M.A. Thesis Submitted to the Department of Linguistics and Foreign Languages, Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies, Bayero University Kano, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of Master of Arts Linguistics.

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Hausa And Yorùbá Numerical Systems: A Morphological Productivity Approach 

ABDULLAHI BASHIR
Phone No.: 08036481158
Email: abdulbakori2@gmail.com

 

DEDICATION

This research work is dedicated to my loving parent, late Malam Bashir Muhammad Bakori and Hajiya Zainab Bashir Musa Dageji who nurtured me to my present level in life. May Allah (SWT) reward them abundantly and give me the ability to make them happier. Ameen.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 Praise be to Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful Who teaches man what he knows not. Thank be to Him once again for guiding and providing me with the intellectual ability and zeal to attain this academic level.

 Peace and blessings be upon to His beloved Messenger (Muhammad S.A.W.), his relatives and descendants.

 This research work can only be complete by expressing my gratitude and appreciation to all those who directly or indirectly assisted in making it a success.

 First and foremost, my profound gratitude goes to my supervisor, Prof. Garba Kawu Daudu for carefully and patiently reading through the work, offering all necessary corrections in order to produce a qualitative work. My sincere appreciation also goes to my first supervisor, Prof. Hafizu Miko Yakasai for his keen attention and advice especially at the proposal level.

 My humble gratitude goes to my all lecturers in the Department, particularly Professor Mukhtar Abdulqadir Yusuf (HOD), Prof. Bello Ahmad Salim, Prof. Dauda Bagari, Prof. Lawan Xanladi Yalwa, Prof. Bashir Sambo, Prof. Andrew Haruna, Prof. Aliyu Musa, Dr. Ummul-khairi Aminu Xantata, Dr. Isa Yusuf Chamo, Dr. Tijjani Shehu Almajir, Mal. Yahaya M. Ahmed, Mal. Isah M. Inuwa, Mal. Tahir Abba, Malama Maimuna Isma’il and Malama Zahra’u Ibrahim Waya.

 I cannot forget the huge contribution of Dr. Sulaiman Aliyu Hamisu of Federal College of Education Abeokuta, and Usman A. Raji a graduate from the Department of English & Literary Studies, Bayero University Kano (BUK).

 It is my great pleasure to acknowledge the valuable contribution of my course mates particularly, Ali Usman Umar, Abdurrasheed Abubakar, Usman Abubakar Bakori, Abdulwahab Salisu Nagoda, Aminu Aliyu, Musbahu Ahmad, Nura Ibrahim Bagwanje, Nura Aliyu Haruna, Junaidu Na-ma’aji, Ayuba Sabo, Hassan Sabo, Sabitu M. Jinjiri, Salihu Adamu Aliyu, Sulaiman M. Sulaiman, Shagari Ali, Gambo Idris Abubakar, Muhammad Salihu Jouro, Baraka Muhammad, Binta Bala, Mary Patricia Ukamaka Ihuarulam, Nnokingi Alice Ampa, Sadiya Yusuf, Nafisa Nasir, Zainab M. Shahada and Zainab Yaro Usman. Mal. Jamilu (Secretary), Mal. Xanjuma and Mahadi. Indeed, my special thanks go to Aminu Babajo Bauchi, Fatima Ahmad Magaji, Hajiya Hauwa Sa’idu Zamfara, all of the Department of Nigerian Languages, Bayero University Kano.

Finally, I wish to acknowledge my thanks and support from my brothers; Bello Bishir Bakori a Postgraduate student in the department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) Zaria, Usman Bashir Bakori a graduate from the Department of Science &Technical Education, BUK and Musa Bishir ‘Yar Shehu a Lecturer in the Department of Microbiology, ABU, Zaria.

Lastly, my utmost appreciation goes to my wife, Gimbiya Zikratu Aminu Duduni, and my daughter Nana Asma’u Abdullahi Bashir (Husna) for exercising patience during this programme. May Allah (SWT) reward everybody with plenitude of blessing for the assistance rendered during the period of my study.

 

ABSTRACT

 

This work discusses the morphological productivity of Hausa and Yorùbá numerals based on word-based morphology theory where some morphological processes such as clipping, blending, compounding and reduplication were analyzed. The numerical system here is a product of interplay of morphological and phonological processes that are employed to derive various numerical entities of different quantities and magnitudes. Lexical items which represent the base numbers are characterized by various possible combinations to the cardinal numerical resources in order to build up an increasing system of counting by means of productive mechanism. The Word-Formation Rules here perform a unique operation on the word base to produce a new word where both the new word and the base share a morphological and semantic relationship. Observation technique is used in the process of data collection. The result of the analysis shows that the numeral in the Yorùbá language requires some arithmetic in a way that stimulates intelligence unlike Hausa which does not. Also Hausa has traditional and modern counting system while Yorùbá has many structures of counting.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

PAGE

Title page……..i

Approval page …............ii

Dedication…….iii

Declaration……iv

Acknowledgments……….v - vii

Abstract………viii

Table of content………...ix - xii

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction.1

1.1 The Hausa Language….1 - 2

1.2 The Yoruba Language...3 - 4

1.3 Background of the Study………5

1.4 Statement of the Problem………..5 - 6

1.5 Research Questions…................6

1.6 Aim and Objectives………...........6 - 7

1.7 The Significance of the Study….7

1.8 The Scope and Limitation of the Study….8

1.9 The Numeral System….8 - 9

1.10 Types of Numeral System……9

1.10.1 Ordinal Numerals...10

1.10.1.1 Ordinal Numerals in English………..10

1.10.1.2 Ordinal Numerals in Hausa10 - 11

1.10.1.3 Ordinal Numerals in Yoruba……...11

1.10.2 Cardinal Numerals…….......11 - 12

1.10.2.1 Simple Cardinals………...12 - 15

1.10.2.2 Complex Cardinals……….15 - 16

1.10.3 Distributive Numerals……16 - 19

1.11 Conclusion……….19

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction……..20

2.1 The Morphological Processes……….....20 - 21

2.1.1 Compounding Process……....21 - 23

2.1.2 Clipping Process....23 - 26

2.1.3 Blending Process……….....27

2.1.4 Reduplication Process...…..28 - 30

2.2 Morphological Productivity30 - 32

2.3 The Numeral System of Some Languages……..32

2.3.1 The Polish Numeral System32 - 34

2.3.2 The Fulfulde Numeral System………34 - 35

2.3.3 The Igala Numeral System36 - 37

2.3.4 The Tiv Numeral System…37 - 38

2.3.5 The Nupe Numeral System38 - 40

2.4 Summary………..41 - 43

2.5 Conclusion……...43 - 44

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

3.0 Introduction…….45

3.1 Methodology……45

3.1.1 Source of Data..45 - 46

3.1.2 Data Collection Procedure………...46

3.1.3 Method of Data Analysis.46

3.2 Theoretical Framework……46 - 48

3.3 Conclusion………48

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction……..49

4.1 The Hausa Numeral System49 - 54

4.2 The Morphological Productivity of Hausa Numerals…......54 – 59

4.3 The Yoruba Numeral System………..60 - 63

4.4 The Morphological Productivity of Yoruba Numerals…..63 - 69

4.5 Findings. 69 - 70

4.6 Conclusion……....70 - 71

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.0 Introduction……....72

5.1 Summary……….....72 - 73

5.2 Conclusion………...73 - 74

5 .3 Recommendations……….....74

 References………..75 - 85

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