Maƙalar da aka gabatar a taron ƙara wa juna sani na ƙasa da ƙasa wanda Tsangayar Fasaha da Nazarin Addinin Musalunci, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo Sakkwato ta gudanar daga 01-3-2016 zuwa 03-3- 2016.

Gudummawar Sarakuna Wajan Bunƙasa Ilimi Domin Cigaban Nijeriya Ta Arewa

Dr. Adamu rabi’u bakura

arbakura62@gmail.com

08064893336

Tsakure

            Kasancewar sarakuna a matsayin iyayen al’umma kuma majiɓinta al’amurran rayuwarsu, sun fahimci ilimi ne ginshiƙin cigaban kowace irin al’umma. Hasali ma duk al’ummar da ta rasa shi za ta kasance ‘yar baya ga dangi. Wannan ne ya sanya sarakunan yankin suka zare dantsa domin ganin tsara ba su tsere wa al’ummarsu ba wajen mallakar ilimin zamani (karatun boko) gwargwadon buƙata. Ba su tsaya nan ba, har ma sun inganta ilimin addinin musulunci ta hanyar kafa makarantun koyar da harkokin shara’ar musulunci da makarantun horar da malaman arabiyya da fannonin addinin musulunci. Ƙudurin wannan maƙala shi ne ta leƙa fagen tarihi domin zaƙula irin rawar da sarakunan Arewa suka taka wajan ilmantar da al’ummar wannan yankin ta fuskar ilimin zamani (boko) da na Larabci. Sai dai nazarin zai taƙaita ne kawai daga shekarar 1909 zuwa 1966 wato lokacin da aka sami ‘yancin kai (mulkin Kai).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Contribution of Emirs To Education For The Development of Northern Nigeria

By

Dr. Adamu Rabi’u Bakura

ewarbakura62@gmail.com

08064893336

Hausa Department

Zamfara State College of Education, Maru.

Abstract:

 Emirs being passionate and caring leaders who offer guidance and support to their subjects, realize that  education is the main instrumental tool for development of all aspects of human life. In view of that, they have actively played a major role in providing western type of education to their subjects. Not only that, but also improved the Islamic Education system with the establishment of judicial schools as well as school for Islamic Education, for the development of Northern Nigeria. The aim of this paper is to go back to history to trace the crucial role played by the Northern Emirs in educating their subjects for development of the Northern Nigeria from 1909 to 1966.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.0 Gabatarwa:

                    Ko da Turawan mulkin mallaka suka zo Nijeriya ta Arewa sun sami yankin da faɗi da yawan al’umma. Kuma garuruwan sarakunan ƙasar Hausa suna da kyakkyawan tsarinsu na shugabanci da aka gina bisa ƙa’idar gudanar da mulki irin na addinin musulunci. Haka suna da iliminsu na rubutu da karatu cikin harshen Larabci da kuma wata hanyar rubutu da suke amfani da ita wajen rubuta tunaninsu da haruffan Larabci, wanda ake kira da rubutun ajamin Hausa. Wannan nau’in rubutu an daɗe ana aiwatar da shi wajen sadarwa da gudanar da harkokin mulki da na addini da fannonin ilmantarwa. Mutanen wannan yankin ba a same  su haka kurum kara zube ba. Suna da kyakkyawan tsari da wayewar kai irin nasu (Ilorin,Bb.sh:31-2) da ( Abdurrahman,42) da (Yahaya,1988:89-90).

            Turawan mulkin mallaka suka sami Nijeriya ta Arewa  kusan a kowane saƙon da musulmi ke zaune akwai makarantar allo da ake koya wa yara karatu da rubutun Muhammadiyya da kuma makarantar ilimi inda ake koyar da ilmi mai zurfi a kan fannoni daban-daban da suka haɗa da tafsiri da hadisi da adabin Larabci da nahawu da balaga da lissafi da (hisabi) da waƙe da kuma ilimin yanayin ƙasa (Abdurrahaman,Bb.sh: 55-6).

2.0 Ma’anonin Tubalan Ginin Taken Maƙalar

            Kawo ma’anonin tubalan da aka gina taken (sunan) maƙalar abu ne da ke da muhimmanci, yin haka zai taimaka wajen saukin fahimtar fuskar da maƙalar ta mayar da gaba. Tubalan kuwa su ne: gudummawa da sarakuna da ilimi da bunƙasa.

2.1 Gudummawa: Bahaushiyar kalma ce da ke cikin jerin sunaye jinsin mata. Ana faɗar ta da lafazin “gudunmawa” a Karin harshen Sakkwatanci da na Kananci da kuma Zazzaganci. Akan furta ta da lafazin “gudunmuwa” a Karin harshen Kananci, kamar yadda Bargery (1993:402) ya nuna. Shi kuwa Abraham (1975:337) ya nuna cewa a Karin harshen Sakkwatanci ne ake faɗar ta da lafazin “gudunmowa”, wato akan sa wasalin “o” a gaɓa ta uku maimakon wasalin “u” da wasu Karin harsuna ke amfani da shi. Har ila yau Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero (2006:171) ya nuna ana furta gaɓa ta uku da wasalin “a” ko “o” misali: gu- dum- ma- wa. Ita kuwa Kalmar gudummawa tana ɗauke da ma’anar “ taimako na aiki ko kudi ko abinci ko sutura ko wani abu. Kuma daidai take da Kalmar “agaji” ko ceto daga wahala, kamar yadda Garba (1990:4) ya bayyana.

2.2 Sarakuna: Kalmar sarakuna jam’i ce ta Kalmar sarki. Kalmar sarki kuwa tana cikin jerin sunaye na namiji, mai ishara ga jinsin mace ita ake ce Kalmar “ sarauniya”. Sai dai a wasu sassan ƙasar Hausa akan faɗI jam’in Kalmar da lafazin “saraakii” ko “sarakai”. A fagen ma’ana kuwa tana nufin  mutumin da aka naɗa ta hanyar gargajiya don ya shugabanci mutane ta hanyar mulki ko sana’a ko wani abu (Buk, 2006:392). Yayin da da Garba (1990:132) ya bayyana ma’anar da cewa: shugaban al’umma ko shugaban wata kungiyar jama’a.

2.3 Ilimi: Kalma ce da ke cikin jerin suna  namiji, jam’I kuwa ita ce ilimummuka. Kalmar na ɗauke da ma’anar: sani musamman na shari’a da addini. Tana kuma nufin  karatu na fannin kimiyya da adabi. A wata ma’anar an fassara ta da ganewa ko fahimta (Buk, 2006:205). Yayin da Garba (1990:132) ya bayyana ma’anarta da sani, misali na addini ko fannin sani ko koyo.

2.4 Bunƙasa: Kalma ce da ke cikin jerin kalmomin aikatau, wato kalma mai nuna aiki. Tana ƙunshe da ma’anar gawurta ko ƙasaita. Ita kuwa Kalmar ƙasaita tana nufin girman daraja, kamar yadda (Buk, 2006) ya nuna.

            Rattaba waɗannan ma’anoni na tubalan ginin taken (sunan) wannan maƙalas hi zai bayar da haske wajen gano sahihanin ayyukan da sarakunan Nijeriya Ta Arewa suka aiwatar na ilimi domin haɓaka wannan yanki da ma Nijeriya baki ɗaya. Don haka zan ɗauki wasu sassa daga cikin irin gudunmawar da iyayen al’umma wato sarakuna suka bayar a ɓangaren ilimi don cigaban Nijeriya Ta Arewa da ma ƙasa baki ɗaya.

3.0 Bayar Da Goyon Baya Ga Tsarin Ilimin  Zamani (boko)

            Yayin da aka buɗa makarantar farko a shekarar 1905 a Sakkwato, da farko Sarkin Musulmi Attahiru na II bai bayar da goyon baya ba domin gudun ka da ‘ya’yansu su zama kiristoci (Ibrahim, 1979:32). Amma daga baya sun yi na’am  da sabon tsarin ilimin da Turawa suka zo da shi. Tambayar da mai karatu zai iya yi it ace, “ ko me ya sa suka amince da wannan shiri na karatun boko ga ‘ya’yan nasu? Amsar wannan tambayar ita ce:

*Da farko sun fahimci cewa, ba ilimin addinin kirista ake koyar da ‘ya’yansu ba, kuma ba a yi amfani da ilimin wajen mayar da ‘ya’yan musulmi kiristoci ba.

*An kuma ƙarfafawa ɗaliban makarantar bokon halartar makarantun Muhammadiyya bayan an tashi da makaranta.

*Haka an sanya darussan addinin musulunci a tsarin manhajar makarantar bokon. *An kuma tanadi malaman da za su koyar da fannonin addini a makarantar.

*Sun fahimci an shata bayar da sabon tsarin ilimin ne ga ‘ya’yansu don amfaninsu (Tibanderana, 1974:395). A kan waɗannan dalilai ne ya sa sarakuna suka amince da wannan sabon tsarin ilimin zamani.

            Sakamakon haka sai suka fara tura ‘ya’yansu makarantar. Sarkin Gwandu ya tura ɗalibai biyu, Sarkin Tambuwal ya tura ɗalibai biyu. A daidai shekarar 1907 yawan ɗaliban makarantar da ke Sakkwato sun kai 36, waɗanda suka fito daga gidajen sarautar Sakkwato, Gwandu da kuma Argungu, kamar yadda Taiwo (1986:45) da Malumfashi, (2009:38) suka nuna. Sai dai a wata takardar bayanin tarihin Kwalejin Nagarta, an kawo jeri sunayen ɗaliban da aka ɗauka a ranar 1/1/ 1907 kamar haka:

 Daga Masarautar Argungu, akwai: Na-Annabi da Labbo.

Masarautar Sakkwato kuwa, akwai: Alhaji Zakari, Bayero, Ijewa, Ladan, Lamiɗo, Isa, Macciɗo, Maiturare, Dango, Ummaru, JoɗI da kuma Altine (Shagari, 2003).A shekarar 1912 aka buɗa Elimantare a Sakkwato wadda ta soma aiki da malamai biyu (2) Malam H.M. Jibrilu da Malam Ɗayyabu, waɗanda suka sami horo daga makarantar Ɗan Hausa Kano. A 1014 aka buɗa makarantar ‘ya’yan sarakuna a BirninKebbi da ɗalibai 56. Sarkin Argungu ya nemi a buɗa masa a 1912, amma bai sami biyan buƙat aba sai a 1918 (Tibenderana, 1974:394).

            Tun daga wancan lokacin ne aka yi ta samun cigaban ilimi da sauye-sauyen tsari har makarantar ta kai ga matakin yaye ɗalibai da dama da suka bayar da gagarumar gudummawa ta fuskokin rayuwa da dama. Misalansu sun haɗa da: Alh. Shehu Aliyu Shagari tsohon shugaban ƙasa, Alhaji Shehu Muhammadu Kangiwa, tsohon gwamnan Jahar Sakkwato, Dr. Garba Na-Dama, tsohon gwamnan Jahar Sakkwato, Wazirin Sakkwato Alhaji  Dr.Junaidu, Sarkin Gwandu Alh. Haruna Rashid wanda ya taɓa riƙon ƙwarya na muƙamin gwamnan tsohuwar Jahar Arewa a shekarar 1965, da Sarkin Kabin Argungu Alh. Muhammadu Mera da Sarkin Yawuri Alh. Muhammadu Tukur, da M. D. jega (Sarkin Gwandu na yanzu) da Birgediya Janar Usman Yaro da Malaman Jami’o’i da dama kamar Farfesa A.M. Bunza da sauransu.

            Irin wannan goyon baya ne ya haifar da yawaitar makarantun Elimantare da makarantun lardi da n asana”o”i da na horar da malamai da matakartar ilimi mai zurfi, wadda aka kafa a Zariya cikin 1952 mai suna: “ Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology”. An kafa ta ne damin ba ɗaliban sakadare damar shiga Kwalejin Jami’ar Ibadan don karatun fannin aikin likita. Daga wannan makaranta ce mutane kamar Kanal  Ahmad Ali daga lardin Kabba da Dr. datti Ahmad daga lardin Adamawa da Dr. Isyaku Aliyu daga lardin Katsina suka sami zuwa  Jami’ar. Ta goyon bayan ne aka sami damar buɗa Tsangayar Lamurrar Mulki da ke Zariya (Institute of Administratio) a 1946, inda aka rinƙa karatun fannin mulki da na akawu da na kuɗaɗe, wadda daga bisani ta zama wani sashe na Jami’ar Ahmadu Bello. A ka samar da Cibiyar Horar Da Ma’aikata (Staff Development Centre) wadda ta zama Kwalejin Fasaha da Kimiyyar Ƙere-Ƙere ( Kaduna Polytechnic) a shekarar 1968 (Lugga, 2004:34).

            A ɓangaren ilmantar da ‘ya’ya mata kuwa, sarakuna sun bayar da ha\in kai fiye da kima. A Katsina, Sarki Dikko buɗa makarantar ya yi  a shamakinsa. Ɗaliban sun kai kimanin 20. Cikin ɗaliban har da matarsa ‘yar sarkin Kano Abbas wadda ake yi wa laƙabi da Fulani Mai-Ɗaki. Wata Baturiya mai suna: Miss Robinson ta shugabanci makarantar (Sufi, 1993:158).

            A kano kuwa an buda makarantar mata a shekarar 1930. An gina ta a kan kuɗ fam 2,259:00. Sarkin Kano Abdullahi Bayero ya fara saka ‘ya’yansa mata a makarantar waɗanda suka haɗa da Saudatu da A’ishatu da Abu da Mairiga. Ya kuma umurci ‘yan majalisarsa da su saka ‘ya’yansu makarantar ( Sufi, 1993: 161).

            Lardin Sakkwato kuwa, Sarkin Musulmi da Sarkin Gwandu sun buƙaci a buɗa makarantun mata a masarautunsu. Sun yi alkawalin za su biya malamai Mata Turawa da za su koyar albashi. Amma an nuna irin yadda ɗawainiyarsu ta ke cin kuɗi. saboda haka suka nemi a samo Yarabawa (Tibenderana, 1974:404). Irin wannan yunƙuri ya wanzar da samuwar mata a sassa daban-daban da suka bayar da gudummawa wajen cigaban wannan yanki.

4.0 Samar Da wuraren Koyo Da Koyarwa

            Lamarin koyo da koyarwa abu ne da ke buƙatar natsattsen muhali da kyakkyawan yanayi wurin zama. Wannan ne yasa Turawan kan yi ishara da wurin da ya dace a kafa makarantar. Su kuma sarakunan su ɗauki ɗawainiyar gina makarantar. Misali a Sakkwato bayan an buɗa makarantar a cikin birnin a 1905, sa aka fito bayan birnin aka gina makarantar wato wajen Ƙofar Taramniya aka gina makarantar a muhallin da Nagarta Kwalej take yanzu. Da Sarkin Musulmi ya kamala aikin sai suka tare a shekarar 1914 (Shagari, 2003).

            A Kano kuwa Sarkin ya bayar da gidansa ne da ke Nasarawa aka soma karatu, inda aka yi amfani da wasu ɗakuna biyu a matsayin azuzuwa (Graham, 1966: 79). Sai dai an sami saɓanin ra’ayi, yayin da Sufi (1993:227) ya nuna makarantar ta fara zama ne a Unguwar Bompai da ke Kano kafin a gama ginin wurin zama a Nasarawa.

            A Katsina kuwa an gina makarantar ne a cikin filin gonar da Sarkin Katsina Muhammdu Dikko ya bayar da ke Rafukka. Kuma shi ya ɗauki ɗawainiyar gina Katsina Kwalej ɗin. An gina ofishin malamai da azuzuwan karatun ɗalibai da ɗakunan kwanansu. Yayin da Wazirin Katsina Alhaji Haruna ya bayar da filin gonarsa don a yi filin was an makaranta, kamar yadda Lugga (2004:59) ya nuna. Hasali ma duk inda aka ƙaddamar da tsarin karatun boko, sarakunan wuraren ke  da alhaki samar gine-ginen da za a yi karatu a cikinsu tun daga lokacin da aka soma karatun har zuwa lokacin da gwammatin mulkin soja ta karɓe lamurran tafiyar da ilimi daga hannun sarakuna.

5.0 Samar Da Masaukai

            Tun da aka fara karatun boko a makarantar Ɗan Hausa da ke Kano, wadda ta zama ta kwana ce da ta ƙunshi ɗalibai daga sassa daban-daban na lardin Jahar Arewa, sai ya zama wajibi a tanadarwa dalibanta masauki. An kuma samar musu da masaukai bias la’akari da lardunan da suka fito. Hasali ma kowane ɗalibi yana tare da matarsa da mai yi masa hidima. An yi haka ɗin ne don a kawar da bambancin yanayin zaman rayuwar makaranta (Ozogi da Ocho, 1981:44-5).

            A wasu lardunan kuwa an gina makarantar ne tare da wurin kwanan ɗaliban, musammam a makaranta kamar Katsina Kwalej, wadda aka gina a shekarar 1921 da makarantar horon malamai waɗanda aka gina a garuruwan Bauchi da Katsina da Maru a cikin shekarar 1930, kuma hukumar En-e- En-e na hurumin da makarantun suke ke da alhakin samar da masaukan. A daidai wancan lokacin ana amfani da yumɓu da duwatsu wajen aiwatar da gine-ginen azuzuwan ɗalibai da wajen kwanansu (Lugga, 2004:50).

6.0 Biyan Albashin Ma’aikata

            Da yake ba wani aiki da zai gudana kamar yadda aka tsara sai da masu gida rana (rkuɗi). wannan ne ya sa Turawa suka ɗora alhakin biyan albashin ma’aikata da tafiyar da muhimman al’amurran (ayyukan) da suka dangaci cigaban ilimin a kan wuyan hukumomin En-e-En-e. a wannan tsarin an shata cewa duk wasu gine-gine da biyan albashin ma’aikatan hukumar ilimi da sauran malamai ‘yan ƙasa da ke koyarwa, al’amari ne da ya rataya a kan En-e (N.A.). su kuwa Turawa ma’aikata da malaman makaranta, albashinsu na fitowa daga aljihun gwammanatin mulkin mallaka, kamar yadda Ozigi da Ocho (1981:44) suka ayyana.

            Tsarin biyan albashin ya danganta ne da irin sakamakon darajar karatun da mutun ya samu bayan ya kammala makarantar. An tsara biyan albashin bias matakin darajar takardar karatu kamar haka:

Maki (marks)                                    Daraja (Grade)                     Albashi (salary)

94 – 100                                                          I                                               f 12:10s

76 – 93                                                            II                                              f 7 :10s

50 – 75                                                            III                                            f 5 :00

0 – 49                                                              Failure                                               f 4 :00

Wannan tsarin albashin waɗanda suka kamala Katsina Kwalej kuma suka aminta za su kama aikin koyarwa a lardunansu, kamar yadda Lugga (2004:61) ya zo da shi. Sai dai malaman makaranta da suka mallaki takardar shaidar malanta mai daraja ta biyu (Grade II) akan ɗora su ne a kan albashin fam uku (f 3:00) a wata ( Lugga, 2004:31). Ta haka ne hukumomin En-e suka ɗauki takalihun biyan albashin malaman makaranta.

7.0 Ciyar Da Ɗalibai a Makarantu

            A farkon lamarin makaratun boko na kwana ne, amma duk da haka ba a lamunce wa ɗalibai su dafa abinci ba. Saboda haka ne aka gayyato masu sayar da abinci, su kai abincin sayarwa a harabar makarantar domin sayarwa. Musammam ma a Katsina Kwalej, inda Sarkin Katsina Muhammadu Dikko ya tilasta wa masu sayar da da abinci kasa kayan abincinsu a harabar makarantar domin sayarwa ga ɗaliban. Wannan ne ya wanzar da wata ƙaramar kasuwa a cikin makarantar da aka yi wa laƙabi da “Ƙasuwar Dole”. A lokuttan bukukuwan Babbar Sallah  ( Sallar Layya) Mai Martaba Sarkin Katsina Muhammadu Dikko yakan aika wa ɗaliban da raguna. A cikin watan azumi kuwa daidai lokacin da yake raba zakka, yakan aika wa ɗaliban kayan abinci ( Lugga. 2004: 55-6). Kusan wannan al’ada ce ga sarakunan Arewa na tallafawa ɗalibai da abinci.

            Za a yi mamakin jin cewa, ba a dafa abinci a makarantu. Don haka tambayar da mutun zai ita ce, ta yaya za su sami kuɗin sayen abinci tun da ba kyauta za a ba su ba, ba kuma bara za su yi ba? Yadda lamarin ya kasance shi ne, kamar a Kwalejin Katsina, kowace masarauta da ke da ɗalibai da ke karatu a makarantar, takan ba kowane ɗalibinta sulai talati a kowane wata a matsayin kuɗin abinci da wasu lalurori. Kana ta biya masa fam biyar duk wata a matsayin kuɗin hidimar makaranta da tafiyar gane wa ido a Ikko (Legas) idan an sami hutu (Lugga, 2004:81).

            Yayin da makarantu da ɗalibai suka soma yawaita, sai hukumomin En-e (N.A.) suka rinƙa tanadin kayan abinci isassu domin ciyar da ɗalibansu. Wasu lokuttan ma sai an nemi shugabannin makaratun su zo su karɓI abinci a wajen mai kula da raba abincin. Hasali ma duk shugaban makarantar da ba ya buƙata, yakan bayyana ne a rubuce (N.A/A/07/6/314 na shekarar 1965). Nau’in kayan abinci da ake rarraba wa makarantun awancan lokacin  sun ƙunshi: shinkafa da dawa da gero (Girls, No.10/vol.111/532 na 1962).

            Ta fuskar fuskar ɗaliban da suka tafi makarantu nag aba domin zurfafa iliminsu a matsayin almajirai ba ma’aikata ba, hukumar En-e ce ta ɗauki nauyin lamarin, kamar yadda fayel ( N.A./3/263/s.1/14:16) ya nuna.

8.0 Inganta Karatun Addinin Musulunci

            Kasancewar sarakuna jagororin lamurran addini kuma iyayen al’umma, don haka a kullum sukan yi tunanin hanyoyin da za su inganta tare da kare rayuwa da dukiyoyi da kuma mutuncin al’ummominsu. Irin wannan tunani ya sa masarautar Kano ta buɗe makarantar horar da ma’aikatan shara’a bias tsarin addinin musulunci. Wannan makaranta an sanya ta a ƙarƙashin shugabancin Malam Sulaiman Ma’ajin Kano a shekarar 1928. Makarantar an san ta da suna Shahuci Judicial. An fara karatu da ɗalibai takwas kamar haka: Shehu da Murtala da Sani da Nu’umanu da Mamunu da Ibrahim da Aminu da Basiru. An fara gudanar da karatun ne a kan sigar tsarin karatun gargajiya (Sufi, 1993:148).

            An fara karantar da littattafai kamar: Tuhfatul Hukkami da Li’irabi da Lamiyya da Muɗala’a da Tafsiri da Hadisi da Tarihin Annabi S.A.W. (sufi, 1993:149). Yayin da makarantar ta haɓaka sai aka ƙaro mata wasu malamai domin su koyar da karatun boko, malaman kuwa su ne: Malam Baƙo Bauchi da Malam Umaru ɗan Madakin Kano da Malam Muhammadu Makwarari da Ma’aji Abdullahi. A daidai lokacin da Ma’aji Sulaiman ke shugabanci makarantar, dole ne sai ɗalibi ya hardace littafin Tuhfatul Hukkami. Shi ne kuma ya fara tsara wasan kwaikwayo a inda yakan tsara masu ƙara da Alƙali da shaidu daga cikin ɗalibai, domin ya jaraba yadda za a bi bahasi da zartar da hukuncin shara’ar ko a kan rabon gado ko bashi ko ciniki ko matsalar aure ko wata Magana ta daban. An buɗa ɗakin karatu domin amfanin ɗalibai da al’ummar gari. Zuwan Malan Ali Abubakar ya kawo wani muhimmin sauyi a fagen tsarin gudanar da makarantar a fasalin azuzuwa (Sufi, 1993:153).

9.0 Makarantar Koyon Aikin Shara’a ( Law School Kano)

            Tunanin kafa wannan makaranta ya fito ne daga Wazirin Kano Alhaji Muhammadu Giɗiɗo, bayan ya kai ziyar a makarantar da ake kira “ Gordon School”, wadda ake koyar da fannin Shara’ar Musulunci. Sakamako irin yadda ta ƙayatar da shi, sai ya roƙI hukumar Sudan su je Kano su buɗa irin wannan makaranta. Yayin da ya dawo Kano, ya shawarci Sarkin Kano Abdullahi Bayero game da buɗa irin makarantar da ya gani a Sudan. Sarkin kuma ya gabatar da wannan buƙata a gaban Majalisar Sarakunan Arewa a shekarar 1931. Sarakunan suka amince da wannan buƙatar. Sai dai Turawan Mulki ba su zartar da buƙatar ba sai bayan shekara biyu. Da aka zo kafa makarantar sai aka buɗa ta a Katsina, madadin Kano kamar yadda aka nema. Saboda akwai kwaleji ta karatun boko a can Katsina, sai a haɗa su. A wata ruwayar an ce Sarki Dikko ne ya yi ƙoƙarin a buɗe ta a garinsa, domin cigaban al’ummarsa (Sufi, 1993:179).

            A shekarar 1934 an mayar da mazaunin makaranta Birnin Kano, sakamakon ƙin dawowar malaman makarantar daga hutun da suka tafi, saboda irin yadda kuraye key i musu kuka da daddare a bayan gidajensu. Su dai malan Larabawan Khartoum ne ( Sufi, 1993:176). A wannan makaranta ana koyar da littattafai kamar: Risala da Adawi a shekarar farko da ta biyu. A shekara ta uku da ta huɗu kuwa, ana karantar da Muhtasar da Tarihin Annabi (S.A.W.) da larabci da lissafi. Harshen koyarwa shi ne harshe Larabci. Wannan makaranta ta shahara da suna “ Madarasatul Shari’atul Kubra” , wato babbar makarantar shari’a. Ta Shahuci kuwa, sai aka rinƙa kiran ta Madarasatul Shari’atul Sugura, wato ƙaramar makarantar shari’a. waɗannan makarantu sun yaye ɗalibai masu yawa da suka bayar da gudunmawa a ɓangaren harkokin shara’ar musulunci a duk faɗin lardunan ƙasar nan (Sufi, 1993:183).

            A cikin shekarar 1946 ne makarantar ta koma sabon wurin zaman da aka gina mata,tare da sauya mata suna zuwa School For Arabic Studies (S.A.S) . tun daga lokacin ne ta zama makarantar koyar da harshen Larabci. Akwai has ashen an yi haka ɗin ne don a daƙushe ƙarfin shara’ar musulunci domin gudun kar ta yi tasiri a zukatan matasa. Za a iya tabbatar da haka idan aka yi la’akari da nau’in wanda aka ba shugabancin wannan makaranta mai suna:  Mr. Whitting.

            Samar da wannan makaranta ba ƙaramar gudummawa ba ce, idan aka yi la’akari da irin sakamakon da ta bayar ta hanyar samar da manyan Alƙalai da mashahuran malamai da muhimman mutane da suka bayar da gagarumar gudummawa wajen bunƙasa Nijeriya Ta Arewa da Nijeriya har ma da ƙas ashen ƙetare. Misalai daga cikinsu sun haɗa da: Marigayi Malam Isa Sulaiman Wali, wanda ya yi aiki a Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya, ya kuma taɓa zama Babban Jakadan Nijeriya a Ghana. Akwai kuma Marigayi Ali El-Nafaty wanda ya bayar da gudummawa wajen bunƙasa Addinin Musulunci. Akwai mutane da dama kamar irin su Dr. Aliyu Abubakar da Malam Isa Waziri da Na’ibi Sulaiman Wali da sauransu.

            A yayin da makarantar ta koma School For Arabic Studies ta samar da muhimman mutane kamar haka:- Mai Martaba Sarkin Kano Alhaji ado Bayero da Mai Martaba Sarkin Daura Alhaji Muhammadu Bashar da Farfesa Shehu Galadanci, Mataimakin Shugaban Jami’ar Sakkwato na farko wanda ya dasa mana harsashin alheri, wanda kuma ya taɓa zama Jakadan Nijeriya a ƙasar Saudiyya. Haka kuma akwai M. D. Yusuf, wanda ya taɓa zama Shugaban ‘Yan Sandan Nijeriya da Farfesa Alhaji Aliyu Na’ibi Suwaid da Dr. Ɗahiru Yahaya da sauransu ( Sufi, 1993:185-6).

10.0 Makarantar Kadi Ta Sakkwato

            A sanadiyyar wanzuwar wannan makarantar ce ya haifar da samuwar Sakkwato Kadi School. Makarantar da ke da ɗalibai biyar (5) a 1957, yayin da a shekarar 1958 ta ɗauki  ɗalibai 15, sai kuma shekarar 1959 ta ɗauki ɗalibai 10. An yi tanadi azuzuwa huɗu ne sai dai ba a ɗauki ɗalibai ba, a sakamakon rashin samun waɗanda suka dace. Ana zaton an kafa makarantar ne a wajejan shekarar 1946 a sakamakon sauyin da makarantar shara’a ta Kano ta samu. Wanda kafin sauyin akan tura al’ummar lardin Sakkwato Kano domin karatun fannin shara’a. saboda haka ne suke hangen in har bas u kafa Kadi School ba, canjin zai yi musu illa babba.(Kadi, 1962:113).

            Makarantar ta sami sauye-sauye da dama domin a ingantata tun daga shekarar 1960. Manhajar makarantar ta kunshi sassa biyu ne, sashen karatun Arabiyya da kuma sashen da ake koyar da karatu da rubutun Romawa (boko) da lissafi. Wannan sauyin ya samar da rukunin malamai kamar haka: bayan shugaban makaranta akwai malaman Arabiyya biyu da malamin da ke koyar da fannin boko guda ɗaya. Ta fuskar ɗalibai ma sauyin ya shafe su, domin an shata ƙa’idar ɗaukar ɗalibai kamar haka:-

·         Sai ɗalibin da ya kamala karatun Alƙur’ani Mai Tsalki.

·         Ya mallaki ilimin sanin hukunce-hukuncen addinin musulunci da shari’a da lugga da sauransu.

Majalisar Mai Alfarma Sarkin Musulmi Abubakar III  ta yi ƙoƙarin inganta makarantar tare

Da faɗaɗa iliminta domin ta dace da ilimin shari’a daidai da wanda ake samu a makarantar shari’a ta Kano.

            A cikin shekarar 1967 aka sake fasalin makarantar, ta zama “ Hiegher Islamic Studies , wanda ya samar da wata kafa ta horar da malam Arabiyya, waɗanda za su karantar a makarantun furamare da muhti-muhuti waɗanda za su yi aiki a majalisar Alƙalai da kuma waɗanda za su samu damar shiga Kwalejin Abdullahi Bayero da ke Kano don samun takardar shaidar karatun digiri a fannin Larabci da sauran fannoni (Kadi, SKT/39/4/44/ 1960-67).

            Wannan makaranta ta taimaka wajen samar da jami’an ma’aikatar shara’a da na ilimi da dai sauran fannonin inganta rayuwar al’umma.

11.0 Makarantar Islamiyya

            Sarakuna sun nuna kishin zuci da kishin al’ummarsu, wajen ganin sun aza tubulin inganta ilimin da zai amfani al’ummarsu a rayuwar yau da gobe. Sakamakon irin waɗannan kyawawan manufafi ne ya haifar da kafuwar makarantar islamiyya a Birnin Kano. Wannan ya faru ne sakamakon ziyarar da Sarkin Kano Abdullahi Bayero ya kai a wata makaranta da ke Masar a shekarar 1937, inda ya ga yadda Misrawa suka tsara harkokin koyar da fannin ilimin addini a makarantunsu. Sarkin ya nemi wani Bamisre mai suna Abu Sa’ud ya zo Kano ya tsara musu irin wannan tsarin koyarwa (Sufi, 1993:214).

            Yayin da Abu Sa’ud ya zo Kano sai aka yi amfani da makarantar Elimantire ta Ƙofar Kudu, aka buɗa ajin yamma domin soma tsarin irin karatun misrawa. Ɗaliban makarantar safe suka rinƙa dawowa da yamma suna ɗaukar darussan Arabiyya da sauran fannonin addinin musulunci. Makarantar ta zama sashe biyu ke nan,  sashen safe  wanda Malam Wada ke shugabantar malamai kamar: Malam Baƙo Bauchi da Malam Abba (Ka) da Malam Umaru ɗan Madaki da kuma malamn Arabiyya, Malan Nasiru Kaɓara da Malamin sana’a, Alhaji Na-Soron Ɗinki. Sashen yamma kuwa, akwai: Malam Abubakar Mai Saje a mastayin shugaba, da kuma Abu Sa’ud. A sashen ana koyar da littattafai kamar haka: As’halul Masaliki da Durusul- Nahawiyya da wani littafin Larabci mai suna: Ƙira’atul Asariyya wanda shi Abu Sa’ud ɗin ke koyarwa. Shi ne ke kuma koyar da darussan motsa jiki da harkokin kiyon lafiya (Sufi, 1993:218). Wannan ce makarantar Islamiyya ta farko a Arewa, ba kamar yadda (Nadabo, 2010: 902) ya nuna ba.

12.0 Kafa Kantin Sayar Da Littattafain Arabiyya

            Fahimtar muhimmanci littattafai a wajen koyo da koyarwa wanda lamarin karatu bai tafiya daidai sai da su, ya sa Sarkin Kano Abdullahi Bayero ya umurci Abu Sa’ud ya buɗa shagon sayar da littattafan Arabiyya domin su wadatu. Aka kuma kawo Malam Lukumanu na Unguwar Darma domin ya taimaka masa. Daga baya aka kawo wani mutumin Sudan Malam Usman Tayyib a kanti. Wannan lamari ya taimaka wa almajirai da malamai wajen mallakar littattafai cikin sauki.

13.0 Kammalawa 

            A zamanin mulkin En-e (N.A.) sarakuna sun bayar da  gudummawa waje aza harsashe ilimin da ya zama sanadin ciyar da al’mmar ƙasa gaba. Irin wannan taimakon ne ya haifar da samuwar ‘yan ƙasa nagari masu kishin zuci da kishin ƙasarsu  waɗanda suka kawo wa al’ummar ƙasa hanyoyin cigaba da ke tattare da alheri. Irin waɗannan ‘yan ƙasa sun bayar da tasu gudummawa ta hanyoyi daban-daban. Misalansu daga cikin su sun haɗa da: Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello da Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa ɓalewa da Alhaji Sir Kashim Ibrahim da Alhaji Aliyu Makaman Bidda da Alhaji Dr. Isa Kaita da Janaral Yabubu Gowon da Janaral Murtala Ramat Muhammed da Janaral Hassan Usman Katsina da Alhaji Umaru Gwandu da Alhaji Musa ‘Yar Adua da Alhaji Ibrahim Mashi da Alhaji Abubakar Imam da Alhaji Sa’adu Zungur da Alhaji Aminu Kano da dai sauransu.

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