soyayya ce, ko gargaɗi, ko faɗakarwa, ko wa'azi ko kuma hannunka mai sanda, ko kuma ma waƙoƙin da suka shafi yabo ne ga wani. Ga wasu daga cikin mawaƙan da ake yi wa kiɗan fiyano:

3.3.1 Aminuddeen Ladan Abubakar (Alan Waƙa)

3.3.2 Mudassir Ƙasim

3.3.3 Adam A. Zango

3.3.4 Haruna Aliyu Ningi

3.3.5 Jibrin Muhammad Jalatu

3.3.6 Sadi Sidi Sharifai

3.3.7 Maryam Sangandale

3.3.8 Yakubu Muhammad 2 Effects

3.3.9 Sani Musa Danja 2 Effects

3.3.10 Ali Jita 

3.3.11 Hajara Isa Aliyu Nguru

3.3.12 Musbahu M. Ahmad

3.3.13 Murja Baba

3.3.14 Maryam Fantimoti

3.3.15 Nura M. Inuwa

3.4 Misalan Waƙoƙin Hausa Na Fiyano

   Zainab (2009:84) ta ce, "Waƙoƙin fiyano na Hausa su ne waƙoƙin da suka samu canje-canje daga kayan kiɗa na gargajiya zuwa kayan kiɗa na zamani kamar fiyano da jita da sauransu". Kamar yadda na ambata a sama, yawancin mawaƙan wannan zamani suna amfani da fiyano ne wajen kaɗe-kaɗen waƙoƙinsu, don haka kenan waƙoƙin da suka samar na kiɗan fiyano ne. Cikin irin waɗannan waƙoƙin akwai:

3.4.1 Waƙar Sakarkari ta Aminuddeen Ladan Abubakar (Alan Waƙa)

3.4.2 Waƙar Rayuwa tana faruwa ta Fati Musa Ƙofar Wambai

3.4.3 Waƙar Gatana ta Malam Nafi'u Nguru

3.4.4 Waƙar Ku ɗinka hijabi ta Malam Ibrahim Lalula Nguru

3.4.5 Waƙar Bulaliya ta Abubakar Sadiƙ Suwa'ilu

3.4.6 Waƙar Rawa-rawa ta Naziru M. Ahmad

3.4.7 Waƙar Almajiri ta Muhammad Sani Aliyu

3.4.8 Waƙar Ƙarshen Tika-tika Tik ta Aliyu Auta Masani, Nguru

3.4.9 Waƙar Ku Yi Haƙuri ta Jibrin Muhammad Jalatu

3.4.10 Waƙar Rigar ‘Yanci ta AbdulAziz Abdullahi Ningi

3.5 Muhallan da Ake Waƙoƙin Fiyano na Hausa

Muhallan da ake waƙoƙin Fiyano na Hausa su ne wuraren da mawaƙan Hausa masu amfani da fiyano suke rera waƙoƙinsu. Kamar haka: -

3.5.1 Fina-finan Hausa.

Wato irin fina-finan da ake yi a ƙasar Hausa, ko kuma Hausawa suke yi, ko kuma ake yi da harshen Hausa. To a cikinsu akan samu kaɗe-kaɗe na fiyano, da kuma waƙoƙin da aka yi amfani da fiyano wajen aiwatar da su.

3.5.2 Tarukan Siyasa.

   A nan ya shafi dukkanin wani dandazon mutane da za a tara a dalilin siyasa, wanda a wannan wuri akan samu waƙoƙin da aka rera da kiɗan fiyano, a wasu lokutan ma akan samu makaɗan fiyano a wurin.

3.5.3 Bukukuwa.

   Dukkanin wani nau'i na biki, sawa'un bikin suna ne, ko aure, ko wanin waɗannan. A nan, za a iske waƙoƙi da dama da aka rera su ta hanyar amfani da fiyano. A wani lokaci kuma, akan samu makaɗan fiyano a wurarwn bukukuwa domin yin kiɗan fiyano.

3.5.4 Majalisi.

   Wannan kuwa ya shafi wuraren yabon Manzon Allah (S.A.W) da halifofinSa da sauran mutanen kirki. A wannan muhalli ma, akan yi amfani da fiyano wajen yin kiɗa ga waƙar da aka yi ta yabo.

3.5.5 Tallace-Tallace.

   Dukkanin wani nau'i na tallace-tallace, sawa'un tallar magunguna ne, ko wasu abubuwa ne, kamar robobi, kayan abinci, yaduna da sauransu. To a nan, su ma akan yi musu waƙoƙi ta hanyar amfani da kiɗan fiyano.

3.5.6 Kafofin Yaɗa Labarai.

   Wannan ya shafi kafofin sadarwa kamar gidajen radiyo d atalabijin, domin sukan yi amfani da kiɗan fiyano a yayin da wani shiri ya ƙare kuma suna son sanya wani. Haka zalika, sukan yi amfani da shi domin tallata wani abu da wani kamfani zai ba su.

3.5.7 Yabon Masoya.

   Ma'abota soyayya tsakanin maza da mata sukan yi amfani da fiyano wajen yabon junansu, wato za a iske budurwa ta yi wa saurayinta waƙa, kuma ta je an yi mata kiɗan fiyano, ko kuma shi ya mata waƙa, kuma ya je an masa kiɗa da fiyano.

4.0 Kammalawa

    A wannan takarda, an buɗe ta da taƙaitaccen bayani a kan kaɗe – kaɗe da wasu cikin kayan kiɗan Hausawa na gargajiya. Haza zalika, an kawo wasu cikin kayan kiɗan Hausawa na zamani. Fiyano ɗaya ce daga cikin kayan kiɗa na mawaƙan Hausawa a yau suke amfani da ita, wannan ya sanya a wannan bincike aka yi tsokaci a kan fiyano, tun daga asalinta, ma’anarta da kuma tarihin samuwarta a ƙasar Hausa. A cikin takardar, an zayyano ire – iren kiɗan fiyano, sannan aka jero wuraren da ake kiɗan fiyano a garuruwan Hausawa. Haka zalika, an bayyana masu yin kiɗan fiyano, da mawaƙan da ake yi wa kiɗan fiyano da kuma ire-iren kiɗan fiyano. A takardar, an ƙarƙare bayani a kan muhallan da ake kiɗan fiyano a ƙasar Hausa, wanda wannan ya nuna mafi yawan mawaƙan Hausawa suna amfani da fiyano ne wajen yin kaɗe – kaɗensu, duk da cikinsu akwai waɗanda sun haɗa da wani abin kiɗa bayan fiyano.   

 

MANAZARTA

Tuntuɓi masu takarda.