Takardar da aka gabatar a taron ƙasa da ƙasa mai taken: Zamfara Kingdom: Social and Political Transformation from 14th Centuary to Date. Organized by Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, 25th – 28th February, 2020, at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Auditorium, Sokoto

ZAMFARA A DIWANIN NARAMBAƊA
(Ibrahim Buhari Maidangwale Abdulƙadir Narambaɗa Tubali 1810-1960)



Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza
Professor of Hausa Cultural Studies
Department of Languages and Cultures
Faculty of Arts and Humanities
Federal University Gusau

Gabatarwa

Zamfara daula ce gawurtacciya daga cikin gawurtattun daulolin ƙasar Hausa.[1] Haka kuma, tana daga cikin daulolin farko da tarihin Bahaushe, da ƙasar Hausa, ba ya kammala sai da ita. Wata daɗaɗɗiyar al’adar mazauna duniyar mutane ta shahara da ita ita ce, “waƙa.” A ƙasar Hausa, duk abin da ya ɓace wa Bahaushe cikin waƙa ana iya tsintarsa. Don haka, na zaɓo wani babban goga, daga cikin gogaggun mawaƙan Zamfara Ibrahim Buhari Maidangwale Abdulƙadir Narambaɗa Tubali,[2] domin mu karanci daular Zamfara cikin diwanin manyan waƙoƙinsa. Ga yadda na fasalta ɗan abin da na kalato cikin diwanin malamin kiɗa Narambaɗa.

Kadadar Bincike

Daular Zamfara faɗi gare ta, kuma al’ummomi sun yi sarƙeƙeniya a cikinta. Narambaɗa Malamin mawaƙa ne da har yanzu ba a haƙiƙance yawan waƙoƙinsa ba.[3] Bincikena zai tsaya ga  waƙoƙin da ya yi wa sarakunan da ke daular Zamfara kawai. Ko a cikin waƙoƙin zan fi lura da gutsattsarin ɗiyan waƙa da suka ambaci Zamfara ko da wani suna nata na daban. Bugu da ƙari, zan fi mai da hankali ga ɗiyan waƙar da suka taɓo tarihin da ya shafi Zamfara. Abin kula a nan, takardar ɗan share fage kawai za ta yi, don tarnaƙin da aka saka na yawan shafukan da aka ƙayyade.

 

Dabarun Bincike

Kan takardar wannan bincike shi ne Narambaɗa. Wannan ta tilasta, sauraron waƙoƙinsa musamman waɗanda suka shafi Zamfara da masarautunta fiye da shirin (20). Bayan haka, aka yi yaɓi da tattaunawa da wasu daga cikin sarakunan masarautun, da aka ayi wa waƙoƙin, da wasu ɗiyansu, da wasu daga cikin masu riƙe da wasu sarautu, da fadawa, da kaɗan daga cikin na bayan fage masu sha’awar Narambaɗa. Ala tilas, aka sake laluben wasu ayyukan ilmi da aka yi kan Zamfara da waɗanda suka shafe ta musamman Nadama, (1977) da Mahdi, (1968, 1975) da Alƙali, 1968 da Last, (1969) da wasu muhimman wallafe-wallafe, domin kwakkwahe riwayoyin Narambaɗa.

Matsayin Adabi a Nazarin Tarihi

Na zaɓi in yi garkuwa da adabi domin ƙyallaro wani tarihi daga cikin diwanin tarihin Zamfara. Na zaɓi yin haka domin babu wani tarihi a duniyar mutane da aka rubuta wajen taskar adabin mutanen da ake rubutu a kansu. Adabin baka a wajen masana tarihi irin su Muhammadu Bello,[4] A. H. Car,[5] Abdullahi Smith,[6] M. G. Smith[7] M. Adamu,[8] Y. B. Usman,[9] M. Hisket,[10] M. Last,[11] Samaldone,[12] P. J. Shea,[13] J. Paden,[14] sun tabbatar da cewa  da tsohon zuma ake magani. A adabin waƙa, ba a rasa cikas na kambama da kushewa, da ƙage da ƙaƙale, da tabbataccen kwanan wata da sauransu,[15] Waɗanan cikas ko rubuce-rubucen ilmi na masana ba su tsere musu ba. Tarihin gidansu kowa da abubuwan da aka riska a baka ne aka taskace shi, aka adana shi. Daga cikin sassan adabin baka, waƙa da karin magana da kirari su ne mafi ingancin taskokin taskace tarihi waɗanda gobara, da ambaliya, da sata, da salwanta, ba su cika yi wa ta’adi ba.

Wane ne Narambaɗa?

Cikakken sunansa Ibrahim Buhari Maidangwale, Abdulƙadir Narambaɗa Tubali. Mahaifinsa tafiyayye ne daga ƙasar Maraɗi(?). Mahaifiyarsa daga gidan Makaɗan Badarawa aka auro ta, sunanta Riba. Bai gaji kiɗa daga uba ba, ga uwa ya gada. A al’adance, sunansa Karen Makaɗa.[16] Ya fara kiɗin noma da kokuwa, ya koma kiɗin sarauta. Ya yi wa masarautar Isa da Gobir da Ƙaura da Moriki da Zurmi da Gusau da Kwatarkwashi da Tsafe da sauran ƙananan masarautunsu waƙoƙi da yawa. Idan aka tattara waƙoƙinzasu fiɗaribiyar (500)[17], amma  shahararsa ta zarcesauran makadan fada a ƙasar Hausa. Fadar Isa ta Fulani yake yi wa waƙa, amma bai hana ya yi wa fadar Gobir da sarakunanta waƙoƙi ba. An haife shi a wajajen 1890, ya rasu a shekarar 1963. Ya rasu yana ɗan shekara 73 a duniya. Ya fara waƙa da shekara 40. Ya shekara 33 yana waƙa. Ya fara waƙa da cikakken hankalinsa ya mutu cikakken dattijo. Ba a sa ran zantukanƙarya su bazu a waƙoƙinsa. Don haka, yana zama wata hujja ga tarihi ya ce:

 

Jagora: Na bar ƙarya ko ina kiɗi

            : Na wuce ƙarya ko ina kiɗi

            : Nai sittin saba’in nika hwaɗa[18]

            : Mai saba’in yai ƙarya

Yara    : Ana ta zunɗenai

            :Ko yaran da ag garai

            : Duk warwatse masa sukai

            : Shina yawo shi ɗai ɓaro-ɓaro

Gindi  : Ya ci maza ya kwan shina shiri

            : Uban zakara dodo na Alhaji

Dalilin yi masa suna Malamin kiɗi, bai taɓa barin sharholiyar waƙa ta shi zage-zage ko cin fuska, ko batsa, ko kambamar zulaƙe ba[19]Ɗan dalilina ke nan na shiga diwanin waƙoƙinsa in lalubo tairhin Zamfara.

Ƙasar Hausa a Diwanin Narambaɗa

Tarihi da tarihihin ƙasar Hausa ya zo da abubuwa da yawa. Tun daga tarihin Bayajida ya zuwa ga rubuce-rubucen masu jihadi da suka taɓo tarihin ƙasar Hausa da masarautunsu. Manyan ayyukan masu jihadi sun haɗa da Rawdhatul Afkaari waj Tilaatul Akhbaari fit Taarihil Bilaadil na AbdulƙadirƊantafa, da Infaƙul Maisuuri fi Taarihil bilad,na Sarkin Musulmi Muhammadu Bello, da Ta’alimul Ikhwaani bil Umuuri Allatii Kaffarnaa bihaa Mulluukus Sudan Wahum Muluuku Hausa, da Hukumul Juhhal fi Biladi Hausa duk na Shehu Mujaddadi Ɗanfodiyo, sun ambaci ƙasarmu da sunan “ƙasar Hausa.: Daulolin da suka taras a lokacin sun haɗa da Kano, Gobir, Zamfara, Kabi, Zazzau, Katsina, da Bauci. Suna kiran ƙasar Bilaadi Hausa, Sarakunan Muluuku Hausa ko Muluukus Sudan. Abin nufi dai, Zamfara na daga cikin ƙasashen da suka haɗa daulolin, kuma daular kanta ce.

A ɓangaren masarautun, da daulolin, suna kiran kansu da sunayen daulolinsu, Daular Kano, Daular Katsina, Daular Kabi, Daular Zazzau, Daular Gobir, da Daular Zamfara. Kasancewar mutanensu Hausawa, harshensu Hausa ya sa ake kiran daulolin “Ƙasar Hausa.” Bayan jihadi, daulolin da ƙasashen da Fulani suka mamaye su ake kira da sunan “Hausa,” Zamfara na daga cikinsu.[20] A Diwanin Naramaɗa da kalmar “Hausa” ya yi amfani da ita ga Daular Zamfara gaba ɗaya.[21] Me ya sa haka? Domin kiyaye tarihi da sassauyawar zamunansa.

Zamfara ce Kadadar Hausa inji Narambaɗa

Narambaɗa na tare da tunanin Kabawa da ke da fahimtar duk ƙasar da ba ta Fulani ba, kuma Fulani ke mallakarta sunanta “Hausa.”[22] A diwanin Narambaɗa ya ambaci ƙasar Isa da Fulani ke mulki da sunan “Sarkin Gobir Hausa.” Gobirawa da Kabawa da Zamfarawa ke da ƙasarsu. Zamfarawan Anka (Wusake) suka fara zama Zamfara. Daga nan Gobirawa suka zo, bayansu Fulani suka zo. Da aka ga Gobirawa sun fi yawa, aka naɗa wa Bafulatani rawanin Sarkin Gobir ta koma “Sarkin Gobir na Isa[23].” Diwanin Bakandamiya ta ambaci wannan a wurin da Narambaɗa ke cewa:

Jagora : Yau mai ashararu ya kaɗe

            : Duniya ta yi mai hwashi

Yara    : Ya san ba ƙwarjini ga mutanen Hausa

            : Kowac ce shina iyawa ga hili nan

            : Sai ya ƙetare gidanai ba ban kwana

Gindi  : Gwarzon shamaki na Malam toron giwa

            : Baban Dodo ba a tammai da batun banza

A nan, a garin Isa mai ashararu yake. Mutanen da aka ce ba a ƙwarjini gare su watau “mutanen Hausa” mutanen Isa ne ko in ce Gobirawan Isa da Fulani ke mulki.

Makaɗa Narambaɗa ya ambaci babban birnin tarayyar Zamfara “Gusau” a matsayin kadadar ƙasar Hausa. Daular Zamfara ta yi iyaka da Daular Zazzau, da Katsina. Can kuma Zazzau da Katsina, sun yi iyaka da Daular Kano. Ita kanta Zamfara ta maƙwabci daular Gobir. Ga yadda diwanin Narambaɗa ya warware batun:

Jagora : Tun dag ga Kaduna

Yara    : Har Gusau ƙarewar Hausa

            : Kowace shawara ta labarin Turawa

            : Amadu ba a yin ta sai ya san hannunai

            : Don kauƙoƙari garai da sanin hujjoji

 

 

Gindi  : Gwarzon shamaki na Malam toron giwa

            : Baban Dodo ba a tammai da batun banza.

Ke nan, Kaduna da Zazzau da Kano da Katsinamakwabtasu asashen Hausa ne, kumaDaulolinƙasar Hausa, amma ba “Hausa” ake ce musu ba. Hausa ita ce, Gusau da masarautun da ta yi wa cibiya. Dalilinmu a nan shi ne, Zamfara ce ƙarƙashin Sakwkato, sauran daulolin cin gashin kansu suke. Zamfara da Gwandu da ke cikin hamattan Fulani su ne “Hausa.”[24]

Sakkwato ce Cibiyar Hausa

A diwanin Narambaɗa, da Zamfara da Sakwkato duk abu ɗaya ya ɗauke su a matsayin “Hausa.” Diwanin ya tabbatar da Sakwkato ce cibiyar “Hausa” ƙasashen da ke amsa kiranta sau-da-ƙafa su ne “Hausa.”[25] Zamfara ita ce babbar daular da ke ƙarƙashin Sakkwato. Gwandu wata ‘yar leza ce kawai.[26] Diwanin Bakandamiya ya yi wannan fashin baƙin:

Jagora : An gamu Hausa kulluhin jama’a duk an zo

Yara    : Kamfunan ga arba’in da bakwai duk sun zo

Jagora : Maiduka yah hito da shi da su Gatau

..................................................................................

Gindi  : Gwarzon shamaki na Malam toron giwa

             Baban Dodo ba a tammai da batun banza.

“Hausa” a nan ita ce “Sakkwato,” kamfuna arba’in da bakwai (47) Gundumomi arba’in da bakwai na iyayen ƙasa arba’in da bakwai: Sakwkato, Zamfara, da Gwandu.

Makaɗa da ya wasa Sarkin Gobir Amadu cewa ya yi:

Jagora: In an ce Isa, ba ka jin an ce, wani Sarki,

Yara: Ni ko duk Hausa, ba ka jin waƙa, bayan tau

Gindi  : Gwarzon shamaki na Malam toron giwa

             Baban Dodo ba a tammai da batun banza.

Abin da makaɗa ke nufi da “Hasau: a nan, “Zamfara” da “Sakkwato” da sauran gundumomin da Sakkwato ta mamaye. Narambaɗa ya tabbatar da haka a waƙar: “Ya ce maza ...”

Jagora: Ɗan mai Hausa bahago

Yara: Koma shirin daga na Alhaji

Gindi: Ya ci maza ya kwan shina shiri

            : Uban bahago dodo na Ummaru

Sarkin Gobir Amadu Bawa ne ake cewa ɗan mai Hausa, wato ɗan Sarkin Musulmi ke nan. Sarkin Musulmi shi ne mai “Hausa” dukkanin ƙasashen da kakaninsu suka mamaye, nan ne Hausa. Zamfara na daga cikin babbar daular da Fulani suka mamaye.

Zamfara Rumbun Adabi

Daga cikin manyan diwanin makaɗa Narambaɗa Zamfara ita ce babban rumbun adabin Hausa a duniya. Lallai biri ya yi kama da mutum, domin kashi 75-80 na makaɗan Hausa Zamfarawa ne. Da za a bi diddigin tarihi na tushen kowane Bahaushen makaɗi, da wuya Zamfara ba ta lashe kashi 90% ba.[27]  Duniyar ilmi ta aminta da kasancewar taskar adabi babban rumbu na ilmi da tarihin al’umma. Lallai yankin da duk aka fi samun ma’abota adabi, musamman waƙa, nan ake sa ran a gano tushen masu harshen. Abin mamaki, tunanin masu biyar diddigin asalin Hausawa da harshensu ya kasa ya ƙyallaro wannan muhimmiyar kafa da Narambaɗa ya ƙyallaro kamar haka:

Jagora: Zamfara ba makaɗin da ka ja mini

Yara: Baya ga Jankiɗi sai ko Ɗandawo

Jagora/Yara: Sai Ɗandodo Alu mai taushi

Yara: Amma ba makaɗin gayya ba

Gindi: Gogarman Tudu jikan Sanda

            : Maza su ji tsoron ɗan mai Hausa.

A daular Zamfara, makaɗan fada da kowa ya san da ficensu su ne: Narambaɗa, Salihu Jankiɗi Aliyu Ɗandawo, da Ɗandodo Alu mai taushi. Da an ambaci waɗannan a waƙar fada an kai sin-wau-ra-takuri. Waɗannan su ne kan takarda. Makaɗa kai tsaye ya ce Zamfara bai ce “Hausa” ba domin a ganinsa a nan ya san da cewa Zamfara ce mahaifar makaɗa, a nan aka turbuɗe cibiyar kiɗi. Da an ce, mawaƙi ba ya da kama a Zamfara, to duk a daulolin ƙasar Hausa babu kamarsa. Dalili shi ne, Zamfara ce Makkan makaɗa. Duk wurin da aka tsinci makaɗi a daulolin ƙasar Hausa ba zai kai Zamfara ba. Wannan abin kuwa, har yau (2020) haka yake.

A babban gabatarwar da ya yi wa Bakandamiyarsa, ya tsaro baiwar da Allah ya yi wa Zamfara da fitattun mawaƙa kamar haka:

Jagora: Kowaz za ka kallo ya karkaɗe kunnenai

Yara: Ga makandamiya za ni yi cikin manyan waƙoƙi

Jagora: Na jiya Jankiɗi

Yara: Ya yi tai uwar waƙa sai nai tau

Jagora: Na jiya Gurso

Yara: Yayi tai uwar waka sainai tau

Jagora: Na jiya Akwara

Yara: Ya yi tai uwar waƙa sai nai tau

Jagora: Na jiya Ɗandawo

Yara: Ya yi tai uwar waƙa sai nai tau

Jagora: Na jiya Nagaya[28]

Yara: Ya yi tai uwar waƙa sai nai tau

Jagora: Dodo Malawin waƙa Kundanmi Magajin Danbaidu

Yara: Ya yi tai waƙa sai nai tau

A cikin wannan ɗan waƙa ya ambaci fitattun makaɗan Sarakunan Zamfara takwas. Salihu Jankiɗi, Gurso, Akwara, Ɗandawo (ya yi wa Sarkin Gobir Isa waka), Nagaya, Dodo Malamin waƙa kundumi Magajin Ɗanbaidu, da Narambaɗa. A masarautar Ƙaura Narambaɗa ya ambaci wasu shahararru uku da ba su fito a jereƙen Bakandamiya ba.

Jagora: Yanzu fa Ƙaura an ka yi Sarki,

Yara: Don na ji jawabin Gabci

Jagor: Na ji batun Ɗankyana da Kabshe

Yara: Kowa ka ba shi rabonai

Gindi: Shiri bajinin Mamuda

            : Abu na Namoda shirarre.

A wannan diwanin, mun samu Gabci, Ɗankyana da Gabshe, sun kai su goma sha ɗaya (11). A wannan lokacin da Narambaɗa ke waƙoƙin, dukkanin daulolin ƙasar Hausa ba mai fitattun makaɗan fada uku (3). Ashe diwanin Narambaɗa ya ba da babban haske cewa, ya kyautu a fara tunanin taskace mawaƙan daular Zamfara da waƙoƙinsu.

Masarautun Zamfara a Diwanin Narambaɗa

Diwanin Narambaɗa wani furen kallo ne ga biyar taliyon diddigin tarihin daular ita kanta. Narambaɗa ya yi waɗaiɗaikun Sarakunan Zamfara waƙoƙi ya kuma taskace fitattun garuruwan tarihi na Zamfara, a diwanin waƙoƙinsa. A riwayar bakandamiya akwai:

Jagora: Moriki Ƙaura da Zurmi, duk maganar ta zan dai

Yara: Bunguɗu sa Gusau, Kwatarkwashi, ga ‘Yandoto

Yara: Sun san Garba Ɗanhassan, shi yah hau gadon Hassan,

Jagora: Shi as shugabansu, kai ab babban ɗanai.

Yara: Komi kay yi ba a cewa, ba daidai ba

Jagora:Yara: Nasabar Shehu, ba ta ɗai da ta kakan kowa

Gindi  : Gwarzon shamaki na Malam toron giwa

             Baban Dodo ba a tammai da batun banza.

Masarautun da suka bayyana a nan su ne: Moriki, Ƙaura, Zurmi, Bunguɗu, Gusau, Kwatarkwashi, da Tsafe. Bisa ga jereƙen Narambaɗa, a yanzu, duk waɗannan garuruwa manyan sarakuna gare su, masu sanda, kamar kowane babban sarki, a daular ƙasar Hausa. Ashe gaskiyar Narambaɗa, “duk maganar ta zama ɗai.” Da an tura Isa Zamfara, babu mai hana a ba ta Sarki mai Sanda.[29]

Diwanin Narambaɗa ya taɓo wasu masarautu abokai, kuma masu zumunta da Zamfara a wajen ƙasar Zamfara. Ya fito da ƙasashen da yake cewa: “Hausa” bisa ga tarihin da ya tabbata yana cewa:

Jagora: Dubu ta kammala ga fadar Gwadabawa

            : Kable da fadar Gwandu

 

Yara: Ga kuma Tangaza can ga Yabo

            : Dange da Wurno da fadar Sakwkato

            : Dud dai Amadu ab babba ɗa

....................................................................

Gindi: Gogarma Tudu jikan Sanda

            Maza su ji tsoron ɗan Maihausa

 

Jagora: Maradun, Raɓa, Dogon Daji

 

Yara: Sa Mafara da Gusau da Kadassaka

            : Dud dai Amadu ab babban ɗa

            : Ba ɗan tashi ka rama ne ba

            : Giye tuda ka yi wa yaro nisa

 

Gindi: Gogarman Tudu jikan Sanda

            : Maja su ji tsoron ɗan Maihausa

Narambaɗa ya lissafo masarautu goma sha uku da kowacensu na da alaƙar tarihi da Zamfara. Ya tsaro fadar Gwadabawa, Gwandu, Tangaza, Yabo, Dange, Wurno, Sakkwato, Maradun, Raɓa, Dogon Daji, Mafara, Gusau, da Kadassaka. A tarihance, ya tsame sarautun da ake cewa “Hausa”, ya gwama da na Zamfara, domin daidaita tarihi a gargajiyance. Dukkanin garuruwan na da ya ambata face ɗaya kacal a wannan ƙarni, duk sun zama ƙananan hukumomi, kuma garuruwansu ne cibiyar mulkin ƙananan hukumomin. Waɗanda suke cikin Zamfara su ne: Maradun, Mafara, Gusau da Kadassaka. Gwandu tana cikin Kabi, daular Kabi tana da dangantakar tarihi da Zamfara. Raɓa, Dogon Daji, Yabo, Tangaza, Dange, Wurno da Sakwkato  fitattun garuruwa ne a daular Sakkwato ta ƙarni na goma sha tara (ƙr. 19) su tarihi ke ce wa “Hausa.” Yabo na da sarkin Kabi. Tangaza na da Gorzon.[30]

Makaɗa Narambaɗa ya harari wasu muhimman masarautun Zamfara da yake son tairhi ya taskace su sosai yana cewa:

Jagora: Ga Ƙaura nan ga Zurmi can

            : Yaro kauce Moriki ta

Yara: Mahammadu na na gidan Alu

            : Manyan magabata sun hawo

Gindi: Ya ɗan girma ko ba a so

             Maƙi gudu baban ‘yan ruwa.

Masarautun Ƙaura da Zurmi da Moriki manya ne ga tarihi, da yawan ƙasa, da yawan mutane, da tattalin arzikin Zamfara. A fagen ilmi fitattu ne a Zamfara.[31]

Taskar Diwanin Gindin Waƙoƙin Masarautun Zamfara

Huskar abu ita ke sayar da shi. Ga al’adar diwanin waƙoƙin Narambaɗ tun a gindin waƙa za a gane dalilin da ya sa ya yi wakar. Gindin waƙar/Waƙoƙin Narambaɗa wani madubi ne na ƙyallaro tarihin masarautar da irin ƙwazonmazajen da take hannunsu. Ga wasu daga ciki domin a tantance manufar wannan fasali:

Gusau: Mai Gusau Rabakaya, ba a kai maka wargi,

            : Mai rabo da yawa, ganda’aren Sarkin Gobir

Gindin ya fito da sarauta da shimfiɗa mulki, na a ji iko, a ga iko. Don haka aka ce: “ba a kai maka wargi.”

Kwatarkwashi: Yai halin mazan jiya

            : Ɗansada mai Kwatarkwashi

Kiɗan yaƙi ne zangabur kuma ƙumshiyar waƙar ta tabbatar da haka. Mazan jiya gawurtattun mayaƙan da.

Tsafe: Gagarau mai buge kangara Ali ‘Yandoto,

            : Ba ya son wargi ba a kai masa batun banza.

Kiɗin yaƙi ne ƙiri-ƙiri da ƙwazo ƙunshiyar waƙar ta tabbatar da himma da zimmar yaƙi. Buge kangara hana tawaye.

Kurya: Masu gari mazan gabas tsayayye

            : Sarkin Rwahi ya wuce a rammai

Kiɗin yaƙi ne ƙarara. An ce, har rawar yaƙi Narambaɗa ke yi in kiɗin kurya ne. Mazan gabas mayaƙan gabas ga Sakkwato.

Shinkafi: Ibrahim na Guraguri mai Shinkahi bajinin zagi

            : Mu dai Allah ya bar muna kaya.

Bajinin zagi bajinin jagora, a fagen yaƙi su ke gaba ba ja baya.

Shanawa: Gishimin Haliru uban zagi na Malam Isa

            : Gagarau jikan Shehu Iro toron giwa

Kiɗan yaƙi ne ciki da waje. Ƙunshiyar waƙa ya ƙara tabbatar da gindin. Gagarau an gagari abokan yaƙi.

Maradun: Ya buwayi maza ginshiƙin tama na Amadu

            : Moyi ƙigudu ɗan Sanda mai halin mazan jiya

Tun a ɗan waƙa na farko an fito da jigon waƙar wato kiɗan yaƙi ne na tashi tsaye, a fuskanci masu son karɓar fansa. Ginshiƙin tama ba ya turuwa ba ya kauruwa, tirƙashi!

Da waɗannan ‘yan misalai bakwai za  mu fahimci cewa, daular Zamfara ta yi yaƙe-yaƙe da yawa. Gindin waƙoƙin masarautunsu na nuna, ga aƙidar Zamfarawa raggo, tanfaski, matsoraci, ba zai sarauce su ba. Gindin waƙoƙin kaɗai, wata taska ce daga cikin manyan taskokin diwanin adana Zamfara a cikin waƙoƙin Narambaɗa.

Ƙyallaro Jaruntakar Zamfarawa a Fagen Artabu

Narambaɗa makaɗin sarauta ne. Sarautun ƙasar da yake yi wa waƙa watau ƙasar Isa sun sha gwagwarmayar yaƙe-yaƙe na jahiliyya da na jihadi. A farfajiyar daular Zamfara, babu wata masarautar da ba ta yi yaƙin cikin gida da wajen gida ba.[32] Nason wannan gwagwarmayar a fili yake idan muka karanci kirarin yaƙi da jaruntaka da diwanin Narambaɗa ya taskace a diwanin Kwatarkwashi:

Jagora: A runguma uban Yari

Yara: Mazan gabas ga Sakwkato

Jagora: Ba shawagi sa maza yawon duniya

Yara: Suna sai da abin hwaɗi ga ‘yan uwa

Gindi: Yai halin mazan jiya

            : Ɗan Sanda mai Kwatarkwashi

A runguma kalmar yaƙi ce, ta tunkarar abokin gaba gaba-da-gaba, komai taka zama ta zama. A fagen yaƙi sun sa maƙiya shawagi, da dawara, suka bar wa na baya abin faɗi/kunya. A masarautar Shinkafi akwai irin wannan jirwayi:

Jagora: Gadan-gadan na Sambo na Aisa

Yara: Gaƙe maza uban Turawa

Jagora: Riƙa da gaskiya Ibrahim

Yara: Mai taimakonka Allah na nan,

Jagora/Yara: Zan ka wa maza gurnani

Gindi: Madogara na Malam Iro

            : Uban Yari mai gidan Shinkahi

Kalmar gadan-gadan kirari ce mai nuna fuskantar abu da anniya ba da wasa ba. A fagen daga tana nuna a yi taho-mu-gama mai rabon ganin baɗi ya gani. Idan gumurzu ya yi gumurzu a fagen yaƙi, zancen magana ba ta taso ba, sai dai gurnani. Gaƙe maza, a takura su a hana su zuwa gaba bale baya.

A fagen yaƙe-yaƙen ƙasar Hausa, Zamfarawa suka fara shimfiɗa buzun artabu gabanin Gobirawa su zo. Idan Narambaɗa na kiɗin yaƙi yakan gabatar da Zamfara a irin wannan gaɓa.

Jagora: Zamfara sun san kana Isa

            : Gobir sun san kana Isa

            : Amadu miƙe ƙafafunka zauna daidai

Jagora/Yara: Magana ce ta Sarkin Musulmi Sa Bubakar

Yara: Sun sani Hausa

Gindi: Amadun Bubakar gawarzon Yari

            : Dodo na Alƙali

Sarki Amadu ake yabo da fama, amma da aka zo ga zancen yaƙi dole aka lalubo “Zamfara” gabanin Gobir domin Gobirawa Zamfarawa suka taras a ƙsar Zamfara.

Wasannin Motsa Jiki

Kowace al’umma ta duniya tana da wasannin da take tarbiyantar da yaranta, domin sa musu nagarta da himma, da ɗebe tsoro, da jiran ko ta kwana. A ƙasar Hausa, manyan wasannin da ake ɗora yara a kai su ne, kokuwa da dambe. A diwanin Zamfara waɗannan wasanni biyu wani babban jigo ne a waƙoƙin fada. Makada Narambada ya ce:

Jagora: Bamin[33] kokawwa bai iya ba,

            : Shi aka shammata kodayaushe

Yara: Ga wata kokuwwa an wuce da shi

Jagora/Yara: Ƙarsanai[34] kakkaɓe mishi ƙasa

Gindi: Ibrahim na Guraguri

            : Mai Shinkahi bajinin zagi

            : Mu dai Allah ya bar muna kaya

A cikin waƙar “ya ci maza...” Narambaɗa ya kawo zancen dambe a matsayin jarunta da iya yaƙi, ya ce:

Jagora: Uban zakara mugun madambaci

Gindi: Ya ci maza ya kwana shina shiri

            : Gamda’aren sarkin Tudu Alu

Wasan dambe da kokuwa su ne wasannin ƙasar Hausa na motsa jiki. A Zamfara su ne fitattun wasanni musamman idan aka dubi dangantakar Katsina da Zamfara da Maraɗi ta ɓangaren Katsinar Laka.[35] A da, babu garin da babu fagen dambe,babu garin da babu runji Hausa, duk wurin da runji suke ana samun wasar dambe. Shaharar Shagon Mafara[36] ba ɓoye take ba a farfajiyar ƙasar Hausa:

Sana’o’in Zamfarawa

A tsarin shimfiɗar da Allah Ya yi wa Zamfara, ƙasar sana’o’in more wa rayuwa ce. Manyan sana’o’in Zamfara su ne, noma da su, da fatauci. A farfajiyar ƙasar Hausa, waɗannan su ne manyan sana’o’in Bahaushe a ko’ina yake. A waƙar Sarkin Shinkafi Ibrahim Narambaɗa ya taskace noma kamar haka:

Jagora: Kowane ɗan sarki son shikai shi zan sarki

            : Sai in ba ta samuwa

            : Ta tabbata ko ban hwaɗi ba

            : In gandu[37] yas samu ya hi gamana.[38]

            : Ibrahim na Guraguri

            : Mai Shinkahi bajinin zagi

            : Mu dai Allah shi bar manna kaya

Bazamfaren asali ba sai an yi mishi fashin baƙin kalmar “gandu” da “damana” ba domin cikinsu ya tashi. Wannan ɗan waƙa zakara ne daga cikin zakarun ɗiyan waƙoƙin diwanin Narambaɗa. A fagen “Su yana cewa:

Jagora: Da a ce gu gai da ɗan mai taru[39]

            : Gara a ce mai taru

            : Ƙwak kashe kihinai

            : Sai shi nasa goranai[40]

            : Na riƙa ka ga girma Audu ƙanen mai daga

            : Kan da mu san kowa kai mun ka sani Sardauna

Ƙwararrun masunta kawai suka san “taru” da irin amfaninsa da matsayinsa a sana’ar “su.” Nasa kifi gora sai ‘yan gado (sarkawa) ke fashin baƙinta. Idan muka duba waƙar da aka yi wa Alhaji Ɗandurgu Ƙaura da ambaton su Alhaji Ɗanwawu tabbacin Zamfarawa a fagen fatauci gaba suke.[41]

Halayen Zamfarawa

Hausawa na cewa, kamar Kumbo kamar kayanta. Ga alama, halayen sarakunan Zamfara, shi ne halayen talakawansu. Narambaɗa na kallon Zamfarawa mutane masu nagarta da ƙwazo. Mutane ne da ba sa son ragganci da raggo da zauna gari banza. A Zamfara sata babbar abin kunya ce, duk a cikin waƙoƙin masarautun Zamfara da Narambaɗa ya yi, babu ko wuri ɗaya da ya zargiwani ɗan sarki da sata, ko bafaden sarki, ko ‘yan adawar sarki. Don haka, ko’ina aka ga ɓarawo a Zamfara baƙo ne, tafaffe ne, in ga uba in ga kaka. Da wuya a samu Bazamfare wawa, shi ya sa ake zargin su da yawan ruhi har da kirarin: “galma uwar ruhi.”[42] Narambaɗa ya ɗan gutsuro haka a waƙar Magajin Shinkafi Ibrahim yana cewa:

Jagora: Haba! Ba su amana

            Bas su da Allah

Jagora/Yara: Komi suka yi, ya sani

            : Munahukkai ku bi sannu

            “kar” shika gani

Gindi: Ibrahim na Guraguri

            : Mai Shinkahi bajinin zagi

            : Mu dai Allah shi bar muna kaya

Mai wayo da wawa, ba a shan inuwa ɗaya. Magaji Ibrahim “kar” yake gani, watau kansa garas yake, sai dai ya yi ruhi don kunya, amma ba don bai gane ba. A masarautar Ƙaura wayon Zamfarawa ya fito ɓaro-ɓaro a faɗar Narambaɗa:

Jagora: Gidan ga mutum huɗu ba su arauta,

            : Da samɓalto da satoto

            : Shi wanga na ukku ƙazami

Jagora/Yara: Na cikon na huɗunsu hawa’i

Gindi: Shiri bajinin Mamuda

            : Abu na Namoda shirarre

Sambalto babban wawa ke nan. Satoto ya fi sambalto haukar wauta.[43]Ƙazanta ba a san ta ga masu wayo ba, ga ƙauyawa  da wawaye aka san ta. A riwayar Narambaɗa na huɗu shi ne “hawa’i” ɗan iska ko shashasha ko mahaukaci. Ba a shashasha sai wawa.

Sakamakon Bincike

Na zaɓi gogaggen makaɗin fada ɗaya, domin ya jagorance ni ga karatun daular Zamfara. Wanda na zaɓo, a wajen uba Babarbare ne, a wajen uwa Bazamfare. A al’adance, Karen Makaɗa ne ya san sarauta ya san makaɗanta.[44] Uban gidansa Bafulatani ne Batoranke, amma kuma ya yi wa Gobirawa da Zamfarawa da Zagezagi da Katsinawa waƙa. Yadda Narambaɗa ya kalli Zamfara na tace shi kamar haka:

1.      Waƙa wata babbar taskar tarihi ce, da za a ce Salwantarta kamar salwantar tarihi ne da kyawawan al’adun al’umma. Taskace waƙa, taskace tarihi ne, dole a tashi tsaye. Narambaɗa ya tabbatar da kasancewar waƙa diwanin tarihi.

2.      A farfajiyar ƙasar Hausa, Zamfara ta fi kowace daular daga cikin daulolin ƙasar Hausa takwas (8)[45] yawan mawaƙan baka. Narambaɗa ya tabbatar, dole mu yi binciken mafari.

3.      Manyan rubuce-rubucen da aka yi kan Zamfara na Infaƙui Maisuri, Rahoton Jamusawa, Last, (1968) Adamu (1968), Alƙali, (1968), Nadama, (1972), babu wanda ya taskace Zamfara sosai, tare da hujjoji, kamar Narambaɗa. Da za a kalli mawaƙan masarautun Zamfara daban-daban da abu ya fi haka.

4.      Na gano cewa, masarautun Anka da Gummi ba su bayyana a diwanin Narambaɗa ba. Wannan na buƙatar sabon bincike ko don fitaccen karin maganan da ya game duniya na “Gummi ta gamu da Anka.”

5.      Babban cikas da masana tarihi (History) da walwala (sociology) da Ilimin Al’adau (Anthropology) ke fama da shi, shi ne, rashin sanin ilmin da ke ƙunshe cikin adabin bakanmu, musamman waƙoƙin  bakanmu. Wanda duk ya jahilci adabinmu, ya jahilci sanin al’adunmu da tarihinmu, da addininmu da wayewarmu.

6.      Binciken da aka yi barkatai kan Zamfara, sun manta  da gurbin mawaƙa cikin tarihin Zamfara, shi ya sa suka bar muhimman kusurwowi da yawa, da ba su toshe ba.

7.      Narambaɗa ba sarauta kaɗai ya taskace a Zamafara ba. Ya taskace tarihinta, sana’o’inta, halayenta mutanen daular da gudummuwarsu.

Naɗewa

Bisa ga abubuwan da diwanin Narambaɗa ya taskace kan Zamfara, akwai buƙatar zurfafa bincike a kan sauran masarautu gaba ɗaya. Sauƙin mawaƙa ga hardacewa, wata babbar taska ce ta adana tarihi a ka. Da za a bi mawaƙan Zamfara daban-daban, a taskace waƙoƙinsu, masana za su samu taskar baje kolin bincike, da za a gina  gawurtaccen bincike da zai amfani kowa da kowa. Duk wani cikas mai tsentsenin binciken tarihi zai hanga a waƙa, akwai shi cikin kowane tushe daga cikin tussan adana kayan bincike da tarihi. Za mu iya cewa, mafi yawan abubuwan da Narambaɗa ya taskace a diwanin waƙoƙinsa, fiye da ƙarni ɗaya, yau sun wakana gaban idanunmu. Wannan wata hujja ce ta cewa, tarihinmu, da al’adunmu da halaynemu, da Turawa, da Larabawa da Fulani suka taskace, dole a tashi tsaye a yi musu gyaran fuska, bisa ga abubuwan da muka tabbatar cikin adabinmu, na kunne ya girmi kaka. Babu tarihin da ba kunne ya girmi kaka ya haifar da shi ba. Babu mai nuna gidansu da hannun hagu. Bakin wani ba ya suɗe wa hannun wani miya. Babu wanda ya cancanta ya ba da labarin abu kamar wanda aka yi tare da shi, ko gaban idonsa domin gani ya kori ji. Rubuce-rubucen Larabawa, da Turawa da Fulani, a kan Hausawa da ƙasar Hausa, ya tabbatar da bukatar bita a yau. Babu wai, da dahuwa, da banda, da tuya da suya duk gashi ya fi su sanin asirin wuta. Babu mai rubuta daidaitaccen tarihin Bahaushe fiye da Bahaushe.

 

Manazarta

Adamu, M. (1968) “Yawuri in the 19th Century”, M.A Dissertation: Zaria. Ahmadu Bello University.

Adamu, M. (1978) Hausa Factor in West African History. Zaria. Ahmadu Bello University.

Alkali, M. B. (1968) “Hausa Community in Crisis. Kebbi in the 19th Century”. Zaria. Ahmadu Bello University.

Auta, A. L. (1986) “ Gudunmawar  Wa}o}in Maka]an Baka Dangane da Adana Tarihi”, Kundin M. A. Kano. Jami’ar Bayero.

Bello, M. (n.d) Infa}ul Maisuri. Rubutun Hannu.

Bunza A. M. (1998) “ Na}alin Diddigin Jirwayen Rayuwa Cikin Falsafar Luguden Kalmomin Wa}o}in Hausa”. Ma}ala.Sakkwato: Jami’ar [anfodiyo.

Bunza A. M. (2009) Naramba]a. Lagos: Ibrash Publishers.

Bunza A. M. (2015) “ Hyperbole as the Peak of Stylistic Adorment in Hausa Oral Songs,” Paper Presented at the 3rd Annual Conference and 12th  NFS Congress organized by the Nigerian Folkloric Society, Center for the research in Nigerian Languages. Kano: Bayero University.

Bunza A. M. (2019)” Wane ne Naramba]a? Lead Paper on Life History Wisdom and Contributions of Ibrahim Naramba]a to Hausa Studies. Organized by Center for the research in Nigerian Languages. Translation and Folklore 15-17 September 2019. Kano: Bayero University.

Bunza A. M. (2020) “ Citation of Naramba]a (1810-1960). Delivered on the occasion of the 24th Convocation Ceremony of University of Abuja and the Conferment of Honorary Degree (Doctor of Literature) on Ibrahim  Buhari Maidangwale Abdul}adir Naramba]a Tubali (1810-1960). Held at the University’s Convocation Centre, on Saturday 15th Feb, 2020.

Car, A. H. (n.d)What is History?

[angambo, A. (1979) “ Use of Kirari and Taakee in Hausa Oral Praise Songs. (Shata, Naramba]a and Sa’idu Faru)”, Nigeria Magazine 128-9:89-99.

Furniss, G. (1999) Poetry, Prose and Popular Culture in Hausa. London: Edinburgh University Press.

Gusau, S. M. (1987) Jerin Wa}o}in Ibrahim Naramba]a Tubali. Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

Hiskett, M. (1975) History of Hausa Islamic Verse. London: SOAS.

Last, M. (1969) Sokoto Caliphate. Ibadan: Unversity Press.

Marwick, A. (1989) The Natureof History. (Third Edition) London: The Macmillan Press.

Mukhtar, I. (1984) “Nahawun Wa}a: Yanaye-yanayensa da Sigoginsa Cikin Rubutattun Wa}o}i”. Kundin M. A. Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

Nadama, G. (1977) “The Rise and Collapse of Hausa States: A Social and Political History of Zamfara”. PhD Thesis. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University.

Paden, J. (1986) Ahmadu Bello The Sardauna of Sokoto: Values and Leadership in Nigeria. London: Hodder and Stough.

Samaldore, S. (n. d) Warfare in Sokoto Caliphate.

Shea, P. J. (1986) “The Development of an Export Oriented Dyed Cloth Industry in Kano”. PhD Thesis. Madison: Unversity of Wisconsin.

Smith, A. (1987) A Little New Light . Zaria: ABU Press.

Smith, M.G (1960) Government in Zazzau (1800-1950).  London: Oxford University Press.

Sodangi, B. A. (1979) “ Naramba]a da Wa}o}insa”. Kundin digirin Farko. Zaria: Jami’ar Ahmadu Bello.

Udu, A. (1972) “Comparison of Naramba]a and Aliyu [andawo”. B.A Project. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University.

Usman Y.B. (1981) Transformation of Katsina. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University.

 

 

 



[1]Gawurtattun su ne Kano, Katsina, Kabi, Zamfara, Zazzau, Damagaran, da Gobir

[2]A.M. Bunza, Narambaɗa, Ibrash, Lagos, 2009

[3]A. M. Bunza, “Wane ne Narambaɗa?” Takardar Taron Ƙasa da Ƙasa kan Ibrahim Narabaɗa Tubali, BUK, September 1th – 17th, 2019.

[4][4]Sarkin Musulmi Muhammadu Bello, Infaqul Maisuri.

[5]A. H. Car, What is History?

[6]Abdullahi Smith, A little more light

[7]M. G. Smith, Government in Zazzau

[8]Mahdi Adamu, History Factor in West African History, ABU Press, 19

[9]Yusuf Bala Usman, Transfromation of Katsina

[10]M. Hisket, History of Hausa Islamic Verse, SOAS, London, 1975

[11]M. Last, Sokoto Caliphate, Longman, Ibadan, 1969

[12]S. Samaldone, Warefare in Sokoto Caliphate

[13]J. Shea

[14]J. Paden, The Right Honorable Gentle Man

[15]A. M. Bunza, Hyperbole

[16]Wajen uwa ya gaji kiɗa, makaɗan da suka gaji roƙo wajen uba tobassansa ne. Idan ya riske su wajen waƙa zai karɓe duk abin da suka samu. Da Kurna da Ɗandawo in sun ji Narambaɗa na cikin gari ba su waƙa sai ya fice.

[17] Hira da Alhaji Danyadodo Shinkafi, 2006.

[18]A wata riwaya an ce: “Nai sittin.” Yana nufin ya sauke hizu sittin Alƙur’ani. A shekaru kuwa saba’in yake kwarare.Hira da Sarkin Gobir na Isa Alhaji Nasiru a gidansa Sokoto. Laraba, 22/1/2020 Gudunmuwar Alƙali Muhammad Mudassir Hassan ce wani masani waƙoƙin Narambaɗa kuma aminin Sarkin Gobir na Isa Alhaji Nasiru.

[19]Masana waƙoƙin Narambaɗa sun shaida cewa ba a taɓa tsintar batsa ko ƙarya a zantukansa ba. Idan ya faɗi batu cikin waƙa komai duhunsa, idan an yi taliyo za a ga haskensa.

[20]Hira da wani Hakimin garin Zazzagawa ta daular Kabi a garinsu, a shekarar 2016.

[21]Takwarorinsa irin su Jankiɗi da Ɗan’anace da Gambo duk “Hausa” suke kiran Sakkwato da Gwandu da Zamfara cikin waƙoƙinsu.

[22]Taken daukar Kabi shi ne:

                : Kabi ta ci Hausa

                : Da me tac ci Hausa

                : Da ƙarhi da yaji

[23] Hira da Murray Last, 2020.

[24]Domin sarakunan Fulani ake tura musu su sarauci ƙasashensu, alhali ba Fulani ke da ƙasashen ba.

[25]A. M. Buna, “Sakkwato ce Tushen Hausa in ji Narambaɗa,” takardar da aka gabatar, UDUS

[26]Gwandu a halin yanzu tana Jihar Kabi tana da ƙananan hukumomi goma (10) daga cikin ƙananan hukumomi ashirin da ɗaya (21) na jihar Kabi.

[27]A daular Zamfara akwai makaɗan Saurata, Farauta, Fawa, Noma, Su, Tauri, Gayya, Sha’awa, Zari, Sata, Ban dariya, Kuntugi, Garaya, Bori, duk wani nau’in kiɗa na gargajiyar Bahaushe akwai su a Zamfara. A wakokin fada muna da Narambada Kurna, Makadan Maza, Kassu Zurmi, Makadan Dambe, Dan’anace, Makadan Tauri, Garba Danwasa Gummi, Makadan Noma, Amali Sububu d.s. Binciken da B.B.C ta yi wajajen (1997?) ya yi tsokacin haka.

[28]A wata faɗa ualam ce: “Ai tun da Nagaya ya i tai waƙa”

[29]Narambaɗa na cewa: “Sarkin Kudun Gusau Allah dai ya cika ma burinka.” Wato ya riƙi Isa, ya koma ya riƙi Sakkwato. Isa babban gari ne a daular Usmaniyya.

[30]A wajen Kabawa Yabo Hausa ce.

[31]Fitattun garuruwa ne na masu kuɗi da ilmin addini da boko.

[32]Wannan ya tabbatar da ba ƙasar matsorata ba ce.

[33]Ɗan koyo wanda bai iya abu ba

[34]Karsa shi ne mai rabon kokuwa a fagen wasa. Idan fagen dambe ne a ce mishi “damazau”

[35]Zamfara yankin ‘Yandoto ita ce Katsinar Laka

[36]Sunan Shago na yanka Abubakar Sunan Mahiafinsa Abdullahi mutumin ‘Yarkahoji ne gabas da garin Rini cikin ƙasar Mafara, Daular Zamfara.

[37]Babban gona na tarayyar iyali ko dangi

[38]Ƙaramar gona da ake ɗeba wa yara “kurga”

[39]Babban abin haƙon kifi ne masunta na da sarauta “Taru”

[40]Faɗar “ya nasa” kan kifi ake fara nasawa gora jiki ya bi.

[41]Fitattun masu fatauci ne a Gwanja da ƙasashen ƙetare.

[42]Ni ban yarda ba, ai mai kunya ke rufi domin gudun ya bayyana a yi abin a ji kunya. Wanda ba ya ruhi ai ba ya da kunya.

[43]Samɓalto ya sha hura ta zuba a cikinsa sai ƙuda/ƙuje ya sauka ya sha furar da ta zuba. Ganin haka, ya kira Satoto, ya ce: “ya ɗauko kibiya ya harbe ƙudan.” Nan take Satoto ya aikata, samɓalto ya baƙunci lahira. Da wanda ya yarda ya yi kisan kai, da wanda ya yarda aka kasha shi, wane ne wawa ko mahaukaci? A ganina, su duka wawaye ne mahaukata ne.

[44]Karen makaɗa bayan hulɗa da sarakuna yana hulda da mawaƙa. Ya tara abubuwa biyu ke nan.

[45]Daulolin takwas su ne: Kano, Katsina, Kabi, Zamfara, Damagaran, Bauchi da Yawuri (Inji Mahdi Adamu Ngaski).