Tsakure: Masana irin su Leech (1968) sun gwada cewa ba wani abu ne ke sanya waƙa ta yi armashi ta kuma sanya mawaƙi ya yi fice ba illa iya sarrafa salo. Wasu kuwa irin su (Lawal 1997 da Mukhtar 2005) suna ganin salo shi ne ma waƙar. Wannan maƙala ta yi ƙoƙarin nazartar salon adon harshe ne da irin muhimmancinsa a wajen mawaƙa ta yadda har ana ganin babu yadda za a yi a shirya waƙa ba tare da irin wannan salon ba. Kasancewar salon adon harshe yana da sigogi da dama, maƙalar ta mayar da hankali ne a kan kwalliya da kuma tamka waɗanda suka kasance fitattu daga ciki. Maƙalar ta yi nazari ne daga cikin wasu waƙoƙin Alhaji (DR) Mamman Shata Katsina, inda aka tsakuro tare da yin sharhi na yadda makaɗin ya sarrafa waɗannan sigogin guda biyu domin ya isar da saƙonsa tare da nuna naƙaltar harshen nasa. A ƙarshe maƙalar ta ƙara tabbatar da cewa lallai Alhaji (DR) Mamman Shata makaɗi ne da ke sarrafa salon adon harshe ainun domin gina waƙoƙinsa .

Muhimman Kalmomi: Salo, Adon Harshe, Kwalliya, da kuma Tamka.

ADON HARSHE BAZAR MAWAƘA: NAZARIN KWALLIYA DA TAMKA A WASU WAƘOƘIN (DR) MAMMAN SHATA KATSINA

 

Rabiu Bashir

Department Of Nigerian Languages And Linguistics,

Kaduna State University

rabiubashir86@gmail.com

08035932193/08094378162

Abstract: Scholars, the like of Leech (1968) stated that it is nothing that makes a song good and makes a singer popular but style. Some others like (Lawal 1997, and Mukhtar 2005) considered style to be the song itself. This paper tried to portrays the use of figurative language as an important resource to song and singers, considering the fact that it is difficult to compose a song without such a style. The paper limited its discussions on how (DR) Mamman Shata Katsina used metaphor and simile in composing some of his songs being them the most tropes. The paper analyzed some songs of the popular singer and discussed how he used the two in conveying his messages so as to showcase his intelligentsia and language mastering. Finally the paper find out that (DR) Mamman Shata Katsina used figurative language extremely when composing his songs.

Key Words: Style, Figurative Language, Metaphor and Simile.

 

 

1.    Gabatarwa

Waqar baka ta Hausa kamar yadda Gusau (2011:1) ya tabbatar tana taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin rayuwar Hausawa da wajen dukkan masu fahimta da sha’awar harshen Hausa. Idan kuwa ana maganar waqar baka a Hausa tabbasa sai an ambaci Alhaji (DR) Mamman Shata Katsina, kasancewarsa fitaccen makaxin baka wanda ya ga shekaran jiya da jiya a fagen waqa, wanda duk da kasancewar ya rasu har yanzu ana fafatawa da waqoqinsa. Saboda irin shahara da ficen da Shata ya yi ne ya sa masana irin su Furniss (1996:132), da Amin (2011:120), suke ganin a iya cewa babu wani Bahaushe ko mai jin Hausa da zai ce bai san makaxin ba, ko da kuwa ba mazaunin qasar Hausar ba ne, sannan suka qara da cewa suna ganin ba laifi ba ne idan mutum ya bayyana cewa ba a yi wani fitaccen mawaqi a qasar Hausa kamar Shatan ba. Kamar yadda Gusau (2018:6-7), ya bayyana Shata mawaqi ne na haye kuma na qungiya, wanda ya qera waqoqinsa bisa sahu na qire tare da xora su kan awo na + qungiya + jagora + ‘yan amshi (+ Ciko + gindin waqa) + kaxaita (+ qulli-qari) + takidi + kwaikwaye. Wato dai Shata ya kasance mai aiwatar da waqa ne a cikin qungiya, duk da cewa shi kaxai yake fara rera waqarsa ya kuma ci gaba da qullata shi kaxai. A yayin da ‘yan amshi suke kasancewa masu maimaita lafazi guda xaya (gindin waqar) domin takidi. Adon harshe wanda wani fanni ne na nazarin salo, yana da matuqar tasiri wajen tsara waqa ta yadda zai yi wahala a sami wata waqa wadda aka shirya ba tare da sarrafa adon harshe ba, da wannan dalili ne Yahya (2001:), ya kira shi da wata ‘baza da salo ke rawa da ita, sannan ya ƙara tabbabata da cewa rashin salon adon harshe a cikin waƙa, ana ganin abu ne da ba zai yuwu ba, domin shi ne kan gaba wajen isar da saƙon waƙa, kuma da shi ne makaɗa ke taka rawarsu yadda suke buƙata wajen bayyana abin da suke so, su kuma kushe abin da bai musu ba. Hasali ma a iya cewa shi ne ginshiƙi wajen tsara salon kowacce irin waƙa. Kasancewar salo adon harshe wata hanya da mawaƙa ke bi su gina harshen waƙoƙinsu yadda suke da buƙata domin su nuna fasaha gami da zalaƙar harshen nasu ya sa wannan maƙala ta nazarci wasu daga cikin sigogin adon harshen da suka ƙunshi kwalliya da tamka a cikin wasu waƙoƙin Mamman Sahata, domin a fayyace irin rawar da suka taka wajen gina salon waƙoƙin.

2. Alhaji (DR) Mamman Shata Katsina

Marigayi Alhaji (Dr) Mamman Shata Katsina haifaffen garin Musawa ne, da ke qaramar hukumar Musawa ta jihar Katsina. Kuma ana kyautata zaton an haife shi ne a wajajen shakarar 1922-1923, haka kuma ya rasu ne a shekarar 1999 bayan fama da doguwar jinya. (Sheme da Qanqara da Albasu da kuma Malami, 2006. Da Gusau, 2018). Alhaji (Dr) Mamman Shata ya shahara sosai a sana’ar kixa da waqa, kuma ya xauki lokaci mai tsawo yana waqa ta yadda kusan duk qasar nan har ma da wasu qasashen waje an san shi a wannan fage. Haka zalika waqoqinsa sun yi fice ainun ta yadda za a iya haxa su da dukkan waqoqin wani fasihi, musammam kasancewarsu waxanda ake shirya su nan take su kuma qawatar gami da nishaxantar da mai saurare.

3. Adon Harshe

Masana adabi daban-daban sun yi iya bakin qoqarinsu wajen qwanqwance adon harshe tun daga kan ma’anarsa har zuwa qunshiyarsa. Misali, Shifly (1970), da Muhammad (1973), da Cuddon (1977), da Xan’iya (1997), da Gusau (2003), da kuma Muhammad (2011), sun yi gamayya kan cewa adon harshe wata kwalliya ce da ake yi wa harshen waqa. Sai dai Shifly (1970), ya qara da cewa ya shafi karkatar da wani abu daga sifarsa ta asali ya zuwa wata sifar ko wani abu, kuma yin hakan kan kasance ne ta hanyar kamantawa ko mutuntarwa, ko tamka ko jurwaye ko kuma kwalliya. Yayin da shi kuma Cuddon ya qara da cewa shi adon harshe, shi ne kan fito da kowace irin magana (zance) ko waqa, kana ya bayyana manyan rukunansa da suka haxa da kwalliya, da tamka, da kuma alamci. Sannan ya tabbatar da cewa da za a cire adon harshe a cikin waqa, to da sai ta zama babu wani armashi a cikinta, sai dai gundarin zance kawai. Haka dai Xan’iya (1997), ta qara da cewa da adon harshe ne ake yi wa waqa kwalliya don qara mata armashi da daxi, kuma shi ne ma’auni na gwada hikimar zance da balaga da xan Adam yake da ita a harshensa. Muhammad (1973), kuwa ya jero sigogi ko rukunan adon harshe ne, waxanda suka haxa da kwalliya, da alamtarwa, da mutuntawa da kuma tamka, sannan ya fayyace kowanne da kuma irin gudummuwar da yake bayarwa wajen yi wa harshen waqa qawa. Muhammad (2011), ya nuna cewa da adon harshe ne ake yi wa harshen waqa kwalliya a yayin isar da qananan saqonni a cikin xiya. Kuma ya qunshi gwala-gwalan kalmomi ne masu qawata zance da zukatan mai saurare, tare da kambama wanda ake wasawa. Shi kuwa Gusau (2003), ya qara ne da cewa a wajen adonta harshe akan darzo wasu kalmomi ne a zayyana waqa da su, a qawata ta sosai ta yadda za a burge mai sauraro a kuma jawo hankalinsa, kuma shi adon harshe ya qunshin dabaru ne waxanda ake bi ta kansu ana yi wa harshe ko saqon waqa kwalliya ko zayyana yadda za a qayata shi ya zama abin kwarjini abin son kowa.

A jumlace dai idan muka duba bayanan masana, a iya cewa adon harshe wata hanya ce ko dabara wadda makaxa kan bi ta kanta domin su yi wa harshen waqarsu qawa, ta yadda za su sami damar koxa wanda suke waqewa cikin harshe mai kwalliya da burgewa, gami da kambama shi cikin sifofi daban-daban. Su kuwa ginshiqan adon harshe ko sigoginsa sun haxa ne da kwalliya da tamka ta mutuntarwa da alamtarwa da kambamawa da sauran su.

Salon amfani da adon harshe, salo ne da ya mamaye waƙoƙin Alhaji (Dr) Mamman Shata, domin kuwa zai yi wahala a sami wata waƙa guda ɗaya da Shata bai yi amfani da irin wannan salo a cikinta ba. Kasancewar Shata mai tsara waƙoƙinsa cikin harshe mai sauƙin fahimta da burgewa gami da ƙawa, tare da saka karsashi da annashuwa ga mai saurare, ya sa dole ya riƙa amfani da irin wannan salo, don kuwa da iya sarrafa shi ne ya samu karɓuwa da fifiko a kan sauran makaɗa ‘yan’uwansa.

3.1 Kwalliya

Masana da manazarta sun bayyana ma’anar kwalliya ta fuskoki mabambanta. Misali, Scot (1965), da Shipley (1970), da Umar (1984), duk sun bayyana kwalliya a matsayin dabara ta siffantawa, wadda ake xaukar darajar wani abu a xorawa wani abu ba tare da wani tsakani ba.

Yahya (2001), a qoqarinsa na bayyana ma’anar kwalliya cewa ya yi:

 Kiran abu musamman mutum da sunan da ba shi ne

 nasa da aka san shi da shi ba, domin wannan suna

 ya bayar da ma’anarsa da kuma tunanin da ma’anar

 za ta kawo zuwa ga wanda aka riqa da wannan sunan.

 Sannan ya qara da cewa kwalliya, salo ne wanda ake

 yin amfani da kalma ko kalmomi domin tunanin da

 suke sa mutum ya yi game da ma’anoninsa ya nashe

 ko ya lulluve wani abu ko mutumin da aka danganta

 kalmomin gare shi. (Yahya, 2001:59).

 

Gusau kuwa (2002), ya kira kwalliya ne da sunan ‘siffantawa’, sannan ya bayyana ta da cewa:

 Kwatancen kai tsaye ne inda ake ba wani abu darajar wani abu ba tare da amfani da wani mahaxi ba. sannan ya qara da cewa akwai siffantawa gajeruwa da kuma doguwar siffantawa wadda wasu manazarta suke kira kwalliya ko hoto cikin bayani ko zayyana.

 (Gusau, 2002:59).

Haka nan shi ma Xangambo (2007), ya kira kwalliya ne da sunan ‘siffantawa’, sannan ya bayyana ta da cewa ‘siffantawa, kamar kamantawa, kwatantawa ce, sai dai ita kwatance ne na kai tsaye; akan xauki darajar wani abu ko halayyarsa, a xora wa wani kai tsaye, wato a ce “kaza” ko “kaza kaza ne”, shi ne “Kaza”. Haka nan shi ma ya nuna cewa lallai kwalliya iri biyu ce, wato akwai ‘gajeruwa’ da kuma ‘doguwa’. (Xangambo, 2007:39).

Shi kuwa Yakubu (2011), a wajen qoqarinsa na bayyana yadda kwalliya take, cewa ya yi faffaxan salo ne da ya taro siffofi waxanda mawaqi zai iya bayyana abubuwa da su. Sai ya qara da cewa, salo ne da yake kawo hoton abu yadda mawaqi ke buqatar mai karatu ko sauraren waqarsa ya kalle shi da idon ziciyarsa ko tunaninsa. Har wa yau ya nuna cewa, mawaqa kan yi amfani ne da kwalliya a waqoqinsu ta hanyar kwatanta sarakuna da wasu halittu masu kwarjini da ban tsoro, kamar giwa, ko zaki, ko vauna, ko karkanda, ko damisa, ko gulbi ko kogi, ko dodo, ko dage, ko hadari, ko tsawa, ko ruwan dare da dai sauransu. Ya kuma qara da cewa, mawaqa kan yi amfani da kwalliya su danganta mutum da iyayensa ko kuma kakanninsa da suka yi wasu ayyuka na mamaki ko nuna jaruntaka ko bajinta ko kuma buwaya.

Alhaji (Dr) Mamman Shata kan yi amfani da kwalliya wajen baje hajarsa ta waƙar baka, musamman wajen kambawa ko zuga wanda yake waƙewa. Za mu iya ganin misalai daga cikin waƙoƙin nasa kamar haka:

A waƙarsa ta Sarkin Daura Mahammadu Bashar, mai taken “Mai Daura Bashar Ɗan Sanda” ya yi amfani da kwalliya ne ya koɗa gwanin nasa da cewa:

 Jagora:         Gwanki sha bara Bashar ɗan Sanda.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Mai Daura Bashar ɗan Sanda.

 Jagora:         Ɓauna keta bago Bashar ɗan Sanda.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Mai Daura Bashar ɗan Sanda.

 Jagora:         Giwa tafi da haƙon ƙago ɗan Sanda.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Mai Daura Bashar ɗan Sanda.

          (Waƙar Sarkin Daura Muhammadu Bashar)

 

Idan muka dubi wannan ɗiyan waƙar, za mu ga cewa Shata ya siffanta Sarkin Daura kai-tsaye da wasu manyan namun daji; waɗanda suka haɗa da Gwanki, wanda yake dabba ce mai ƙwari, don haka ake masa kirari da ‘gwanki mai rangwangwan’. Ya siffanta shi da ‘ɓauna’, wadda ta ke ƙatuwa ce kuma mafaɗaciya a cikin ‘yan uwanta namun daji, har ana yi mata kirari da ‘ɓauna saniyar sake’. Sannan kuma ya kira shi da giwa kai-tsaye, wadda take dabba ce ƙatuwa kuma mai ƙarfin gaske a cikin ‘yan’uwanta dabbobi. Shata ya siffanta Sarkin Daura da waɗannan dabbobi ne don ya nuna halaye irin na cika da ƙasaita da kammaluwa da ƙarfin mulki da kuma kwarjinin da yake da shi a wurin jama’arsa.

A wata waƙar kuma ta Sarkin Daura cewa ya yi:

 Jagora:         Ina Mamman kutunkun ɓauna,

                      :Mamman Bashar ɗan Audu,

                      :Ruwan zafi magajin Audu,

                      :Ko ina kat taɓa duk zafi.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Kwana lafiya mai Daura,

                      :Jikan Audu Gwauron Giwa.

 

Shata a nan, ya siffanta Sarkin Daura da ‘kutunkun ɓauna’, wanda shi ko a cikin ɓaunar namiji ne riƙaƙƙe, kuma jagora, to sai kuma ya ɗauki siffar ruwan zafi ya bayyana shi da ita, wato shi ma ba shi da gefe, duk inda ka taɓa zafi ne da shi,wanda hakan zai sa dole a yi shakkar faɗa masa kai tsaye ba tare da an yi shayi ba. Kuma bayyana shi da waɗannan siffofi zai ƙare fayyace isa da buwaya ta basaraken, ta yadda za ji tsoron haike masa.

A cikin waƙarsa ta Sarkin Musulmi Abubakar na uku kuwa, ya siffanta shi ne da Giwa kai-tsaye don ya nuna irin girman sarautarsa da kuma karfinta. Inda ya ce:

 Jagora:         Giwa ya riƙa Gwarzon Hassan.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Sarkin Musulmi Bubakar,

                      :Dattijo baban Macciɗo.

 Jagora:         Giwa jinin Attahiru,

                      :Barka da aiki ɗan Hassan.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Sarkin Musulmi Bubakar,

                      :Dattijo baban Macciɗo.

 (Sarkin Musulmi Abubakar III)

 

Marigayi Mamman Shata na ƙoƙarin fayyace isa ne da girman sarautar sarkin musulmi, don haka sai ya zaɓi ya yi amfani da kwalliya ya siffanta shi kai tsaye da giwa, wadda dabba ce mai ƙasaita da isa.

A ƙoƙarin Shata na ya bayyana irin yadda Ummaru na Gwandu ya shahara a tuƙi, da kuma yadda ya kan ɗauki kaya, sai ya yi amfani da kwalliya, inda ya ɗauki jirgi da kuma Rakumi ya siffanta shi da su kai staye.Ya ce:

 Jagora:         Jirgi yana zuwa,

                      :Ga Ummaru nan ya danno ɗan Usumanu.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Ummaru ɗan Ɗanduna na Gwandu.

 Jagora:         Amale mai kwarijini da – da kaya.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Ummaru ɗan Ɗanduna na Gawandu.

 Jagora:         Jirgi ya niƙe hanyar, maza ku bi baya.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Giwa ta kare iccen maza ku bi baya.

 

A nan Shata ya siffanta gwaninsa ne da jirgi, wanda idan ana maganar ɗaukar kaya, idan aka ce jirgi to zance ya ƙare, don haka ake cewa ‘jirgi ikon Allah’. Ya kuma siffanta shi da Amale wanda riƙaƙƙen raƙumi ne kuma in ana maganar ɗaukar kaya a gargajiyance to ba shi da na farko. Sannan kuma sai ya siffanta shi da Giwa, wadda idan ta biyo hanya, duk wani ƙaramin naman dawa dole ya ɓoye, idan kuma ta ci karo da icce, ko wane iri ne sai ta kawar da shi.

A wani wurin kuma sai ya siffanta shi da ɓauna da kuma gwanki, waɗanda namun dawa ne masu kwarjini da ƙarfi a cikin ‘yan’uwansu dabbobi, ya ce:

 Jagora:         Ɓauna na Ɗanbala mai keta bago ɗan Usmanu.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Ummaru ɗan Ɗanduna na Gwandu.

 Jagora:         Gwanki na Ɗanbala,

                      :Ka sha bara ɗan Mamman.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Umaru ɗan Ɗanduna na Gwandu.

 

A wannan ɗiyan waƙar makaɗin ya kira gwanin nasa ne kai tsaye da sunan ɓauna, da kuma gwanki waɗanda dukkansu namun dawa ne masu matuƙar ƙarfi da kuma arwa, wanda yin hakan da makaɗin ya yi zai fayyace irin ƙarfin Ummaru a fagen tuƙI da kuma irin yadda ya kere sauran ƙananun direbobi abokan sana’arsa.

(Dr) Mamman Shata ya yi amfani da salon kwalliya a cikin waƙar Sarkin Sudan Shehu Malami, inda ya siffanta gwanin nasa da cewa:

 Jagora:         Giwa kwan da shirin mulki ɗan Bello.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Malami Sarkin Sudan Shehu.

 Jagora:         San da na ke wa Gwauron Giwa,

                      :Malami mai Allah ɗan Bello.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Malami Sarkin Sudan Shehu.

 Jagora:         Toron Giwa mai ban tsoro,

                      :Malami mai Allah ɗan Bello.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Malami Sarkin Sudan Shehu.

 Jagora:         Malami bango zaɓen Allah.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Malami Sarkin sudan Shehu.

 (Shehu Malami)

Kasancewar Sarkin Sudan Shehu Malami, mai ƙarfin mulki, kuma wanda ya gaji sarauta, sai Shata ya yi amfani da kwalliya don ya nuna ƙarfin mulkin nasa, inda ya siffanta shi da Giwa, kuma giwar ma ‘Gwauro’ wanda ƙarfinsa ya isu, sannan ya ƙara kiransa ‘Toron Giwa’, wanda ko a cikin giwaye sai an tara su da yawa ake samun toro. Don kuma ya nuna yadda yake a tsaye wajen mulki sai ya siffanta shi da ‘bango’, wanda kullum a tsaye yake. Siffanta basaraken da waɗannan sunaye kai tsaye zai ƙara fayyace irin ƙarfin sarauta ne da kuma baiwa da muhibba ta iya mulki da Allah ya yi wa gwanin nasa.

A wata waƙarsa ta Sarkin Daura kuwa ya siffanta shi ne da:

 Jagora:         Damo ɗan Mamuda,

                      :Bashar Damo jikan Audu,

                      :Kana kallo suke cutar ka,

                      :Bai ce komai ba na Maiɗaki,

                      :Mamman ya bar su wurin Allah sai an je.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Lafiya Zaki Mamman baban Galadima ɗan Musa.

 (Shata, Sarkin Daura,lafiya zaki)

A wannan ɗan waƙar Shata, yana ƙoƙarin bayyana haƙuri ne da kawaici da kuma juriya na sarkin Daura Muhammadu Bashar, waɗanda duka ɗabi’u ne da halaye masu kyau da ake sa rai basarake ya mallaka, don haka sai ya yi amfani da kwalliya ya siffanta gawanin nasa da ‘damo’ wanda bahaushe ke masa lakabi da ‘Sarkin Haƙuri’. Kuma fayyace shi da wannan suna zai nuna irin kamala da iya zama da mutane na basaraken.

Lokacin da Shata ke rera waƙar Sarkin Zazzau Shehu, ya yi amfani da kwalliya ya siffanta shi:

 Jagora:         Rimi adon gari baban Jekada.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Alhaji Sarkin Zazzau Shehu.

 Jagora:         Ɓauna saniyar sake Usumanu na Zariya.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Alhaji Sarkin Zazzau Shehu.

 Jagora:         Kanki ba ka ɗimuwa domin mai harbi.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Alhaji Sarkin Zazzau Shehu.

 (Shata, Sarkin Zazzau Shehu)

Shata ya zaɓi ya ƙawata zancensa ne, ta hanyar siffanta Sarkin Zazzau da rimi wanda yake icce ne ƙato mai tsawo da kauri, kuma yakan sa wuri ya yi kyau tare da inuwa, kuma haka Sarki ya ke da ya zo wuri sai wurin ya haska, kuma ako da yaushe mutanensa na ƙarƙashin inuwarsa ne. Don ya ƙara nuna girman mulki da isa irin na Sarkin, sai ya siffanta shi da ɓauna da kuma kanki, waɗanda manyan namun daji ne masu kwarjini da ƙarfi a cikin ‘yan’uwansu dabbobi.

3.2 Tamka

Tamka xaya ce daga cikin ginshiqan sigogin adon harshe, wanda makaxa kan yi amfani da ita a cikin waqoqinsu domin su qara jin daxi da sauqin isar da saqo ga mai saurare. Manazarta adabin Hausa daban-daban sun yi bakin qoqarinsu wajen fayyace fahimtarsu a kan tamka. Misali, Yahya (2001), ya ceTamka, wani vangare ne na babban salon siffantawa, wanda ke bayyana sifar wani abu ta fuskar kwatanta shi da wani abu daban tare da amfani da kalmomin mizani. (Yahya 2001:07).

Malamin ya bayyana cewa, da za a kwatanta salon tamka (‘kamance’), da kwalliya (‘kinaya’), sai a ga cewa yayin da tamka kan siffanta mutum da cewa ya yi kama da wani abu, amma ba shi ne abun ba, to shi salon kwalliya yakan siffanta mutum da cewa shi ne abin kacokan. Har wa yau masanin ya nuna cewa, su waxannan ‘kalmomin mizani’ da tamka kan yi amfani da su, sun kasu zuwa gida uku ne, wato akwai mizani na ‘daidaito‘ waxanda suka haxa da, awa da kamar da i da ya, da kake da sauransu. Sai ‘mizani na fifiko’ wanda ya qunshi kalmomi irin su wuce da zarce da fi da gota da furce da tsere da kuma xara. Na cikon ukun su ne kalmomin ‘mizani na kasawa’, waxanda suka haxa da kasa da gaza da wane da kuma kalmomi masu soke samuwa kamar bai da kuma ba.

Gusau (2002), ya bayyana tamka ne a matsayin kwatance, inda makaxi kan auna darajojin abubuwa daban-daban, ta hanyar daidaitawa ko bambantawa, ko fifitawa ko naqasarwar wani kan wani. Ya ci gaba da cewa, a lokacin da ake wannan kwatance tsakanin wani da wani, akan yi amfani da wasu kalmomi waxanda suke haxa waxannan halaye guda biyu. Misali; kamar, ko awa, da sai ka ce, da ya kake, da ya kaza, da tamkar, da kuma kama.

Shi kuwa Bunza (2014), ya kira salon tamka ne da sunan ‘kamance’, wanda ya nuna cewa cikin kowace waƙa a kan kowane jigo aka ɗora ta idan ana warwarar jigo salon kamance kan iya shiga ciki. Ya ƙara da cewa kamance shi ne a yi ƙoƙari a fito da ma’ana da manufar abin da ake misaltawa ko ake yabo ko kushewa a yi ƙoƙari a kwatanta shi da wani abu da ba shi ba. Ya nuna cewa a wajen kamancen abubuwa uku za su wakana kafin a yanke hukuncin salon kamancen da aka yi, shin na fifiko ne, ko na daidaito ko kuma na kasawa?

Alhaj (Dr) Mamman Shata ya yi amfani da salon Tamka (kamance) a cikin waƙoƙinsa daban-daban domin ganin ya kwatanta waɗanda yake waƙewa da wasu abubuwa, domin ya nuna fifiko ko daidato ko gazawa. Za a iya ganin misalai kamar haka:

 Jagora:         Giwa kin wuce fako,

                      :Wane mai tarko.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Alhaji Sarkin Zazzau Shehu,

                      :Ahaf ko ya kafa a banza,

                      :Tarkon nasa.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Alhaji Sarkin Zazzau Shehu.

          (Sarkin Zazzau Shehu)

 

Shata ya kwatanta irin ƙarfin Sarkin Zazzau ne da kwarjininsa ga al’umma da yadda ƙarfin giwa yake ne a wurin masu farauta, wadda ta fi ƙarfin a fake ta a buge, balle kuma a yi mata tarko domin a kama. Makaɗin ya sarrafa wannan salo ne domin ya nuna yadda basaraken ya fi ƙarfin ƙananan abokan hamayya ko masu tunanin su cutar da sarkin, tare da tabbatar da ƙarfinsa fiye da abokan jayayyarsa.

Da Shata ya tashi bayyana irin yadda Sarkin Daura ke yi masa kyauta ta aheri, sai ya yi amfani da tamka don ya nuna cewa Sarkin Daura ya fi kowa iya kyauta a tsakanin dukkan ‘yan’uwansa sarakuna. Inda ya ce:

 Jagora:         Baya ga kai Bashari,

                      :Wak kai haka nan uban Baushi sai dai kai.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Lafiya Zaki, Mamman baban Galadima ɗan Musa.

          (Waƙar Sarkin Daura)

 

A waƙar Ummaru ɗan Ɗanduna,Shata ya yi amfani da salon Tamka inda ya ce:

 Jagora:         In don direbobin zamani,

                      :Zari sanda shiga bugun abinka,

                      :Ɗau gora tittiƙi abinka,

                      :Kisan biri bai kai ga i-igwa ba.

 ‘Y/Amshi:Ummaru ɗan Ɗanduna na Gwandu.

 

A wannan ɗan waƙar Shata ya nuna fifikon da ke tsakanin Ummaru na Gwandu ne da sauran direbobi, wanda yake ganin ba sai ya wahalar da kansa wajen yi musu tanaji na musamman ba, don su ƙanana ne a kansa ta fuskar tuƙi.

A cikin waƙar Garkuwan Bauci kuwa, cewa ya yi:

 Jagora: Ka ga gida sai ka ce gidan Razdan,

 :Sai aka ce man gidan na gona ne.  `

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Garkuwan Bauci Amadun Kari.

 

A wannan ɗan waƙar, Shata yana ƙoƙarin fayyace yadda gidan gonar gwaninsa yake ne wajen kyau don haka sai ya kwatanta gidan gonar da gidan Razdan ta hanyar amfani da Tamka. Watau burin makaɗin ya nuna irin darajar da gidan gonar yake da ita, don haka sai ya daidaita su da gidan wani babban jami’in gwamnati. Wanda a zahiri idan aka ce wannan gidan na Rasdan ne to zai kasance gida ne babba kuma mai kyau da daraja.

A cikin waƙar Bellon Jalingo, Shata ya yi amfani da tamka don ya nuna yadda gwanin nasa ya shahara a kan sauran masu aski. Yana cewa:

 Jagora:         Ko da wanzaman birni, ko da wanzaman daji,

                      :Duk mai aski ya ji sal-sal, ya san Bellon Jalingo.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Mamman Bello mai aska Ciroman Askin Jalingo.

 Jagora:         Na yi biɗarku wanzamai irin Bellon Jalingo.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Mamman Bello mai aska Ciroman Askin Jalingo.

 

A cikin wannnan ɗan waƙar makaɗin yana nuna yadda gwaninsa ya shahara ne a wajen sana’arsa ta aski, inda ya nuna cewa duk wani wanzami da yake sana’ar aski ko a birni yake ko kuma a ƙauye ta ya san Bello gaba yake das hi a wannan sana’ar.

Haka kuma Shata ya yi amfani da tamka a waƙar Hauwa Mai Tuwo matar Lado:

 Jagora:         Tsaya nemi mai tuwo matar Lado,

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Hauwa mai tuwo matar Lado,

 Jagora:         Don ta fi su abincin saidawa.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Hauwa mai tuwo matar Lado.

 Jagora:         Bayan sun ci tuwon sun ƙoshi,

                      :Suna tafe can gaba sai tsotso,

                      :Sun naɗe kamar taba gari.

 Y/Amshi:Hauwa mai tuwo matar Lado.

          (Hauwa Mai Tuwo)  

 

A nan Shata ya nuna yadda Hauwa ta yi fice ne a kan sauran ‘yan’uwanta masu sana’ar abinci inda ya nuna cewa ta fi su, don haka idan masu sayen tuwo suka zo, ba sa iya cinye shi nan take har sai sun yi guzurinsa a bakinsu, kamar yadda masu shan taba gari suke ƙulle ta a cikin baki don su daɗe suna tsotsa. A nan makaɗin ya yi amfani ne da tamka iri biyu, watau ta fifiko wadda ya nuna cewa gwanarsa ta fi sauran masu sayar da abinci. Sannan kuma sai tamka ta daidaito, inda ya daidaita yadda masu sayen tuwon Hauwa suke naɗe shi a cikin bakinsu don kada ya ƙare da wuri da kuma yadda masu naɗa tabar gari suke yi.

A cikin waƙar Malam Babba na Ƙofar Gabas, a nan ma Shata ya sarrafa tamka inda ya kwatanta irin ƙwarewar malamin a wajen duba, don har yana ganin idan ya faɗi abu sai abin ya kasance ba tare da wata matsala ba irin abin nan da Bahaushe ke cewa kamar yankan wuƙa, watau abin zai faru ta yadda mutum zai ga kamar tun farko an yi shawara ne da shi wajen aiwatar da abin. Inda ya ce:

 Jagora:         Idan ya zana haka ya duba maka,

                      :Ya ɗaga kai ya shaida maka,

                      :Ahaf! Ka ga kamar da shi ne a kai.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Malam Babba na ƙofar Gabas.

 Jagora:         Abin ka ga kamar da shi ne a kai.

 ‘Y/Amshi:    Malam Babba na Ƙofar Gabas.

          ( Babba na Ƙofar Gabas)

 

Wani misalin na tamka shi ne, inda Shata ya nuna yadda Sarkin Daura Bashar ya fi sauran abokan hamayyarsa tsayar da magana da kuma cika alƙawari, don haka ya kwatanshi da mutan da can waɗanda dattijai ne, ba kamar mutanen yanzu ba waɗanda maganarsu kamar maganar ‘yan mata ce. Cewa ya yi:

 Jagora:         Ina Mamman Waliyyin Allah,

                      :Jikan Waliyyin Allah,

                      :Dattijo ɗan dattijo,

                      :Mai halin mutanen da can,

                      :Bai da halin mutanen yanzu,

                      :Domin su mutanen yanzu,

                      :Kui magana da safe ku ƙulla,

                      :Yamma tai su ce sun fasa,

                      :Su mai da mutum kamar ‘yan mata.

 ‘Y/Amshi:Kwana lafiyar mai Daura,

                      :Jikan Audu Gwaron Giwa.

             (Sarkin Daura Muhammadu Bashar)

 

A cikin wannan ɗan waƙar makaɗin ya sarrafa tamka ne a ƙalla a wuri biyu, watau tamka ta daidato, inda ya daidaita gwanin nasa da mutanen da can ta fuskar tsayar da magana, ya tabbatar da cewa shi sarkin Daura idan ya yi magana to fa ta zauna kenan daidai da yadda mutanen baya suke tsayar da magana. A ɗaya gefen kuwa ya sarrafa tamkar ne ta daidaito ya kwatanta irin yadda mutanen wannan zamanin suke saɓa alƙawari da hali irin na ‘yan mata waɗanda ba sa tsayar da magana, yanzu sa yi magana anjima kuma su canza wata.

4. Kammalawa

Wannan maƙala mai suna Adon Harshe Bazar Mawaƙa: Nazarin Kwalliya da Tamka a wasu Waƙoƙin Alhaji (DR) Mamman Shata Katsina, ta yi ƙoƙarin nazartar salon adon harshe ne daga wasu waƙoƙin Alhaji Mamman Shata Katsina. Tun da farko maƙalar ta bayyana irin shahara da fice na mawaƙin tare da kawo taƙaitaccen tarihinsa. Dangane da salon adon harshe kuwa, maƙalar ta ƙara tabbatar da fahimtar wasu masana ne da suke kallonshi a matsayin wani ƙaton fage a cikin salo wanda da shi ne mawaƙa ke amfani su ƙulla mafi rinjayen salon waƙoƙinsu, kasancewar tun farko masana irin su Yahaya (2001), sun tabbatar da cewa zai yi wahala a iya tsara waƙa ba tare da an yi amfani da irin wannan salon ba. Tun a farko sai da maƙalar ta kawo ma’ana tare da fayyace ko mene ne salon adon harshe, kuma ya yake, sannan ya matsayinsa yake a wajen tsara waƙa. Kasancewar salon adon harshe mai faɗi wanda ya ƙunshi sigogi da dama, ya sa wannan maƙalar ta taƙaita a kan kwalliya da tamka, inda aka yi ƙoƙarin fayyace yadda suke, sannan aka zaƙulo su daga cikin wasu waƙoƙin makaɗin tare da ƙoƙarin yin sharhi na yadda aka sarrafa su aka kuma isar da wani saƙo. A ƙarshe maƙalar ta ƙara tabbatar da Alhaji Mamman Shata Katsina a matsayin wani mutum mai hikima da fasaha wanda ya naƙalci harshensa yake kuma sarrafa shi yadda ya so ta hanyar amfani da salon adon harshe domin ganin ya isar da saƙonsa. Haka kuma maƙalar ta ƙara tabbatar da cewa samun ƙarɓuwa da fice da makaɗin ya yi a tsakanin al’umma bai rasa nasaba da yadda ya iya sarrafa harshen nasa kamar yadda Leech (1968), ya tabbatar.

 

Manazarta

 

A tuntuɓi mai takarda domin samun manazarta.