Wannan muƙala mai taken Basarken Karin Magana wani yunƙuri ne na bincike akan sana’ar Sarkanci, wani batu a ɓangaren al’ada, ta hanyar yin waiwaye a cikin Karin Maganar Hausa, wani rukuni na adabin baka domin ƙyallaro irin tasirin da sana’ar ta yi a kan Karin Magana. An yi ƙoƙarin duba waɗansu Karin Maganar Hausa waɗanda suka jiɓinci sana’ar Sarkanci.

kifi

Basarken Karin Magana

DR. MUSA FADAMA GUMMI
Email: gfmusa24@gmail.com
Phone No.: 07065635983

 1.0 Gabatarwa

Sarkanci sana’a ce da ta shafi harkar ruwa musamman kamun kifi da kambaɗar dabbobin ruwa kamar kada da ayu da dorina da dai sauransu.[1] Sana’a ce da wasu Hausawa suka runguma, suke aiwatarwa a matsayin hanya ta neman abincinsu da neman abin biyan sauran buƙatu na rayuwar yau da kullum.[2] Sana’ar ta kamun kifi da dabbobin ruwa ita ake kira sarkanci, yayin da mai aiwatar da ita yau da kullum kuma ya ƙware sosai a kan ta shi ake kira Basarke.[3]

A wannan muƙala an ƙudiri niyar hango yadda sana’ar Sarkanci ta yi tasiri a kan karin maganar Hausa musamman yadda aka gina waɗansu Karin Magana bisa tafarkin sana’ar Sarkanci wadda ba domin wanzuwarta (sana’ar) ba, da Karin magana irin waɗannan ba su wanzu ba. Wato ba domin harkar Sarkanci ba, da sam ba a sami Basarken Karin Magana ba.

 

2.0 Asali da Ma’anar Kalmar Sarkanci

 Bisa asali, kalmar sarkanci ba Bahaushiya ba ce. Asalin kalmar daga ‘Sorko’ ne, wata al’umma ta daular Sanwai (Songhai). Al’ummar Sorko mutane ne da suka shahara matuƙa ga sha’anin su a kogin Kwara wanda ya ratso ƙasashe da dama na yammacin Afirka. Sana’ar su ce ta kawo wannan al’umma ta Sorko a daular Kabi. Sannu a hankali suka saje da al’ummar da suka tarar a Kabi.[4]

 Domin a Hausantar da wannan kalma ta ‘Sorko’ an yi mata kwaskwarima ta hanyar cire wasalin /o/ a gaɓar farko aka musanya shi da wasalin /a/, wataƙila domin a sami sauƙin furuci. Haka ma an yi mata ƙarin ɗafa goshi na ‘ba’ ta yadda za a sami sunan wanda ya fito daga wannan al’umma ta ‘Sorko’, kafin daga baya ma’anar ta sauya zuwa ga duk wani mai gudanar da sana’ar, aka kuma cire wasalin /o/ na ƙarshe, aka musanya shi da wasalin /e/, aka sami “Basarke”. Dangane da suna na sana’ar kuwa tushen kalmar ne na Ɗsarkɗ aka yi wa ƙarin ɗafa ƙeya na ‘nci’ aka sami kalmar ‘Sarkanci.’[5]

 Bisa ma’ana, masana sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu dangane da abin da suke ganin ake kira sarkanci. Bargery, (1933:92) a ƙamusunsa ya bayyana wanda ake kira Basarke. Daga wannan kalma ta basarke za a iya tantance ma’anar kalmar ta sarkanci. A cewarsa,

 Basarke shi ne masunci ko mai fito da kwale-kwale.[6]

 Wani sashe na wannan zance na Bargery yana da rauni domin aikin jirgi (kwalekwale) domin fito ba shi ne sarkanci ba duk da cewa akasarin Sarkawa suna amfani da jiragen ruwa a wajen aiwatar da sana’arsu. Idan Basarke shi ne masunci ko mai kamun kifi, to ke nan kalmar sarkanci na nufin sana’ar su. Wannan ma’ana tana da naƙasu domin kuwa sarkanci bai tsaya ga su ba kawai. Sarkanci, baya ga kamun kifi, ya kuma haɗa da ba da magani na iskokin ruwa, da cizo ko sukar wata dabba ta ruwa da ma sauran cututuka na ruwa. Ba wannan kaɗai ba, sarkanci ya ƙunshi ba sana’ar kamun kifi muhimmnci fiye da kowace irin sana’a, rani da damina. Tare da haka, ga kuma zancen ƙwarewa kan sana’ar.

Alkali, (1969) ya bayyana abin da yake gani ake kira sarkanci a inda yake cewa

 Tun farkon ƙarni na goma sha tara (19) kalmar sarkanci ta ɗauki

 ma’anar ƙwarewa kan sana’ar su, don haka duk Bakaben da ke

 yin wannan sana’a ake kiransa Basarke.[7]

 Wannan ma’ana da Alkali ya kawo ta yi daidai don kuwa ba kowane masunci ne ake kira Basarke ba. Basarke masunci ne ƙwararre, wanda ba ya da wata sana’a da ta shige ta su, rani da damina. Irin wannan masunci ne za a tarar yana iya sarrafa ruwa da ma halittun da ke cikinsa ta duk yadda yake so. Ta fuskar ba da magani kuwa, Basarke ba kanwar lasa ba ne.

Da wannan, ana iya cewa sarkanci kalma ce da ke nufin sana’ar kamun kifi da kambaɗar dabbobin ruwa da duk abubuwan da ke tafiyar da ita kamar ƙwarewa a kanta da iya sarrafa ruwa da halittun cikinsa da kuma ba da taimako na cututukan da ake samu a ruwa da ma ba da taimako dangane da haɗurra da ake iya samu a ruwa.

 

3.0 Ma’anar Karin Magana

Karin magana wani muhimmin ɓangare ne na adabin baka. Saboda muhimmancin da wannan babban rukuni na adabin baka yake da shi, masana da dama sun yi tsokaci daban-daban dangane da abin da suke gani ake kira Karin Magana. Ba nufina binciken adabi ba, amma abin da nake son in fitar sai an ratsi adabi za a iya tantance shi. Don haka, dole sai an gama da lalube, kurma ya auri makauniya.

A nasa ra’ayi, Furniss (1960:70) cewa ya yi Karin Magana tana nufin “wani ɓoyayyen zance, ɓoyayye a nan shi ne zance mai ɗauke da bayani amma a ɓoye shi cikin lugga da hikima.”[8]

Ra’ayin Yunusa, (1960:70) ya zo daidai da na Furniss domin kuwa shi ma cewa ya yi Karin Magana Hausa ce a dunƙule .[9]

Ita kuwa Koko, (1989) ruwayar Nahuce, (2008:32) cewa ta yi Karin Magana “Magana ce gajera amma da bayani mai tsawo.[10]

Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero C.N.H.N. (2006) cewa ya yi Karin Magana magana ce ta musamman wadda sai an yi tsokaci ake ganewa.” [11]

A ganin Ɗanyaya, (2007) Karin Magana zance ne gajere mai faɗakarwa kan zaman duniya.” [12]

A tawa fahimta gani nake cewa Karin Magana zance ne gajere na hikima da jama’a kan furta a maganganunsu na yau da kullum, wanda idan za a bayyana ma’anarsa za a ga ma’anar tana da tsawon gaske da yalwa sosai dangane da kalmomin da za su fayyace ta.

4.0 Baubawan Burmi.

 Baubawan burmi na nufin gamin bauta, wato saka abubuwa biyu ko fiye masu saɓani, ko bambanci a wuri ɗaya, a gwama su tare. Ɗangambo, (1989)[13] shi ya fara irin wannan hasashen. Yahya, (1994: 162)[14] ya kira lamarin ‘salon kwaɓi’. A nan gwama kalmomin Basarke da kuma Karin Magana, gamin bauta ne domin sarkanci abu ne da ya shafi sana’a ta gargajiya wadda kan kasance sha’ani na al’da, yayin da Karin Magana abu ne da ya shafi hikima ta harshe wadda ake yi a baka don haka ta shafi adabi. Dalilin gwama waɗannan abubuwa wuri ɗaya ba ya rasa nasaba da cewa ɗaya daga cikinsu zai iya yin tasiri a kan ɗayan. Adabi madubi ne na rayuwar al’umma.[15] Karin Magana kuwa wani muhimmin ɓangare ne na adabin baka.[16] Da yake adabi kan ƙunshi kowane lamari na rayuwar al’umma,[17] ba abin mamaki ba ne a tarar da cewa Sarkanci, ɗaya daga cikin manyan sana’o’in gargajiya na Hausawa ya yi naso sosai a cikin Karin Magana ta Hausa, ta yadda ana samun Karin Magana masu dama waɗanda ƙumshiyar zancensu gaba ɗaya ta shafi harkar Sarkanci ne. Wannan dalili ne ya sanya wannan muƙala ta kira su Basarken Karin Magana. Irin waɗannan Karin Magana, waɗanda mataninsu gaba ɗaya ya shafi sana’ar Sarkanci ba za su wanzu ba a cikin maganganun hikima na Hausawa, da a ce gaba ɗaya babu sana’ar Sarkanci a ƙasar Hausa. Wato ma’ana in ba domin wanzuwar sana’ar Sarkanci ba, da gaba ɗaya ba za a sami Karin Maganar Hausa mai matani da ya jiɓinci Sarkanci ba. Idan aka kalli Basarken Karin Maganar Hausa da idon basira, za a iya gano abubuwa da dama waɗanda suka jiɓinci sarkanci, ba tare da an tuntuɓi sarkawan su kansu ba. Don haka Karin Maganar Hausa wani rumbu ne na ilimi da ya kamata mai bincike ya yi dogaro da su domin fito da wasu sahihan abubuwa na game da sarkanci da yake sukan ƙunshi matani daban-daban na harkar Sarkanci. Basarken Karin Magana na iya kasancewa rukuni-rukuni dangane da batun da aka gina kowane Karin Magana a kansa. Akwai Basarken Karin Magana wanda aka gina su a kan falsafar rayuwar mutane, wasu suna ƙunshe da batu na nau’ukan halittar kifi, wasu a kan muhallinsa wato wurin da yake ɓuya a cikin ruwa. Wani rukuni na Basarken Karin Magana an gina su bisa zancen rayuwar kifi. Wani rukunin na daban dangane da Basarken Karin Magana an gina tubalinsu ne bisa kayan aikin Sarkanci waɗanda ta amfani da su ne Sarkawa kan sami nasarar aiwatar da aikinsu na Sarkanci. Wani rukuni na Basarken Karin Magana kuwa an gina tubalinsu ne bisa dabarun aikin kamun kifi. Rabe-raben Basarken Karin Magana zai zo kamar haka:

4.1 Falsafar Rayuwar Mutane.

Falsafar rayuwa kan ƙunshi yadda tunanin mutane yake dangane da duniyarsu da yadda suke kallo ko suka ɗauki al’amurra daban-daban, da yadda imaninsu yake. Wannan ne yake ba mutane dama su tsara al’amurran rayuwarsu daidai da tunaninsu, da kuma abin da suka yi imani da shi.[18] Basarken Karin Maganar Hausa ƙunshe yake da misalai na Karin Magana waɗanda suka jiɓinci wannan matani. Misali:

          ·          Ruwa na Allah kifi na Allah masu cin sa na Allah

          ·          Idan da amana ruwa ba ya dafa kifi.

          ·          Kowa ya kashe kifi gorarsa.

          ·          Iya ruwa fid da kai.

          ·          In kifi ya tashi lalacewa ga kai yake fara ruɓewa.

          ·          Idan da tsotsayi, ruwa a tire sai ya ci mutum.

Waɗannan misalai na Basarken Karin Magana suna nuni da irin tunanin Bahaushe dangane halaccin naman kifi a al’ada wanda ya yi daidai da yadda addinin Musulunci ya shata, wato halaccin cin naman kifi da kuma kasancewarsa halat ba sai an yanka shi ba kamar yadda ake yanka dabbobi.[19] Haka kuma a tunanin Bahaushe zamantakewa na buƙatar riƙon amana tsakanin mutane domin rashin amana shi yake sanya wani ya cuta wa wani ko da makusantan juna ne wato kamar yadda ruwa yake da kifi. A falsafar Bahaushe, kowa ya kashe kifi a gorarsa yake sakawa ma’ana duk wanda ya wahala, ya yi aiki tuƙuru, to kansa fa yake yi ma wa domin kafin kowa ya ci moriyar gumin nasa, shi yake farawa. A tunanin Bahaushe, kyawon rayuwa shi ne mutum ya iya tsayuwa da kansa ba tare da dogara kacokam kan wasu ba, wato dai iya ruwa fid da kai. A ra’ayi irin na Bahaushe tunani[20] a kai yake kuma da zarar kai ya taɓu, sauran gangar jiki sai ta tasirantu . Bahaushe na cewa ‘Sai da kai ake gane wuya na ciwo.’

 Haƙiƙa Sarkawa, da ma sauran jama’a na al’ummar Hausawa sun tasirantu da falsafar rayuwa da ke ƙunshe a cikin wannan rukuni na Basarken Karin Magana domin akasarin jama’a suna ƙoƙarin dogaro ka kansu ta hanyar duƙufa da yin aiki tukuru a duk sana’ar da mutum ya sami kansa a ciki.

 

 

4.2 Nau’ukan Kifi

 Kifi wata halitta ce ta ruwa wadda galibi tana da ƙaya a waje da kuma cikin jikinta, wadda kuma take da ƙarni.[21] Ana kama kifi ne domin a ci kasancewarsa abinci mai gina jiki sosai. Akwai Karin magana waɗanda gaba ɗaya an gina tubalinsu ne kan nau’ukan kifaye da suke rayuwa a cikin gulabe da tafukka na wannan ƙasa. Misalinsu ya haɗa da:

v Tuhi ya gane gidan boɗami.

v  Shagwaɓa, tarwaɗa da kukan ƙishirwa.

v  Ƙurungu mugun kifi ko kura ba ta sa shi a baki.

v Ɗan harya alhajin ‘yan suka.

Waɗannan misalai na Basarken Karin Magana suna nuni zuwa ga wasu irin nau’ukan kifaye da suke rayuwa a cikin ruwan koguna da gulabe da tafukka na wannan guduma ta Sakkwato. Baya ga ambaton sunayen kifayen kamar tuhi da boɗami (gawo) da tarwaɗa da ƙurungu da harya, wannan rukuni na Karin Magana yana kuma nuna mana ɗabi’a da halayya ta wasu daga cikin kifayen. Misali, ƙurungu mugun kifi ne, ƙayar da yake da ita mai ƙwari ce sosai, harya kifi ne da ba baya yake ba wajen suka da ƙayarsa mai mugun dafi sosai. Tuhi da boɗami kuwa mazauninsu ɗaya a cikin ruwa sannan duk kowane daga cikinsu yana da dauriya ta zama a cikin muhalli na ruwa mai ɗamba.

4.3 Muhallin kifi.

Sanin kowa ne cewa kifi ba ya da wani takamammen muhalli da yake rayuwa wanda ya shige ruwa. Don haka harkar Sarkanci akan gudanar da ita ne a cikin ruwa. Dalilin haka ba abin mamaki ba ne ya kasance an sami wani rukuni na Basarken Karin Magana wanda ya jiɓinci ruwa. Misalai na Basarken Karin Magana masu magana a kan ruwa shi ne:

v Ruwan da suka ci ka su ne ruwa

v Ba a cinikin kifi a ruwa.

v A wanki kifi da ruwansa

v Idan kana ruwa kada ka zagi kada.

v Ƙaryar rijiya ruwa na gulbi.

v Gwanin ruwa shi ruwa kan ci.

v Ruwa ya ƙare wa ɗan kada bai gama wanka ba.

v Ta- da- ta, wankin ɗankanoma mashaya.

v Iya ruwa fid da kai

v Ruwa na Allah kifi ma na Allah.

v A rabe da alwalar kifi a ruwa.

v Ratsa ruwa ba a sha ba, ba ya maganin ƙishirwa.

v Kifin rijiya.

v Su ya kai gurbi.

v Shirin shiga ruwa tun tudu ake yinsa.

v Shiru kamar ruwa ya ci su.

v Duk yadda tsari ya san ruwa kada ya fi shi.[22]

Idan aka dubi wannan rukuni na Basarken Karin Magana za a fahimci cewa kowane misali daga ciki yana magana ne a kan ruwa. Akwai zancen ruwa na gulbi mai yawan gaske wanda ba a iya kwatanta shi da na rijiya wanda yake ɗan kaɗan,

da kuma nuna aikin iyo da fito a ruwa wanda aiki ne da kacokam da ya rataya a wuyan Sarkawa ta hanyar amfani da kwalekwale ko gora. Haka ma akwai zancen wasu halittu da ake samu a ruwa waɗanda ke zaune a muhalli ɗaya da kifi can cikin ruwa kamar kada. Rukunin na Basarken Karin Magana ya yi tsokaci kan amfani da ruwa kamar yadda aka saba a al’ada wanda kan haɗa da sha domin maganin ƙishirwa da wanka domin gusar da datti.

4.4 Kayan Aikin Sarkanci.

Wani rukuni na Basarken Karin maganar Hausa suna da ƙumshiya ko matani na Sarkanci, musamman suna magana ne kan kayan aikin Sarkanci. Kayan aikin nan galibi an fi samun cin nasarar Sarkanci idan aka yi amfani da su, don haka ne wasu Karin Magana aka danganta su da kayan aikin sarkanci kamar gora, homa, jirgi, da makamatansu Misalinsu ya haɗa da :

                                     ·          Da a ce ku gai da ɗan Maitaru gwamma a ce Maitaru.[23]

                                     ·          Kifi na ganinka mai jar homa.

                                     ·          Homa ruwa.

                                     ·          Aikin banza ɗiban ruwa da homa.

                                     ·          Aikin ruwa sai jirgi mai gora sai wahala.

                                     ·          Iyo ruwa sai gora mai masaki rabo nai wahala.

                                     ·          Mai jirgi ka fito mai gora sai wahalar banza.

                                     ·          Ba a fafa gora ranar tafiya.

                                     ·          Kowa ya kashe kifi ya saka goratai.

                                     ·          Ko’ina ga homa ƙulli.

 A cikin wannan kaso na Basarken Karin Magana, haƙiƙa an lisafto wasu daga cikin kayan aikin Sarkanci. Waɗanda suka sami ambato a ciki sun haɗa da gora da jirgi da homa da taru. Wasu daga cikin kayan aikin kamar jirgi da gora ana amfani da su ne domin yawatawa a cikin ruwa da kuma adana kifin da aka kama yayin da ake cikin ruwa. Wasu kayan aikin kuwa kamar homa da taru kama kifi ake yi da sui ta hanyar amfani da su kai tsaye a cikin ruwa don kama kifi.

4.5 Dabarun Sarkanci.

Akwai Basarken Karin Maganar Hausa masu matanin Sarkanci waɗanda suke magana kan gundarin aikin na kamun kifi, wato ainihin aikin kamun kifi, wanda ya shafi dabaru da hanyoyin aiwatar da wannan sana’a ta Sarkanci. Misalinsu shi ne:

*     Su ya kai gurbi.

*     A mayar da gami.

*     Ba don kifi mai zuwa ake yin saba ba, don mai dawowa.

*     Ko ɗan kaya ya san kifinsa.

*     Bandar ƙasa.

*     Kama ni mu nutse.

*     Masuncin ganga.

Sana’ar Sarkanci cike take da hanyoyi da dabaru na aiwatar da ita. Wasu daga cikin dabarun sun sami ambato a cikin waɗannan KarinMagana. Gami wata dabara ce ta kamun kifi wadda ake yi da homa yayin da masunta suka kai adadin mutum uku zuwa abin da ya fi haka. Idan su ya kai gurbi, to ya kai ƙololuwa, don haka duk lokacin da aka ce su ya kai gurbi a wani zance, ana nufin abu ya kai maƙura[24] Saba ma wani shinge ne da ake yi da karare waɗanda aka tsara su kamar gado. Haka ma a cikin aikin Sarkanci musamman su na homa wanda ake aiwatarwa a gurbi ana buƙatar ɗan kaya wanda zai riƙa wa maigidansa kaya da kuma gorar da ake saka kifi. Ɗan kaya galibi da kifi ake sallamarsa don haka tun da ido mudu ne, shi ma ya san kifin da ya kamata a ba shi.

4.6 Rayuwar Kifi

Kowace halitta tana da abincin da take ci domin ta rayu. Wasu nau’uka na kifaye suna rayuwa ne ta hanyar cin naman ‘yan uwansu kifaye a matsayin abinci. Waɗansu Karin Magana sun yi nuni da haka. Misalinsu shi ne:

*   Kifi ku ci ‘yan uwanku.

*   Me ya haɗa kifi da kaska.

*   Kifi ba ya ƙiba sai da naman ɗan uwansa.

*   Me kifi ya ci ya girma? Naman ɗan uwansu.

*   Zaman kifaye a ruwa kowa tasa ta fisshe shi.

*   Zama wuri ɗaya tsotsayi, inji kifi.

Waɗannan misalai na Karin Magana suna yin nuni da halayyar kifi ta cin naman ‘yan uwansa kiyafu[25] da kuma halin yanayinsa na saurin lalacewa musamman bayan ya mutu inda a kai nasa yake fara lalacewa.

4.7 Hankalin Kifi

 Kifi halitta ce da koyaushe ƙoƙari take ta kauce wa tarkon da Sarkawa kan haƙa domin kama ta. Wannan ne ya sanya koyaushe ake ƙara inganta kayan da akan yi amfani da su wajen yi wa kifi tarko don a kama shi. Akan yi kalli na zaren roba, fari, siriri ƙwarai, wanda zai iya sajewa da ruwa ta yadda kifi ba zai tantance da shi ba a cikin ruwa. Misalin Karin Magana mai nuni a kan wayo da hankalin irin na kifi su ne:

v  Kifi na ganinka mai jar homa.

v Aikin banza haƙon balli da ƙoto.

v Ɗan fatsa koma ga Allah balli ba naka ba ne.

Balli kifi ne da yana da wuya a kama shi ta hanyar saka masa ƙoto domin Sarkawa suna ganin cewa balli yana da hankalin gano cewa kamata ya yi mai jin yunwa ya nemi abinci ba wai abinci ya nemi shi ba don in ka ga abinci na neman ka, wataƙila guba ne. Ko banza balli ba ya cin naman ɗan’uwansa kifi. Abincinsa ba ya wuce ‘yan ƙwari masu rayuwa a cikin ruwa da kuma wasu ƙananan halittu a cikin ruwa.[26]

 

 

5.0 Sakamakon Bincike

Wannan nazari na Basarken Karin Magana ya tabbatar da cewa alaƙar da ke akwai tsakanin adabi da al’ada, alaƙa ce irin ta jini da tsoka musamman da yake ɓangarori na adabin kowace al’umma sukan tasirantu da rukuna na al’adun wannan al’ummar kasancewar adabi madubi ne na rayuwar ita al’ummar. Wannan ya nuna cewa adabi musamman Karin Magana da aka nazarta a wannan muƙala, wata makaranta ce da za a iya koyon al’adar al’umma a cikinsa. Dubi yadda sunayen wasu kifaye da kayan aikin sarkanci suka bijiro a fili cikin wasu misalai na Karin Magana da aka kawo a wannan muƙala. Wannan ya nuna ke nan ba sai ta saduwa da masu sana’ar ba kaɗai za a iya tara bayanai game da sarkanci.

Adabi musamman na baka da wannan muƙala ta fi mayar hankali a kansa, wani tsani ne da mai nazari zai iya hawa domin ya ƙyallaro yadda ake amfani da harshe a yankuna daban-daban na mazaunin masu wannan harshe. Kamar yadda aka gani a cikin waɗansu misalai na Basarken Karin magana, kifi na iya samun sunaye mabambanta a tsakanin al’umma da suke zaune a yanki ɗaya musamman sakamakon bambancin karin harshe.[27]

Adabin baka wanda waƙar baka take rukuni a cikinsa, wani tsani ne da idan aka ɗare samansa, za a iya duba lamurra da suka jiɓinci al’ada. Wannan zai fita sarari idan aka yi la’akari da wasu misalai na waƙoƙi da wannan muƙala ta kawo a tushen bayani, inda Makaɗa Bage Ɗansala da Makaɗa Ibrahim Narambaɗa Tubali suka baje kolin ƙwarewarsu da sanayyarsu ga harkar sarkanci wataƙila kasancewa sun fito daga yankunan da wannan sana’a take gudana sosai. Wannan ya nuna cewa ta wannan ɓangare, akwai ruwa sosai a ƙasa sai in ba a tona ba.

 6.0 Kammalawa

 Basarken Karin Magana muƙala ce da ta yi ƙoƙarin fito da bayani a fili cewa adabi musamman na baka da aka yi waiwaye a kansa wata makaranta ce da za a iya koyon al’adar al’umma domin da adabi da al’ada suna da kusanci irin na jini da tsoka kuma al’ada takan yi tasiri soasi a kan adabi. Da wannan ne nake hasashe cewa idan wannan bincike ya nausa cikin wasu ɓangarora na adabin baka kamar waƙoƙin baka, za a iya duba yadda lamarin wannan sana’a ta sarkanci ta sami ambato a cikin waƙoƙi daban-daban waɗanda Makaɗa da Mawaƙan wannan yanki suka rera. Wannan zai ba da dammar fitowa da bayanai na irin yadda sana’ar sarkanci ta yi naso a cikin waɗannan waƙoƙin. Ba wannan kaɗai ba, haka ma wasu rukuna na adabin baka kamar tatsuniya, za a iya duba ta a kuma fito da lamurran sarkanci a cikinta.

 

 Manazarta

Tuntuɓi mai takarda.



[1] Alh. Umaru Ɗan’aliyu Kwaifa a hirar da na da shi a ƙauyen Gungun Hoge, ƙaramar hukumar mulkin Ngaski, jihar Kabi, ranar Lahadi, 06/03/2011.

[2] Garba, C.Y. (1991) Sana’ao’in Gargajiya na Ƙasar Hausa Spectrum Books Ltd.shafi na 1 da Alhassan, H, da wasu, (1982) Zaman Hausawa bugu na biyu, Islamic Publication Bureau, Lagos. Shafi na 41.

[3] Alkali, M.B. (1969) “ A Hausa Community in Crisis: Kebbi in the Nineteenth Century,” M.A. Thesis, A.B.U Zaria. Shafi na30.

[4] Duba Alkali,M.B.(1969)” A Hausa Community in Crisis: Kebbi in the Nineteenth Century.” M.A. Thesis, ABU Zaria. Shafi na 29-30.

[5] A duba Abubakar, A. (2001) An Introductory Hausa Morphology. Faculty of Arts, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Shafi na 23 – 27.

[6] Bargery, G.P. (1934) A Hausa-English Dictionary And English Hausa Vocabulary. Oxford University Press, London. Shafi na 92.

[7] Duba lamba ta uku, shafi na 30.

[8] Furniss, G.(1996) Poetry, Prose and Popular Culture in Hausa. Edinburgh University Press.

[9] Yunusa A. ( 1977) Hausa A Dunƙule. N.N.P.C Zaria, Shafi na 3

[10] Nahuce, I.M. (2008) “ Karin Maganar Hausa A Rubuce” Kundin M.A., UDUS, Shafi na 32.

[11] C.N.H.N (2006) Ƙamusun Hausa Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano. Shafi na 357.

[12] Ɗanyaya, B.M. ( 2007) Karin Maganar Hausa. Makaranta Publishers, Sokoto. Shafi na 1

[13] Ɗangambo, A. (1989) “Tasirin Baubawan Burmi a Rubutattun Waƙoƙi.” Muƙala da aka gabatar a Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar bayero, Kano.

[14] Yahaya, A.B. (1994) Jigon Nazarin Waƙa Fisbas media Services, Kaduna, Nigeria.

[15] Ɗangambo, A. (1984) Rabe- Raben Adabin Baka da Muhimmancinsa ga Rayuwar Hausawa. Triumph, Kano. Shafi na 1.

[16] Umar, M.B. (2003) “ Tasiri Da Yaɗuwar Adabin Baka na Hausa.” cikin Zaria Journal of Language Studies Vol. 1, No 1. Shafi na 75.

[17] Umar, M.B. (1999) Adabin Hausa a Kammale. Effective Media Services, Kaduna. Shafi na 34.

[18] Don ƙarin bayani kan Falsafa, a dubi: ‘Definition of Philosophy’ a www.thefreedictionary.com da Harold, H.T. (1970) Living Issues in Phlosophy . Van Nostrand Rembold Company, New York., da Hospers, J. (1986) An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis Routledge and Keagan Paul, London., da Alfred, A.J. (1972) Philosophical Essays Macmillan Press, London. da Agrawal, M.M. (1985) “Morals and the Values of Human Life” in PHILOSOPHY in Africa, Trends and Perspective Bodunrin, P.O. (Ed) University of Ile-Ife Press, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

[19] Asƙalani, A.H. (1996) Bulugul Marami. Lizarul Mustafa Albabi, Riyadh. Hadisi na 1, Shafi 7.

[20] Bunza, A.M. (2000) “ Muhallin Hankali da Bigiren Hauka a Hausance” a cikin Hausa Studies: Reading in Hausa Language, Literature and Culture. Department of Nigerian Languages, U.D.U. Sokoto. Vol.11.

[21] CNHN (2006) Ƙamusun Hausa Na Jami’ar Bayero. Wallafar Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano. Shafi na 243.

[22] Makaɗa Narambaɗa a wani ɗan waƙarsa ta Sarkin Kudun Gusau Sulaiman yana cewa:

Jagora: Tsari komi yas san ruwa,

 Kada ya hi shi.

Yara: Haba, ku lura kada nashi wuhi

 : Ya hi na tsari.

Gindin Waƙa: Mai Gusau Raba kaya,

 Ba a kai maka wargi

 Mai rabo da yawa,

 Gamda’aren Sarkin Gobir.

[23] Makaɗa Narambaɗa yana cewa:

Jagora: Da a ce ku gai ɗan Maitaru

 : Gwamma a ce Maitaru.

 : Kwak kashe kihinai sai ya nasa goratai

 : Na riƙa ka da girma Abdu ƙanen Maidaga

 : Kan da mu san kowa kai munka sani Sardauna.

 

[24] Makaɗa Bage Ɗansala a wani ɗan waƙarsa ta “Garin Kwaki” yana cewa:

 

Jagora: “Su ya kai gurbi ga tambaya

 Ku Yarbawa na yi tambaya

 Domin ku nag gadi yin jiƙo

 Yaya na kuka yi shina yawa?

 Yara: Sun ce min ‘joko’ ake mashi

 Ba shi ‘omi’ sosai ya kumbura.

Gindin Waƙa: A ci dai ba don a ƙoshi ba,

 Garin kwaki ya yi taimaka.

 

[25] Ba kowane kifi yake cin naman kfaye ‘yan uwansa ba. Kifaye kamar shawarware (ci-haki) yana cin ciyawar ruwa ne, balli ba ya cin kifi ɗan’uwansa sai dai ƙwari da wasu ƙananan halittu na cikin ruwa. Gargaza ma kifi ce da galibi laka take ci da ‘ya’yan itatuwa da ke faɗawa a ruwa kamar kanya.

[26] Don ƙarin bayani dangane abincin kifi sai a duba Reed, W., Burchard, J., Hopson, A.J., Jennes, J. da Yaro, I. (1967) Fish and Fisheries of Northern Nigeria. Published by Ministry of Agriculture, Northern Nigeria.

[27] Dubi yadda a karin Harshen Sakkwatanci kifi ɗaya ya sami bambancin suna tsakanin Sakkwato da Zamfara a ɗaya gefe da kuma Kabi a gefe ɗaya. A Sakkwato da Zamfara ana kiran wannan kifi Gawo, yayin da Kabawa suke kiransa boɗami.