Takarda Wadda Aka Gabatar A Taron Ƙara Wa Juna Sani Na Ƙasa, Wanda Tsangayar Harsuna ta Kwalejin Shari’a da Ilimin Addinin Musulunci Da ke Ƙaramar Hukumar Nguru, Jihar Yobe ta Shirya, Daga Ranar 5 zuwa 7 ga Watan Fabrairu, 2020

hausa

Harshen Hausa A Makarantun Firamare: Matattakala Zuwa Ga Koyar Da Shi Cikin Sauƙi

Ibrahim Baba (Ibrahim Garba Nayaya)

M.A Hausa (Literature) Student, Department of Nigerian Languages and Linguistics, Bauchi State University, Gaɗau.

07066366586, 08125351694

ibrahimba182@gmail.com

 

Da

 

Abubakar Umar Akuyam

Goɓernment Comprehensiɓe Day Secondary School, Misau

08039093730

auakmisau@gmail.com

 

Da

 

Babayo Aliyu

Government Comprehensive Day Secondary School School, Misau.

07039231211

baliyumisau@gmail.com

 

 

Tsakure

Harshen Hausa na daga cikin harsunan da ake koyar da su tun daga matakin karatu na farko, wato firamare; kafin daga baya a samu ɓangaren reno (nursery), wanda a yanzu shi ne matakin karatu na farko kafin firamare ɗin. Tun daga makarantun firamare ake fara koyar da ɗalibai Hausa, wato daga aji ɗaya har zuwa aji shida. A wannan takarda, an yi nazarin yadda ya kamata a koyar da Hausa cikin sauƙi da tsari mai kyau domin a samu nasara. Nazarin ya wakana ta hanyar bibiyar makarantun firamare da tsare-tsaren koyar da Hausa da duba zuwa ga manhaja da littattafan da ake koyarwa a firamare ɗin.

1.0 Gabatarwa

             Babu shakka harshen Hausa harshe ne mai matuƙar sauƙin mu’amala, amma mai sarƙaƙiya da wahala wajen koyo, harshe ne da aka yarda a koyar da shi a makarantu tun daga matakin firamare har zuwa ƙarshen mataki a karatu. Ana koyar da harshen Hausa a makarantun firamare bisa wani tsari da ƙa’ida; musamman ta hanyar la’akari da bambance-bambancen ɗalibai a matakansu na azuzuwa manya da ƙanana.

1.1 Makarantun Firamare

              Makarantu jam’i ne na makaranta, ita kuwa makaranta na nufin wurin da ake koyon ilimi, (C.N.H.N, 2006:322). Firamare kuwa, kalma ce ta Turanci wadda Hausawa ke amfani da ita a yadda suka same ta, wato matakin farko a tsarin makarantun Boko. Merriam –Webster, ta haɗe waɗannan kalmomi biyu, sai ta bayyana su a dunƙule da cewa, “Primary scholl is a school usually including the first three (3) grades of elementary school, but sometimes also including kindergarten”. Kafar yaɗa bayanai ta WikiPedia kuwa ta bayyana makarantar firamare da cewa, “A primary school, junior school (in U.K), elementary school or grades school (in U.S and Canada) is a school for children from about four to eleɓen years old, in which they receiɓe primary or elementary education. It can refer to both the physical structure (buildings) and the organization. Typically it comes after preschool, and before secondary school”.

1.2 Tarihin Samuwar Makarantun Boko A Ƙaramar Hukumar Nguru

              Zainab (2018:184-186) ta tattaro tarihin kafa makarantun boko ta hanyar hakaito maganganun Graham (1966:64), Yahaya (1988:84), Malumfashi (2009:6) da Yusuf (2012), inda ta bayyana makarantar farko da aka buɗe ita ce ya ‘yan Mishan a shekarar 1900 a Lakwaja da Wusasa da ke Zariya, waɗanda aka buɗe bayan gyare-gyare da aka yi waɗanda suka dace da al’ummar Hausawa, kuma aka ɗora alhakin jan ragamar ga Sir. Hans Ɓischer, musamman la’akari da aka yi bisa ziyarar da ya kai ƙasashen Misira, Sudan da Gwalkwas domin samo hanyoyin da za a ɗora Jihar Arewa a kai. Makarantar Gwamnati ta farko kuwa, an buɗe ta a shekarar 1910, a Nasarawa da ke wajen Birnin Kano, amma kafin wannan sai da aka buɗe makarantar horas da malamai a shekarar 1909 a Kano. Sannan an rawaito cewa, Manjo Burdon ya kafa tasa makarantar ta Elementary a Sakkwato a shekarar 1905.

2.0 Ma’anar Koyarwa

              Masana sun yi ƙoƙari wajen bayyana ma’anar koyarwa, amma yawancin ma’anonin da suka bayar saƙon yana komawa kan abu guda ne. Misali, Zarruƙ (1979:1) ya bayyana ma’anar koyarwa da cewa, “Hulɗa tsakanin mutum da mutum. Kuma ana yin hulɗar ne don a kawo canje-canje cikin abin da mutum ya sani, ko wanda ya yarda da shi. Hulɗa dai ita ce zuciyar aikin, canjin halayen mutum kuwa shi ne manufarsa. Sannan kowa ya san ba a hulɗa sai da mutane; watau aƙalla sai an sami mutum biyu sun sadu da juna tukuna”.

           Adeyeni (1985) a cikin Gambo (1998:3), ya ce, “Koyarwa wata tsararriyar hanya ce da malami ke bi wajen gwada wa ɗalibai abubuwan da ba su sani ba su koya su kuma yi amfani da shi a rayuwarsu ta yau da kullum”.

           Idan muka kalli waɗannan ma’anoni guda biyu, za mu ga aikin koyarwa shi ne aikin nuni ko gyara tsakanin mutane wanda ke farawa daga mutum biyu, wato mai koyo da mai koyarwa, har zuwa adadin mutanen da aka tsara za a koyarwa ko za a iya sanya su a gaba domin a koyar musu da dukkanin hanyoyin da suka dace da al’ada da ɗabi’a ta yanayin al’ummar da ke wurin kuma ba ta ci karo da yanayin al’adu da ɗabi’unsu ba, ko kuma amintaccen tsarin da zamani ya kawo.

2.1 Taƙaitaccen Tarihin Koyarwa

           Gambo (1998:5), ya hakaito tarihin koyarwa tun daga tushen haihuwa da kuma bayanin Martin (1986). Amma game da koyarwa a tsarin makaranta, ya hakaito maganar Encyclopedia Americana cewa, koyarwa a ƙasar Rumawa aka fara, wanda wani yardajjen Bawa a wurin su mai suna Sophist suka haɗa masa ‘ya’yansu domin ya koyar da su karatu da kuma taimaka musu da su iya riƙe abin da aka koya musu, sannan yana taimaka musu wajen gyara maganganunsu da horas da su zuwa ga kyawawan ɗabi’u da halaye nagari, wanda wannan ta sanya suka ambace shi a matsayin ƙwararren malamin duniya a ƙarshen ƙarni na biyar.

           Bayan wannan Bawa, sai aka samu wani malami mai suna Socrates, amma shi ya fitar da nasa tsarin koyarwar wanda ake kira ‘Tambaya da nazari’ (Ƙuestioner and analysis), daga bisani suka kira wannan tsari da ‘Dabarar koyarwar Socrates’ (Socrates Methodology). Haka abin ya ci gaba, har ya kai ga suna koyar da ‘ya’yansu a cikin gida, daga bisani Girkawa suka cusa masa ra’ayin kafa makarantu, aka gina su ake kiransu da ‘Ludu’ da kuma ‘Elimentari’, wato Elementary School a Turance. Waɗannan makarantu an gina su ana koyar da yaƙi da rashin ɗa’a da ɗabi’u, har zuwa lokacin da aka ci gaba da gina makarantu irin su Grammar School, wato Makarantar Nahawu, Rhetaric School, wato Makarantar Fasaha/Balaga wanda suke koyar da Adabin Latin da na Girkanci.       

2.2 Koyar Da Hausa A Makarantun Firamare A Jiya Da Yau

           Harshen Hausa na daga cikin harsunan da aka koyar wa yara a makarantun firamare, harshen ana koyar das hi ne bisa tsarin da manhaja ta tsara da kuma bin ƙa’idojin da aka gindaya ta hanyar bibiyar littattafan da ake koyarwa. Ana fara koyar wa ɗalibai harufan Hausa, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, R, S, T, U, W, Y, Z. Bayan sun koya, sai a ware musu wasulan Hausa, wato /a/, /i/, /o/, /u/, /e/ har sai sun koye su, sun iya bambance su, sannan a shiga koyar da su baƙaƙen Hausa, wato B, C, D, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, R, S, T, W, Y, Z. Haka abin zai ci gaba har zuwa koyar da su matashiya ga gina kalma, wato Ba, Bi, Bo, Bu, Be har zuwa ƙarshe.

           A tsarin koyar da Hausa, akan yi amfani da littattafan Mu Fara Karatu, Ka Koyi Karatu, Mu Koyi Karatu, Ka Yi Ta Karatu, Koyon Karatu. Sannan akwai litattafan koyar da sana’o’i da dabarun zaman duniya da wasu al’adu da sauran darusan rayuwa da ake koyarwa, cikin su akwai: Ƙaramin Sani Ƙuƙumi Ne, Jatau Na Kyallu, Bala Da Babiya, Zaman Mutun Da Sana’arsa, Uwar Gulma, Zaman Turawa A Nijeriya, Magana Jari Ce, Tabarmar Kunya,  Nagari Na Kowa da sauransu. Waɗannan littattafai da aka bayyana, ana koyar da su ne dubi da bambance-bambancen azuzuwansu, wato daga wani aji zuwa wani aji, idan an gama da wannan littafi sai a shiga wannan bisa yadda manhaja ta tsara.

3.0 Matattakala Zuwa Ga Koyar Da Harshen Hausa A Makarantun Firamare

                                            Ita Hausar nan akwai sauƙi,

                                            Lamarin koyo akwai zaƙi,

                                            Naƙalin harshen akwai shauƙi,

                                            Muddin ka iya ka zam zaki,

                                                   Ba dai a nufe ka don kyara.

                                            Ya kai masani uban nazari,

                                            Riƙi koyarwa da kyan ƙuduri,

                                            Ka bi manhaja cikar tsari,

                                            Ka haɗu ka haɗar ka ƙona gari,

                                                     Ƙunar ilimi muke ta bara.

                                            Sa ‘yan yara aji ka sani,

                                            Jera su da kyau shiri na gwani,

                                            Ka faɗa su faɗa cikin rukuni,

                                            Nuna musu hotunan zamani,

                                                     Ka iyo kyauta ga masu zarra. (Baba, (Nayaya) 2018:4).

           Waɗannan baitukan da suka gabata, sun zame mana mahaskaka ga wasu muhimman matakai da za bi domin koyar da harshen Hausa cikin sauƙi. Babu shakka bin tsari zuwa ga koyarwa shi zai sanya a samu kyakkyawan sakamakon da ake so ga ɗalibai. A nan, za a bayyana hanyoyin da za a bi domin samun nasarar koyarwa cikin sauƙi.                                   

3.1 Samar Da Ƙwararrun Malaman Hausa

           Abu na farko da ya kamata a samu su ne ƙwararrun malamai, wato ya kasance malaman da za su koyar a kowane mataki na firamare sun san abin da za su koyar, sun koya koyo na haƙiƙa, kuma sun sani. Sannan mafi ƙaranta kan abin da ya kamata malamin da zai koyar da Hausa ya kai a matakin karatu; shi ne N.C.E, wato kada a bar malami ya koyar matuƙar bai kai wannan mataki ba, koda kuwa ya iya karanta Hausa da rubuta ta, domin ba a nan gizo ke saƙar ba.

           Ƙwararren malami ne ya san yadda zai mu’amalanci ɗaliban da yake koyarwa tare da jinjina musu ko yi musu kyauta a yayin da suka yi abin a yaba musu. Ƙwararren malami ne mai gane iyawar ɗalibansa ko rashin iyawarsu, fahimtarsu ga darasi ko rashin fahimtarsu.           

3.2 Samar Da Manhaja Ta Zamani

           Manhaja ce madubin koyar da kowane darasi a kowane mataki na karatu. Ke nan, wajibi ne wanda zai koyar da Hausa ya kasance ya samu manhajar Hausa, kuma ya rinƙa bin ta sau da ƙafa. Manhaja ita ce take nuni zuwa ga dukkanin abin  da malami zai koyar daga sati zuwa sati, daga zango zuwa zango, daga wannan aji zuwa wannan aji. Ke nan dole ne bibiyarta a yayin da za a koyar, a rinƙa ɗabbaƙa dukkanin abin da ta yi nuni zuwa gare shi.                         

3.3 Samar Da Takardun Da Suka Dace Da Zamani

           Bayan an samar da manhaja, to ita za ta yi ishara zuwa ga ire-iren littattafan da za a koyar a kowane mataki na aji. Sai dai a nan, wajibi ne a rinƙa yin surki da wasu takardu na zamani musamman a sanya su a cikin manhaja. Haka kuwa, daidaita lafuzan Hausar da ke cikin littattafan abu ne mai matuƙar muhimmanci, domin tan an zai zama jagora ga yaran wannan zamani, musamman idan aka yi la’akari da sauye-sauyen kalmomi da ake samu daga wani zamani zuwa wani zamani. A wannan gaɓar, za a iya bai wa kowane yaro littafin karantawa a gabansa wanda ke ɗauke da abin da ake so ya sani, ana karantawa yana gani, a wani lokacin a nemi shi ma ya faɗa, ko kuma ana karanta masa, shi ma yana faɗa.  

3.4 Samar Da Kayan Ingiza Koyarwa

             Kayan ingiza koyarwa su ne dukkanin abin da za yi amfani da su domin su taimaka wajen koyar da ɗalibai nuna wa ɗalibai. A nan, dole ne a samar da kayan da za su taimaka wajen fahimtar darasin da ake koyarwa ga ɗalibai, wato malami ya yi amfani da wani abu wanda zai ƙara fayyace abin da ake magana a kai. Misali, idan malami yana koyar da tsafta ta muhalli, to dole ya samu tsintsiya da sauran kayan da ake amfani da su wajen gyara muhalli. Idan kuwa malami yana koyar da  kitso ne ko ire-irensa da yadda ake yinsa, to sai an nemi kayan kitso da kuma hotuna masu ɗauke da ire-iren kitso na Hausawa.           

3.5 Sanya Waƙoƙin Hikima A Tsarin Koyarwa

             Waƙa hanya ce ta isar da saƙo da koyar da karatu cikin sauƙi, wannan ta sanya malaman da suka koyar a jiya, ake fahimtar karatunsu sama da na yanzu, domin a shekarun baya, suna koyarwa ne ta hanyar waƙoƙi da kakkarya karatu yadda zai dace da tsari kamar waƙa, wannan sai ya sanya ɗalibai su koyi karatu cikin sauƙi, sannan su haddace shi ba tare da wata wahala ba.            

3.6 Samar Da Littattafan Koyon Rubutu Ga Ɗalibai

             A irin wannan zamani, rubutu kan bai wa ɗalibai wahala, domin za ka iske yaron da ya kammala sakandare ma bai iya rubuta jimla karɓaɓɓiya guda ɗaya ba. To a nan, samar da littattafan koyar da rubutu wanda ɗalibai za su rinƙa bin kan rubutun, abu ne da zai tanƙwasa hannayen ɗalibai wajen koyon rubutun, sannan zuciyarsu za ta fi sauƙi wajen haddace su.                 

3.7 La’akari Da Matakan Ɗalibai Yayin Koyarwa

             Wajibi ne ga malamin da zai koyar da Hausa ya rinƙa yin la’akari da bambance-bambancen azuzuwan ɗalibai, domin abin da zai koyar da shi a aji ɗaya; ya bambanta da na aji biyu ko uku, koda kuwa sunan batun iri ɗaya ne. Misali, ana koyar da ɗaliban aji huɗu sana’o’in Hausawa, kamar yadda ake koyar da ɗaliban aji biyar da shida. To a nan, abin da aka koyar a aji huɗu, za a ci gaba ne daga inda aka tsaya ta fuskar yawansu da kuma ta fuskar jawabi a azuzuwan gaba.                  

3.8 Nuna Wa Ɗalibai Hotuna Masu Motsi Kan Wasu Abubuwan Al’adu Ko Ayyukan Hausawa Da Aka Koyar Da Su

             Hoto abu ne da yake matuƙar ɗaukar hankalin yara; kamar yadda hoton bidiyo ma ke ɗaukar hankali. A nan, yayin da malami yake koyar da sana’o’i, tufafi, aure a ƙasar Hausa da sauransu, wajibi ne ya samu hotunan kayayyakin da ake amfani da su wajen yin sana’o’in ko kuma irin tufafin na zahiri ko kuma hotunansu a kan wani kati ko kwali domin ya nuna wa yaran abin da yake magana a kai. Har wa yau, idan yana koyar da su al’amuran da suka shafi auratayya ne, to idan akwai bidiyo, zai fi kyautuwa ya nemo kaset na hotunan bidiyon bukukuwa a ƙasar Hausa; ya kunnan musu, domin yaran su gani da idanuwansu.        

3.9 Shirya Wa Ɗalibai Taƙaitattun Wasan Kwaikwayo

             Ɗan’adam na son raha da wasanni, wannan kuwa koda manya ne ballantana yara. A duk lokacin da aka ga matakin yara ya kai na su iya riƙe abu, kuma su fito su yi a gaban jama’a, to yana da kyau a aikata hakan a aikace. A nan, shirya wa yara wasannin kwaikwayo da za su rinƙa yi a aikace a ajinsu ko a farfajiyar makaranta abu ne da zai kawo sauƙaƙa koyarwa da kuma son wannan darasi daga ɗalibai. Sannan hakan zai sanya ɗalibai su so malamin da yake wannan darasi, da kuma son darasinsa.                  

3.10 Bai Wa Ɗalibai Ayyukan Gida Da Bibiyar Ayyukan

             Yana da kyau malami ya rinƙa bai wa ɗalibai ayyukan da za su yi a gida, musamman ta fuskar koyon rubutu. Amma a nan, ba bayar da aikin ba ne kaɗai abin buƙata, bibiyar wannan aiki da yaba wa waɗanda suka yi ƙoƙari, da kuma yin horo ga waɗanda ba su yi aikin ba kwata-kwata, amma horon ba wanda zai sanya su tsani darasin ba, ko kuma su tsani malamin ba, horo wanda zai sanya gobe su yi aikin, har su rinƙa jin abin a jikinsu.                    

4.0 Kammalawa

             Kamar yadda aka gani a cikin wannan aiki, an bibiyi taƙaiccen tarihi da ma’anar makarantun firamare, sannan aka bayyana ma’anar koyarwa da taƙaitaccen tarihin koyarwa. A cikin takardar, an jero wasu matakai waɗanda aka ambace su da matattakala domin samar da sauƙi da kuma nasara a yayin koyar da harshen Hausa a firamare. Idan aka lura, takardar ta zo da taƙaitattun bayanai amma masu fa’ida wajen koyar da Hausa da kuma sauƙaƙa wa mai koyo. Wannan takarda, ana sa ran za ta zama sanyn zuciya ga malamai masu koyar da harshen Hausa a makarantun firamare, ta yadda za a ta yi musu nuni gami da wayar musu da kai kana bin da zai taimaka musu wajen koyar das u darasin cikin sauƙi.                   

Manazarta

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