Ilimin ƙirar kalma abu ne da masana suka yi nazarce-nazarce da kuma rubuce-rubuce a wannan fage cikin harsuna mabambanta cikinsu kuwa har da harshen Hausa. Kalmomin Hausa waɗanda ana gina su ne ta hanyar amfani da baƙaƙe da wasula bisa ƙa’ida domin ƙera kalma, a gefe guda kuma ana shafe wasali a wata gaɓar ta kalma domin taƙaita kalmar ko domin zuwan wata ƙa’ida a wata jimla da aka gina. Cikin wannan bincike, an bayyana wasu kalmomi na Hausa aka shafe musu wasali; wanda wannan shafewar ya shafi tsakiyar kalma ko kuma ƙarshen kalma. Har wa yau, binciken ya gano shafe wannan wasali yakan shafi gaɓar kalma ɗaya kawai. An gano hakan ne ta hanyar karance-karance da duba kundaye da littattafai waɗanda suka shafi ginin kalma a Hausa.

share wasali

Shafe Wasali A Kalmomin Hausa

                                                            Ibrahim Baba (Nayaya)

M.A Hausa (Literature) Student, Department of Nigerian Languages and Linguistics, Bauchi State Uniɓersity, Gaɗau.

07066366586, 08125351694

ibrahimba182@gmail.com

 

 

Da

Abubakar Umar Akuyam

Goɓernment Comprehensiɓe Day Secondary School, Misau

08039093730

auakmisau@gmail.com

 

 

Da

Babayo Aliyu

Goɓernment Comprehensiɓe Day Secondary School School, Misau.

07039231211

baliyumisau@gmai

1.0       Gabatarwa

            Shafe wasali wani yanki ne na tsarin sauti da ake kira ‘phonological processes’ a Turance, wanda akasari yana faruwa ne domin samun sauƙin lafazi ko kuma a samu daidaito wajen tsirar wani lafazin. (Glowacka, 2001; Uffmann, 2002; Frajzyngier, 2003; Hall, 2006) a cikin (Maikanti da Ago, 2018:72).

            Masana da dama sun gudanar da bincike kan wannan batu a harsuna mabambanta, kama daga Turai da Latin, har zuwa harsunan Afirika. Amma a cikin wannan binciken, an taƙaitu ne a shafe wasali a kalmomin Hausa, wanda hakan zai sauƙaƙa lafazi ko kuma ya tsirar da sabuwar ma’ana, musamman idan aka haɗe wasu kalmomi guda biyu waɗanda a cikinsu akwai wadda aka shafe wa wasali. Shi wannan al’amari na shafe wasali, kowane harshe yana da irin nasa tsari wajen shafe wasalin domin samar da lafazi mai ma’ana.

           An samu rubuce-rubuce daga masana a harsunan daban-daban da suka yi tsokaci game da shafe wasali. Misali, Oyebade (1998) ya yi bayani kan shafe wasali, inda ya rinƙa kwatanta kalmomin Yarbanci, amma shi a wurin sa ana shafe wasali ne yayin da aka samu wasula biyu ko fiye waɗanda suka zo a ɓangarori daban-daban, misali, idan za a haɗe kalmomin /ɔmo obìrì/ sai ya koma [ɔmobírì] wadda ke nufin ‘yarinya’. To a wannan misalign za a ga an shafe wasalin farko na kalma ta biyu, wato /o/. Ko kuma kalmomin /gbè ɔmɔ/ sai ya koma [gbɔmɔ], wato ‘ɗauki yaro’. A nan kuma, an shafe wasalin ƙarshe na kalmar farko wato /è/.  

           Shi kuwa Allison (2007) a nasa aikin, ya bibiyi harshen Úwù, inda ya kwatanta wasu kalmomi ta yadda ake shafe musu wasali yayin da aka haɗe kalmomi biyu suka koma guda ɗaya. Misali, idan an tashi haɗe kalmomin /anũì ùwa/ sai ya koma [anũùwa] wato ‘ƙofar ɗaki’. Ko kuma kalmomin /oɲĩni  àta/ sai su koma [oɲĩnaťa], wadda ke nufin ‘idon ruwa’. A waɗannan misalan za a ga cewa an kalmomin farko an shafe wasalin /i/ wanda yake jikin kalmar farko, yayin da misali na biyu aka shafe wasalin /i/ shi ma a kalmar farko.

          Maikanti da Saleh (2018) sun yi wani aiki da ya shafi shafe wasali a harsunan Hausa da Ingilishi. Misali, sun kawo wasu taƙaitattun jimloli a harshen Ingilishi da kuma yadda ake shafe wasalinsu. /that is alright] wadda ke nufin ‘wannan ya yi daidai’, sai a mayar da ita /that’s alright/, ko kuma/let us go/, sai ya koma /let’s go’, wato ‘mu tafi’. Wannan shafe wasalin da yake gudana a matakin gamayyar tasarifi na ginin jimla, akan maye gurbinsa ne da waƙafin sama kamar yadda aka gani a misalan da suka gabata.

1.1       Ma’anar Wasali

            Sani (1999:14) ya bayyana ma’anoni guda biyu a matsayin ma’anar wasali, inda ma’ana ta farko ya bayar da ita a dunƙule wadda saƙon ciki bai isa ba. “Wasali sautin magana ne baya ga baƙi”. Amma a gamammiyar ma’ana, ya nuna wasali da cewa “Wasali sautin magana ne wanda a yayin furta shi, iska ba ta samun tangarɗa wajen fita, sai dai karkarwa kawai da tantanin maƙwallato ke yi. Ba kamar wajen furta sautin baƙi ba inda yake tilas ne iskar ta sami tangarɗa koyaya, wajen furta wasali babu wannan tangarɗa haka. Haka kuma dukkanin wasula masu ziza ne, ba kamar takwarorinsu baƙaƙe ba inda yake wasu masu ziza ne, wasu marasa ziza, wasu ma ‘yan-ba-ruwanmu”.

            Ke nan, wasali ɗan’uwan burmin baƙi ne wajen gina kalma, su biyun ne ke haɗuwa da juna cikin siffa da ƙira mai kyau domin samar da gaɓa mai kyau, ita kuma gaɓa ta samar da kalma, yayin da taron kalmomi kuwa zai haifar da jimla.

1.2       Adadin Wasulan Hausa

            Hausa tana da wasali iri biyu, akwai tilon wasali da kuma tagwan wasali.

1.2.1Tilon Wasali

            Shi ne wanda furucinsa ke da siga guda ɗaya tak. In za a kwana ana jan wannan wasali, wannan siga bat a canjawa. Misali, da za a kwana ana jan [a], ko [i] ko [u], sigar ba ta canjawa daga [aaaaaa--], ko [iiiiii---], ko [uuuuu----]. Hausa tana talon wasali guda goma, cikinsu akwai gajeru guda biyar, akwai kuma dogaye guda biyar (Sani, 1999:14). Misali:

a.  Gajeru:

[a]        misali             faɗa

[i]        misali           jiki

[o]       misali zato

[u]       misali           uwa

[e]      misali             mace    

b.  Dogaye:

[aa]      misali             baashi

[ii]       misali “          jiika

[oo]   misali             ƙoofa

[uu]     misali           buuta

[ee]      misali           geemu 

1.2.3    Tagwan Wasula

            Tagwan wasula su ne wasulan da mabambanta wasula biyu ke haɗuwa wuri guda domin samar da wasali ɗaya. Wajen furta waɗannan wasula, akan samu siga biyu, wato ana farawa da wata siga a ƙare da wata siga. Tagwan wasula sun haɗa da:

[ai]      misali             aiki

[au]                           ƙauye

[ui]                           guiwa (Sani, 2015:19- 20)

1.3 Hanyoyin Gudanar Da Bincike

           Aiki kan shafe wasali a Hausa nazari ne da ya wakana ta hanyar bibiyi furucin wasu kalmomi a Hausa tare da auna furucinsu a baka, da kuma ganin irin yadda ake furta su. An yi amfani da haɗe  kalmomi guda biyu wuri ɗaya, hakan sai ya sabbaba shafe waslin ƙarshen kalmar, ko kuma ta hanyar taƙaita wata kalma; hakan sai ya janyo shafe wasalin ƙarshe na kalmar. Misali: /#kwaana#/, sai aka shafe wasalin /a/, ya koma [kwan], wato ‘ya kwan lafiya’, ko kuma /#zaa + ni#/ sai ya koma [zan] yayin da aka haɗe su. Haka zalika, ana shafe wasalin tsakiya a kalma wanda hakan sai ya mayar da kalma mai gaɓa uku zuwa gaɓa biyu, misali /wuridii/ sai a shafe wasalin tsakiya /i/, sai ya koma [wurdii].

2.0       Shafe Wasali a Kalmomin Hausa

            Kamar yadda ya gabata, an yi tsokaci a kan wasali da kuma bayyana wasulan Hausa. A nan kuwa, za mu yi bayani a kan shafe wasali, ta hanyar bayyana ma'anar shafe wasali.

2.1       Ma’anar Shafe Wasali

            Abubakar (2013:1) ya ce, shafewa tana ɗaya daga cikin dokokin tsarin sauti muhimmai guda huɗu, baya ga naso da saƙalawa da kuma rawar yan mata.

            Idan muka yi la’akari da bayanin Abubakar (2013) game da shafewa a Hausa, za mu tarar cewa ana iya samun shafe wasali a ƙarshen kalma ko ƙwayar ma’ana a tsakiya da kuma farkonta. (Maikanti, da Ago, 2018: 73)

          Ta fuskar bayyana ma'anar shafe wasali kuwa, Abiodun (2007) a cikin Allison (2017: 20) ya bayyana shafe wasali da cewa, “Hanya ce da take haifar da ɓacewar sauti, wanda kan iya zama wasali ko baƙi ko ma a matakin maraka yanki”.

            Sani, (1999: 40) cewa ya yi, “Shafe wasali akasi ne na saƙala wasali. Abin da ake nufi takamaimai shi ne cire wasali daga kalma don taƙaita lafazi”. A wajen ƙarin bayani, Maikanti da Ago (2018: 72) sun bayyana cewa yin haka ba ya kawo sauyi ko bambancin ma’ana ga kalmar da aka shafe wani ɓangare nata.

2.2       Shafe Wasali A Tsakiyar Kalma

            Wannan yanayi na shafe wasalin tsakiyar kalma a Hausa ya shafi akasarin kalmomin da ake fara rubuta su da wasali ne. Wannan nau’i na shafe wasali ya taƙaita ne ga wasu kalmomin suna da na aikatau a Hausa, waɗanda za a gani kamar haka.

i.          Shafewa A Suna

            Abubakar (2013) ya yi bayani cewa Bergary (1934) da Wolf (1992) sun yi nuni da cewa ana samun wasu kalmomi na Hausa waɗanda ake shafe wasalin /u/ ko /i/ da ke zuwa bayan baƙin hamza /?/. Dubi waɗannan misalai:           

Ƙirar Ɓoye                Lafazi                         Ƙirar Sarari               Ingilishi

a.         /?ingiritʃii/                /?ŋgyiritʃii/              ingirici                        hay

b.         /?ungulu/                /?ŋgwulu/                ungulu                       ɓulture

c.         /wuridii/                  /wurdii/                   wuridi                        prayer

            Idan aka yi la’akari da misalan nan za a ga cewa wasalin /i/ aka shafe a kalmar /?ingiritʃii/ wanda ya zo a gaɓar farko. A misali na biyu kuwa, wasalin /u/ na gaɓar farko aka shafe, a yayin da har-ila-yau aka shafe wasalin /i/ na gaɓa ta biyu da ke kalmar /wuridii/, sai ta koma [wurdii] (Maikanti, Ago, 2018:75).

 

2.3       Shafe Wasali A Ƙarshen Kalma

            Kalmomin da ake iya shafe wasalinsu a gaɓar ƙarshe sun haɗa da kalmomin suna masu gaɓa biyu da masu gaɓa uku kamar haka:

i.          Suna Mai Gaɓa Biyu

Ƙirar Ɓoye                Lafazi                         Ƙirar Sarari               Ingilishi

a.         /#káajìi#/                 [kaj]                            kâi                               head

b.         /#ƙóojìi#/                [ƙwoj]~[ƙwaj]  ƙwâi                            egg

c.         /#mâajìi#/               [maj]                           mâi                             oil

d.         /#ráajìi#/                 [raj]                             râi                               life

e.         /#sáawùu#/            [saw]                           sâu                              leg

            Idan aka dubu misali na ɗaya za a ga cewa gaɓar farko ta kalmar /#káajìi# tana ɗauke da tsarin gaɓa na baƙi da dogon wasali mai karin sautin sama (S), gaɓa ta biyu kuwa tana ɗauke da kinin wasali /j/ da kuma dogon wasalin /ii/ mai karin sauti ƙasa (K). Shafe wannan wasali na /ii/ aka yi aka kuma jingina kinin wasalin tare da karin sauti ƙasa jikin gaɓar farko. Hakan ya sa aka sami tsarin gaɓa na baƙi da wasali da kuma wannan kinin wasalin. Kasancewar a Hausa ba a samun dogon wasali a rufaffiyar gaɓa, sai wannan wasalin ya gajarce, karin sautin wasalin da aka shafe kuma ya haɗe da na gaɓar farko sai aka sami karin sauti faɗau wanda hakan ya sa aka sami kalmar [kâj]. Haka lamarin yake ga sauran misalai na ƙasa kamar haka:

ii.         Suna Mai Gaɓa Uku

Ƙirar Ɓoye                Lafazi                         Ƙirar                           Sarari

a.         /#ƙájƙájii#/              [ƙájƙaj]                        ƙaiƙai                          chaff

b.         /#táwsájii#/            [táwsaj]                      tausai              mercy

c.         /sáwsájii#/              [sáwsaj]                      tsautsai                      accident

            Misali na farko yana bayyana cewa kalmomin suna masu gaɓa uku-uku suna ɗauke da tsarin gaɓa na BWB.BW.BWW tare da karin sauti Ƙ-Ƙ-S. A sakamakon shafe wasalin ƙarshe na ƙarshen gaɓa, sai aka sami kalmomin suka koma masu gaɓa bibbiyu kuma kowace gaɓa ta tashi a matsayinta na buɗaɗɗiya inda ta koma rufaffiyar gaɓa.

            Har-ila-yau, akan sami wasu kalmomi waɗanda gaɓoɓinsu na ƙarshe ba kinin wasalin /j/ ba ne amma kuma ana shafe shi (wasalin ƙarshe) don samun sauƙin lafazi. Za a iya kallon waɗannan kalmomin na ƙasa da aka ɗauko daga Abubakar (2013) a matsayin misalai kamar haka:

Ƙirar Ɓoye                Lafazi                         Ƙirar Sarari               Ingilishi

a.         /#duká#/                 [duk]~[duw] ~[du]: duk/du          all    

b.         /#ganìi#/                 [gaŋ]                           gaŋ              saw/seen something

c.         /#ƙasá#/                  [ƙas]~[ƙar]                 ƙas                  ground/down

d.         /#sanìi#/                  [saŋ]                            saŋ    knew/knowing something

e.         /#tùkùnna#/                       [tùkwuŋ]                     tukuŋ             yet

f.          /#wanzaamii#/       [wanzam]                   wanzan          berber.

Idan aka yi la’akari da misali na farko da na biyu za a fahimci cewa an sami lafuza mabambanta sakamakon shafe wasulansu na ƙarshe, amma duk da haka, ba a sami sauyin ma’anar kalmomin ba. Bambancin lafazin da ake iya samu kuma ba zai rasa nasaba da karin harshe da ake da su a Hausa ba.

            Baya ga shafe wasali a kalmomin suna na Hausa, akwai kuma shafe wasali a wasu kalmomi na aikatau. Newman (2000: 667) ya sami goyon bayan Abubakar (2013) wajen nuna cewa akwai wasu aikatau na Hausa guda goma da ake shafe wasulansu na ƙarshe ba tare da an sami sauyin ma’ana ba. Kalmomin kuwa su ne kamar haka:

            Ƙirar Ɓoye                Lafazi                         Ƙirar Sarari               Ingilishi  

a.         /#ɗaráa#/                 [ɗar]                            ɗar                   eɗceed slightly     

b.         /#ɗawká:#/              [ɗaw]                          ɗau                              lift

c.         /#Φaaɗáa#/             [Φar]                           far                         fall on/attack 

d.         /#kárajá#/               [karaj]             karai                           lose hope 

e.         /#kaʃѐe#/                 [kas]                            kas                              kill 

f.          /#kwaana#/            [kwáŋ]                        kwan              spend the night

g.         /#sakáa#/                [saw]</sak/7                        sau                              release

h.         /#saamáa#/             [sam]                          sam                 get/giɓe a little

i.          /#sajaa#/                 [saj]                             sai                               buy

j.          /#zamaa#/               [zam]                          zam                             become.

            Baya ga misali na huɗu duk sauran suna ɗauke da gaɓa bibbiyu ne, a yayin da misali na biyar kuwa kore ganɗantawa aka yi wato inda sautin /ʃ/ ya koma [s] a sakamakon shafe wasalin /ee/, yanayin da ya haifar a misali na shida ya sami sauyi bahanƙe /n/ zuwa bahanɗe /ŋ/.

            Bugu da ƙari, ana samun shafe wasalin ƙarshe na wakilin suna na ɗaya tilo {ni} da kuma na uku tilo {ya}. Wannan lamari yana faruwa ne a matakin gamayyar tasrifi da ginin jimla, kamar yadda za a gani a misali na gaba.

            Ƙirar Ɓoye                Lafazi                         Ƙirar Sarari               Ingilishi

a.         /#záa + ni#/            [zâŋ]                           zan                              I will  

b.         /#záa + ya#/                        [zâj]                             zai                               he will

c.       /#báa + ni#/            [bân]                      ban                          giɓe me

            Misali na farko na nuni da cewa misalin /i/ na wakilin suna ‘ni’ akan shafe bayan da aka haɗe shi da manunin lokaci mai zuwa na ɗaya (1st ms) ‘záa’ yanayin da ya haifar da sauyawar bahanɗe /n/ zuwa bahanɗe [ŋ]. A misali na gaba kuwa, wasalin /a/ na wakilin suna na mutun na uku tilo ne akan shafe. Wani abin la’akari a nan shi ne, shafewar da aka yi na dole ne musamman idan ana magana a kan daidaitacciyar Hausa.

            Har-ila-yau kuma, ana samun shafe wasalin /i/ na wakilin suna na ɗaya “ni”, musamman lokacin da ya zo tare da jakada “ma”, kamar yadda za a gani a misali na gaba.

            Ƙirar Ɓoye                Lafazi                         Ƙirar Sarari               Ingilishi

a.         /#ma+ni#/               [miŋ]                           min                             to me

b.         /#ma+sa#/              [mar]/[mas]              mar/mas                   to/for him.

            Abin lura a misali na farko shi ne, bayan da aka haɗa kalmomin biyu, sai aka sami cikakken naso da kuma shafe wasali. A misali na biyu kuwa, bayan haɗe kalmomin biyu wuri guda, shafe wasalin /a/ kaɗai aka yi. Za a iya ganin yadda buɗaɗɗiyar gaɓa ta koma rufaffiya sakamakon haɗe kalmomin biyu da kuma shafe wasalin ƙarshe. Mu dubi waɗannan jumloli da ke biye a misali na gaba.

                        A                                                         B

a.         Yaa cirѐe miŋ                                     Yaa cirѐe mani

b.         Yaa buuɗѐe mas                                            Ya buuɗѐe masa.

            Jumlolin da ke ɓangare na A ba su da wani bambanci dangane da ma’ana idan aka kwatanta su da na ɓangaren B, in ban da shafe wasali da aka samu a tsakaninsu. Idan ma har akwai wani tasiri, to bai zai wuce samun sauƙi wajen lafazi ba.

3.0 Abin Da Bincike Ya Gano

           Wannan bincike ya gano yadda aka samar da wasu cikin kalmomin da aka shafe wa wasali a harshen Hausa. Binciken, ya yi nutso cikin kalmomin Hausa da kwatanta su a furuci, sannan ya tabbatar da lalle akwai kalmomin da ake shafe wa wasali kamar a sauran wasu harsuna irin Ingilishi, Yoroba da harshen Úwù. An binciken, an gano yadda ake bi wajen shafe waɗannan wasula, da kuma irin muhallan da waɗannan wasula suke, da kuma yadda shafe wasalin ke taƙaita tsayin kalma. Wasulan da binciken ya gano an fi shafe wa su ne /i/ da /a/, duk da kasancewar sauran wasulan ma akan shafe su idan buƙatar hakan ta taso.

4.0       Kammalawa

            Kamar yadda ya gabata a wannan nazari, an bayyana ma’anar wasali tare da jero wasulan Hausa gaba ɗaya. A takardar, an bayyana ma’anar shafe wasali bisa fahimtar masana, sannan aka kawo bayani a game da shafe wasula. A cikin takardar, an kawo ayyukan da suka gabata daga masana a harsuna mabambanta game da shafe wasali, misalign harshen Ingilishi, Uwu da Yoroba. Wannan takarda ta taƙaita bayani a kan yadda ake shafe wasula a kalmomin Hausa inda aka kawo kalmomi mabambanta kuma aka shafe wasulansu.

Manazarta

Tuntuɓi masu takarda.