Tunanin wannan bincike biyar diddigin bazuwar ƙwarya a farfajiyar adabin Hausa da aladun Hausawa. Kayan aikin haɗa binciken sun ƙaranta ƙwarai domin rashin samun aiki takamamme da aka gina kan ƙwarya a tunanin adabi da aladar Bahaushe. Duk da haka binciken ya yi garkuwa da wasu ayyuka da aka yi na kimiyya ‘kada a mutu ba a shura ba.’ Ƙwaryar binciken gaba ɗaya ta dogara a kan adabin bakan Bahaushe a wuraren da ƙwaryar ta yi naso a ciki. Bayan fayyace maanar ƙwarya, an ɗan harari tarihin samuwarta da dalilan yanke cibinta a ƙasar Hausa. Aka kalle ta a adabin baka da aladun Bahaushe tare da yadda ta kasance wani madubi na faɗaɗa tunanin Bahaushe. Sakamakon binciken ya tabbatar da, ƙwarya da dangoginta duk Hausawa ne, babu kutsen wani harshe ko wata alada; ga alama  dai, ƙasar Hausa tsiron ƙwarya ya fara bayyana. Wannan tunanin ya sa aka ɗora binciken a kan Bahaushen ra’i mai taken: Ba banza ba ƙuda a warki. Babu al’ummar da ke amfani da ƙwarya da adabinta ya yi taho-mu-gama sosai da ƙwarya kamar Hausawa. Wace al’ummar ke Feƙe da Gyartai da Zunguru da Shantu da Duman Girke a cikin duniyar baƙar fata in ba Bahaushe ba? Samun tabbacin tsiron duma daga Afirka ya fito, shi ya ba ni damar gina wannan tunani.


Ƙwarya a Farfajiyar Adabi da Al’adun Bahaushe

Aliyu Muhammad Bunza
Professor of Hausa Cultural Studies
Faculty of Arts
Department of Languages and Cultures
Federal University, Gusau
Zamfara
Gabatarwa
A al’adar duniyar mutane, abubuwan da ake rayuwa tare da su, ko kusa da su na dabbobi da ƙwari da tsuntsaye da itace da tsirrai da makamantansu suna tasiri a harshe da adabi da aladun makusantansu. A fahimtar wannan ɗan bincike, irin kusancin da ke akwai tsakanin Bahaushe da hatsi musamman gero da dawa da maiwa da acca da masara da shinkafa da rogo da dankali da gwaza, ya kyautu a ce, an ga amonsu dumu-dumu a taskar adabi da harshe da al’adun Bahaushe fiye da duk wani abu a farfajiyar ƙasar Hausa. Abin mamaki, sai ga tsiron ƙwarya da bai kai ba, bai kawo ba, ya yi amo a tunanin Bahaushe fiye da na abincin da yake ci. Bugu da ƙari, amon nasa ya game duniyar ƙasar Hausa ka ce koina ana shuka shi kamar yadda ake shuka abinci. Tunanin wannan bincike tantance wuraren da ƙwarya ta yi naso a tunanin Bahaushe da dalilan da suka haifar da haka.
Dabarun Bincike
Daga cikin matakan da na hanga za su kai ga samun nasarar wannan aiki akwai bitar ayyukan da suka gabata. Abin ban takaici, ban ci karo da wani aiki da aka yi a kan “ƙwarya ba ko a matakin binciken NCE/Diploma, BA, MA, Mphil, PhD a kan ratsin ƙwarya a tunanin Bahaushe.[1] ‘Yan binciken da aka gudanar duka na kimiyya ne irin su Bilbis, (2014) sai kuma aikin Bunza da Ɗangulbi da Musa da Isa da ake kan yi kan Noma Ƙwarya[2] da sana’arta. Zuciyar ƙudurin wannan aiki ban ga wurin da wani ya ambace ta ba. Don haka tilas in dogara ga yawon rangadi tsakanin manoma ƙwarya, domin samo bayanai. Askar adabin ta waƙa da karin magana, da kirari da sauransu wasu manyan makami ne na zaƙulo batututwan da za su ba da haske. Duniyar intanet wata babbar kafa ce ta samo sahihin tarihin ƙwarya a duniyar mutane, tare da ayyukan da aka yi a kanta.
Ra’in Bincike
Ina daga cikin ɗaliban da ke ganin cewa, lokaci ya yi da al’adunmu da tunanin magabatanmu ya yi tasiri ga iliminmu da bincike-binciken iliminmu. Ban ce ra’o’in Turawa na ilmi na a kan kuskure ba, amma a kowane irin al’amari gara a kai na hannu gida kafin a dawo a kama na dawa. A nawa ɗan tunani na ɗora wannan bincike a kan Bahaushen ra’i mai taken: “Ba banza ba ƙuda a warki.” Bahaushe ya shaida ƙuda ba sa bin mai kayan gawayi. Duk wurin da aka same su dole da wani abu wurin. Idan kuwa an gan su a warki da yake busasshe in ba ƙiren kashi ba da wuya ba tusa mai warkin ya ɓarka ba. Dukkanin tsirran tudu da fadama na abinci da na alfarma a ƙasar Hausa babu wanda ya yi tagomashin ƙwarya a farfajiyar adabi da al’ada. Na duba irin martabar gero da dawa da maiwa da malle da masara da shinkafa da goro da dankali da gwaza da mankani babu ɗaya daga cikinsu da ya yi kusa ga martabar duma a adabi da al’ada, ga shi kuma ba cin ta ake ba. Idan aka bi diddigin tarihi, da wuya ba da abinmu aka gan mu ba. Da wuya in ba a farfajiyar ƙasar Hausa tsiron duma ya fara bayyana a duniyar mutane ba! A dai matsa bincike, ba banza ba ƙuda a warki.
Kadadar Bincike
Ba burin wanna bincike, binciken ƙwarya da gurbinta a al’ada ba. Bincikena ba ya da ƙudurin taɓa komai na kimiyyar ƙwarya bale nomanta da yadda ake renonta da kasuwancinta ba. Kadadar bincikena ita ce, mece ce ƙwarya? Yaya Bahaushe ya yi amfani da ita da abubuwan da suke da alaƙa da ita wajen adana tunaninsa da taskace karatunsa na duniya domin ya amfane shi, ya amfani waɗanda za su biyo bayansa? Binciken ya taƙaita kawai ga abin da ya shafi ƙwarya a kadadar adabi da al’adun Hausawa kawai. Fatata wannan kadadar ta zama mabuɗi ga yin wasu bincike masu amfani a kan noman ƙwarya, sarrafa ta, da kasuwancinta.
Mece ce Ƙwarya?
A wajen manoma ƙwarya da masana sana’a da ita suna uku suka yi fice nata: “ƙwarya” da “duma” da “dume.” Kowanne daga cikin sunayen ana amfani da shi wajen ambatonta, tana shuke ne a matsayinta na yabanya ko an ɗebe ta ne, ko irin ta ne? Duka ana iya ce da ita ƙwarya ko duma ko dume. A fassarar Ƙamusun Hausa cewa ya yi:
                        Mazubin da ake samu bayan an fafe duma
A fassarar Ƙamusun Hausa, ƙwarya suna ne na abin da duma ta haifa ya nuna aka ɗebe shi aka fafe shi aka sarrafa shi zuwa wani mazubi ko ma’auni. Da ya zo kan duma cewa ya yi:
Shuka mai yaɗo da ‘ya’yanta ke girma a yi ƙwarya ko buta[3] ko zunguru ko shantu da su.
Ƙamusun Bargery bai faɗaɗa ba kamar na Ƙamsuun Hausa domin cewa ya yi:
                        Ƙwarya (pl) ƙore – a calabash basin.
Ƙamusun Bargery da jam’i ya fara na ƙwarya ya ce “ƙore” bai ce “korai”[4] ba. Ya ƙara da cewa, wani mazubi ne, amma bai ce komai kan duma/dume ba.
A fassarar ƙamusoshin “ƙwarya” wani irin makai/mazubi ne da aka sarrafa daga duma bayan ta ƙosa. A wajen manoma ƙwarya da masana harshen Hausa, ƙwarya mace ce, kuma tilo, jam’inta ƙore/ƙorai, namijinta “kumbu.” Ga lafazin Bahaushe “duma” shi ne namiji kuma yakan ɗauki tilo da jam’i, “dume” ita ce mace, takan ɗauki tilo da jam’i.[5] Ban ga laifin yadda ƙamusoshin suka kalli ƙwarya/duma a fassarorinsu ba. Idan za a taƙaita ma’anonin zuwa haka zai ba da haske sosai.
Duma tsiro ce mai yaɗo mai yawa da faɗin kunne sosai mai girma fiye da na dankali da rogo; kama da na kabewa da kabushi. Ana shuka ta a fadama a damina tana fure da saka ya’ya masu yawa. Ana yi wa ‘ya’yanta suna gwargwadon sifarsu daga ciki akwai: ludayi da zunguru da shantu da gora da gyanɗama da ƙoƙo da kumbu amma ƙwarya ta fi sauran ‘ya’yan fice da ratsa adabi da al’ada.[6]
Ƙwarya da Dangoginta
A tunanin Bahaushe, sunan ƙwarya ya fi yin zarra da fice bisa ga dangoginta. Ƙwarya ita ce babba da ake saka fura, Fulani ke tallar nono da ita, a yi roron wake ko gyaran gyaɗa ko shinkafa da ita. Ita ce ake yin ganin zuma da ita da tallar ɗanyen nama da gasasshe ko kifi da ita. Idan an ajiye ta don ajiye fura ko kunu sunanta “gidauniya.” Idan ta cin tuwo ce kawai sunanta “kumbu.” Idan ta kiɗan goge ce da bori sunanta “ƙwarya.” Idan ta awon sinkafa da shenshera ce da yin fito a kogi sunanta “masaki.”
Ƙaramar ƙwarya da ake amfani da ita wajen shan ruwa ita ce “moɗa.” Idan ta ɗan ɗara moɗa kaɗan ana yi mata suna da “ƙoƙo.” Idan aka bar ta yadda take aka rarrabe ta aka bar ta da ɗan wuyanta sunanta “gora,” wasu su kira ta da “jallo” mai ɗan girma a ce mata “gyanɗama.” Idan aka haɗa su biyu masu girma daidai-wa-daidai su ne ake yi wa suna “gunki.”[7] Idan ƙwarya ta fashe ratsa-ratsa kowane gutsure daga cikin gutsattsarinta sunansa “sakaina/sakainiya,” amma idan aka sarrafa sakainar zuwa gyaran tuwo sakainar ta koma “maaraa” idan wanda Fulani ke sa man shanu ne a kai sunansa “tanɗi.” Tunanin adabin Bahaushe ya kakkamo dangogin ƙwarya daban-daban ga yadda ake sarrafa su ko amfani da su.
Ƙwarya a Ƙasar Hausa
Tun fil azal, ƙasar Hausa jigawa ce mai tsarin shimfiɗar tudu da rafi. Kogunan da suka ratso ta sun haifar da manyan tafukka da ƙoramu da wuyan gulbi da dausayin da sanyi ke makara a ciki. A irin waɗannan wurare ne ake shuka ƙwarya a nome ta.[8] Sai dai, tun kafin noma ta, ni ina ganin “ƙwarya” babu tarihin tanada zuwan irinta a ƙasar Hausa, domin a rayuwar mazauna duniyar farko ba dole ba ce.[9] Don haka, tsiro ce da sai bayan da ta bayyana aka fara kiyayewa da ire-iren amfanoninta.
A hasashen wasu masana, ƙwarya ta samo asali daga Misra, wasu su ce, daga Asia wasu kuma na dangantata da Amurka. Nagartacciyar magana daga masana ilmin rayuwar halittu (Biologist) na Jami’ar Harvard da Cibiyar Bincike ta Smithsonian Institution and National Museum of Natural History da Jami’ar Massey ta New Zealand da Jami’ar Maine, sun bayyana cewa, tsiron ƙwarya dai tushensa daga Afirka yake. Abin saninsu shi ne, ya samu biyo Kogin Atalantika ya biyo igiyar ruwa mutanen da ya riska suka ciro shi suka dinga amfani da shi a matsayin makai/abin zubi. An ce, ga dukan alamu, ƙwarya ta shigo Amurka kimanin shekaru dubu goma (10,000) a Florida, Kentucky, Maxico da Peru. (Cience Daily, 14 December, 2005).
Masu kirdadon samuwar ƙwarya a Misira watakila mu ce, in ta tabbata, daga can ne ƙwarya ta sadu da ƙasar Hausa. Akwai yiyuwar ta shigo ta hanyar kogunan da suka sada mu. A wani hasashe, za a iya cewa kusantar ƙasar Hausa da Misra ta hanayr Afirka ta Arewa musamman daga Libiya da Morocco da Tunis zuwa Daular Borno da iyakokin Borno da Kano.[10] Ba abin mamaki ba ne a ce, ta hanyar tosoron tsuntsaye da amansu ko gawarsu, irin ƙwarya ya riske mu.[11] Bugu da ƙari, ba abin mamaki ba ne a ce, an zo da irin an dasa ya ci gaba da yaɗuwa.[12] Ni dai a nawa tunani ga waɗannan hasashe-hasashe, na fi ganin ƙwarya ta sadu da Bahaushe ta fuskar kogunan da suka ratso ta musamman idan aka lura da cewa an fi samun ƙwarya a wuraren da ke da maƙwabtaka da koguna da manyan tafukka da korama. Ba abin mamaki ba ne a ce, a fadamun ƙasar Hausa ƙwarya ta bayyana ta shiga uwa duniya ta kogunansu.
Ƙwarya da Bahaushe
Gabanin bayyanar ƙwarya ga Bahaushe, yana da fasahar “akushi” da “salka” da “tukwane” da yake aiki da su ta fuskar dafa cimakarsa da adana ta da nemo ruwa da adana su da makamantansu.[13] Samuwar ƙwarya wata dama ce ta ƙara sauƙaƙa masu da rage masu nauyi da wahalar da ke cikin ayyukan akushi, salka da tukwane. Da ƙwarya ta samu karɓuwa ga Bahaushe ya ƙirƙiro hanyoyin sarrafa ta, da ƙawata ta, da inganta ta, da faɗaɗa amfanoninta. Daga cikin hanyoyin karɓuwa da ƙwarya ta samu akwai:
1.      Haifar da nomanta ya zama wata sana’a kamar ta noman hatsi.
2.      Mamaye ayyukan gida na abinci da ajiya da tanade-tanaden adana su.
3.      Haifar da sana’ar feƙe a matsayin wata babbar sana’a da in ba ƙwarya ba ita.
4.      Haifar da sana’ar gyartai da in ba ƙwarya babu ita.
Yaɗon Ƙwarya a Adabin Hausa
Lahirar wannan bincike ita ce, gano yadda sunan “ƙwarya” da abokan rakiyarta suka mamaye adabin Hausa musamman adabin baka abin kulawa ne. Ana samun gutsattsarin sassan adabi da suka kamo “ƙwarya” da dangoginta da suka cancanci a yi musu Bahaushen nazari domin a ƙara faɗaɗa nazarce-nazarcen adabi. A dubi wannan ɗan tsari domin tabbatar da manufarmu:
1.      Karin magana
2.      Kirari
3.      Waƙe-waƙe
Karin Magana
Babu wanda ya san lokacin da ɗan Adam ya fara ƙago karin magana sai wanda ya san su lokacin da ɗan Adam ya fara magana.[14] A kowace al’umma karin magana rumbun tarihi ce. Karin magana maɓoyar adabi ce da taskace al’ada. Ga ɗan rawar da ƙwaya ta taka a nan:
1.      Ƙwarya ta bi ƙwarya in ta hau akushi sai ta fashe.
2.      Sakaina ke iya ruwa
3.      Ba a fafe gora ranar tafiya
4.      Bambanta ɗan duma da kabewa
5.      Ruwa kamar da bakin ƙwarya
6.      Kamun ludayi
7.      Ɗaukar dumar Magaji da nishi
8.      Zube ban ƙwarya
9.      Gaba-gaba ƙwaryar roro
10.  Hannu baka hannu ƙwarya
A Bahaushiyar tarbiya, gaba da gabanta, kowane mutum ya san irin matsayinsa da matsayin waninsa. Idan aka fahimci haka, to an yarda da ƙwarya ta bi ƙwarya. Idan kuwa mai ƙarfin ƙwarya ya ja da mai ƙarfin akushi, ba zai kai labari ba. Bahaushe ya zargi gaggawa da rawar jiki, don haka ya ke cewa, ba ta kunu. Al’amari duk a tunkare shi gabanin ya wakana, duk gorar da aka fafe ranar tafiya ko an adana ruwa ciki ba sa shayuwa. Lallai kama da wane ba wane ba ne, ala tilas bambanta ɗan duma da ɗan kabewa da yabanyarsa da ‘ya’yansu ba ɗai suke ba.
A cikin karin maganganun Bahaushe, “ƙwarya” na wakiltar ma’anoni ko mudu na kwatancen awo da ƙima. Idan ruwan sama suka tsananta ba a misalta yawansu sai a ce: “kamar da bakin ƙwarya.”[15] Idan kuwa ɗan Adam ake son a yi awon zubinsa da ƙimarsa ta tunaninsa ko ƙarfin jikinsa sai a gayyato ludayi jikan ƙwarya ya yi fashin baƙi da kamun ludayi. Idan aka ce, a ga kamun ludayi ana son a karanci mutum sosai. A awon abin da ba ya da adadi, ko ga shi watse ratata, ko zance ne aka kafa zubawa, ba aya ba waƙafi, ko kiɗa aka kwana yi ba ji ba gani, ba rawa ba waƙa, sai a ce: “kiɗi zube ban ƙwarya.”
Abin da duk ya fi ƙarfin mutum ya ce bai yarda ba sai ya jarraba, ko ya ci nasara ko bai ci ba, a nan tunanin Bahaushe na ɗaukar duman Magaji da nishi ke bayyana. Ko dai an yi abin, nishi da aka yi ya tabbatar da ƙyar aka yi. Sa himma ga gudanar da wani aiki daki-daki, bi-da-bi, ba nuna kasala irin na ƙwazon ‘yan roron wake a nan tunin gaba-gaba ƙwaryar roro ke bayyana. Tsakanin ƙwarya da akushi ana taƙaddamar wane ne ƙani a sha’anin girkin Bahaushe?[16] Yi wa abu cin kwaɗayi, ko cin yunwa, ko cin takaici, shi ake fasarawa da hannu baka hannu ƙwarya/akushi. Kaɗan ke nan daga cikin gudummuwar ƙwarya. Idan aka nazarci waɗannan karuruwan magana cikin tsanaki za a ga:
1.      Ga dukkanin zato, ba manoma ƙwarya suka ƙago su ba zantuka ne gama gari.
2.      Ba su keɓanta ga masu amfani da ƙwarya ko fataucinta ba, da kowa suke.
3.      Tunaninsu ya gewaye tunanin ɗan Adam gaba ɗaya, da wanda ya san ƙwarya da wanda bai san ta ba.
4.      An yi amfani da ƙwarya da ‘yan rakiyarta domin a isar da wani saƙo da ko ba a sa ƙwarya ba an san haka nan yake.
5.      Tun gabanin bayyanar ƙwarya akwai ruwa a ƙasar Hausa, da baya aka samu ƙwarya har ta fashe aka raɗa wa gutsuttsarinta suna “sakaina” aka saka ta a ruwa aka ce: “Sakaina ke iya ruwa.”
Haƙiƙanin gaskiya ƙwarya ita ta riski Bahaushe, ba Bahaushe ya riske ta ba. Lallai ƙwarya ta tarar da maganganu sun cika wa Bahaushe ciki, yana neman wurin da za ya rage su, da ya same ta, ya ɗora mata nauyin wasu ta sa kai ta ɗauka. Ko’ina Bahaushe ya sarrafa ƙwarya da dangoginta cikin karin magana ba haƙiƙanin ƙwaryar ko dangoginta yake nufi ba, aro su aka yi domin su wakilci wani abu ko wata manufa ta daban. Madalla da ƙwarya cikin karin magana.
Kirari
Kirari wani ɗan fage ne daga cikin manyan fagagen adabi.[17] Ƙumshiyar ta haɗa da washi, da zuga, da cicciɓa abu, da kumbura shi, da yin barazana da shi, a ba abokin adawa ko mai tababa haushi a yi masa dodorido. Duk abin da bai shiga cikin ɓargon tunanin Bahaushe ba, ba ya samun kirarinsa. Ga ɗan abin da kirari ya ɗan ciro dangane da ƙwarya:
1.      Yaƙin ruwa ba ya ci sakaina ba.
2.      Arna masu wa rai riƙon sakainar kashi.
3.      Zarton yankan ƙarfe ko ya dallashe yana yanke duma.
4.      Masakin tuwo mai nauyi.
5.      Kumbu ya gamu da marhi.
Fitattun gwarajen yaƙi irin su Ɗanwaire marin dawa da Kanta na Kabi da Bawa Jangwarzo[18] da Shagon Ɗan’anace[19] idan mazaje suka rutsa da su, aka yi turnuƙu su ake yi wa kirarin yaƙin ruwa ba zai ci sakaina ba. Domin ko an ga an rufe su, ana son a rinjaye su, ba a ɗebe ɗammahar su mayar da fansa. ‘Yan tauri da mayaƙa suna yawaita kirarin yi wa rayuwa riƙon sakainar kashi, wato, yadda ba a so, ba a ƙaunar kashi, haka ba sa tausan rai da mai shi.[20] Idan ɗan wasa ya tuba ya aje/aske, akan yi masa kirari da zarton yankan ƙarfe ko ya dallashe yana yanka duma, wai an nuna jiya ba yau ba, kuma jiya ta fi yau, dole yaro ya kauce ko su ga baya gare shi. Wata Karen makaɗa daga Nijar tana yi wa Narambaɗa kirari: “Masakin tuwo mai nauyi...[21] A kowane fage aka ga, kar ta san kar, buwayayye na yi wa kansa kirari da cewa, kumbu ya gamu da marhi wato Gummi ta gamu da Anka.
Waƙe-Waƙen Baka
A fannin adabi, Bahaushe ya fi kowace al’umma daga cikin al’ummomin duniyar baƙar fata yawan mawaƙa da rabe-rabensu. A kowace al’umma ta doron ƙasa waƙa babbar jahakidaya ce ta isar da saƙo da adana tarihi ta taskace shi. Ba don waƙe-waƙe ba, da abubuwa da yawa na al’ada sun salwanta. Ƙwarya da ‘yan rakiyarta sun sha kai kawo wajen isar da muhimmin saƙo daga fitattun mawaƙan Hausa.
Da yake ƙwarya ‘yar ruwa ce ba ta rayuwa sai a fadama, a wajen Sarkawa ba ƙaramin matsayi gare ta ba. Malamin waƙa Narambaɗa ya lulubo ta a waƙarsa ta: Na yaba ka da girma... Yana cewa:
Jagora: Da a ce ku gai da ɗan mai taru,
            Gara a ce mai taru
            Kwak kwashe kifi nai,
            Sai ya nasa goranai
            Na yaba ka da girma Abdu ƙanen mai daga
            Kan da mu san kowa kai mun ka sani Sadauki
A sana’ar “Su”, gora babban jigo ne. Da shi ake shiga ruwa ana farautar kifi. Idan an kama ba sai an fitar tudu ba, nan za a miƙe shi, a saka kansa cikin gora, a adana. Ashe ba don gora ba, babu wurin adana kifi ga masuncin da ke tsakiyar ruwa. A can da, ƙwarya ce jirgin fito gabanin a samu fasahar sassaƙa a ƙasar Hausa har a san yadda za a yi jirgin ruwa.[22] Malamin waƙa Narambaɗa ya tabbatar muna da haka a waƙar Alƙali shiri nai da kyawo...
Jagora: Mai masaki ba shi gasa da mai jirgi,
            In dai ruwa sui ruwa
Yara: Mai masaki ba ya fis she ka
            Amma mai jirgi shi na kai ka wajje
            Alƙali shi nai da kyawo
            Shi yai zaune daidai da daidai
A da, da masakin ƙwarya ake fito jirgi ya zo ya zama walkam shiga rijiya da dawo.
A cikin waƙar yabon Annabi (SAW) ta Liman Aliyu Isa, wadda ya yi wa bakandamiyar Narambaɗa gyaran fuska yana[23] cewa:
.......................................................................................
Tilas mai awon ruwa shi yi babban masaki,
.......................................................................................
Ina ganin abin da yake son ya ce, shi ne, saboda yana son ya yi yabo ga Annabi (SAW) dole cikin kogunan waƙa (ƙafafun waƙa) ya ɗauki babba mai tsawo (Ɗawil) domin babban yabo zai yi sai babbar ƙafa.[24]
Ƙwarya a Farfajiyar Al’ada
A ɓangaren al’ada an faɗaɗa ma’anonin ƙwarya da sigogi daban-daban. Yadda ƙarya ta yi kane-kane cikin al’ada wata manuniya ce da ke bayyana irin daɗewarta da gurbinta a Bahaushen tunani.
1.      Ƙwarya a matsayin ma’auni
2.      Ƙwarya a matsayin mazubi
3.      Ƙarya a bukukuwan al’ada
4.      Ƙwarya a al’adance
Ƙwarya a Matsayin Ma’auni
A da can, gabanin saukakkun addinai da saduwar Bahaushe da wasu al’ummomin da ke wajen duniyar ƙasar Hausa, ma’aunin Bahaushe uku ne: jikinsa, sanda da igiya, da ƙwarya. A jikinsa yana amfani da yatsunsa da hannayensa da gabansa da ƙafafunsa da wuyansa, idonsa ya zama alƙalin awon domin ya ce, ido mudu ne ko bai ci ba ya san abin da ke cika masa tumbi.[25] Sanda da igiya ana awo da su daidai ƙurji daidai ruwa. Da ƙwarya ta zo aka sallama mata awo gaba ɗaya.
1.      A adadi lissafin ɗari (100) shi ne ƙwarya ɗaya. Goro ɗari (100) ƙwarya ɗaya, haka waina, ƙuli[26] da ƙwaya ta ‘yan shaye-shaye.
2.      Ƙwarya a matsayin babban awo na “masaki” a ce masakin shinkafa uku (3) ke yin lato ɗaya.
Ƙwarya a Matsayin Mazubi
A nan, Gidauniya, ƙwarya, ƙoƙo, gora da kwaciya duk suna shiga ƙarƙashinsa domin mazubin wani abu ne, a al’adance ko a ɗabi’ance. Fitattun kalmomi da ƙwarya ta mamaye kuma Bahaushe ya fahimci abin da ake son faɗa ko abin da aka faɗa sun haɗa da:
i.                    Gorar su
ii.                  Ƙoƙon gishiri
iii.                Ƙwaryar zuma
iv.                Masakin shinkafa
v.                   Ƙwaryar roro
vi.                Kumbun tuwo
vii.              Gidauniyar fura
Ƙwarya a Bukukuwan Al’ada
A al’adance, ana amfani da kalmar “ƙwarya” a wasu hidimomi da suka haɗa da bukukuwan gargajiya. A cikin ayyukan hidimomin an ambaci suna daga cikin sunayen ƙwarya zai wadatar.
1.      Gidauniya: Gangamin karo-karo na wani agaji
2.      Ƙwaryar Salla: Sayayyar kayayyaki na musamman da ake yi na aure a Sakkwato
3.      Ƙwaryar Ƙira: Kwatarnin ƙarfe na zuba tsakin tama da kayan ƙira
4.      Ƙwaryar Gaban Doki: Ƙwaryar fura da ake kai amarya da ita a Katsina
5.      Ƙwaryar Haske (Gobir): Ƙwaryar dawar da ake bai wa Arbiƙi (ungozoma) ranar raɗa suna
6.      Ƙwaryar Buki: Kyautar da aka yi wa mutum domin ya rama irinta in buƙata ta taso
Ƙwarya a Al’adance
A al’adance kalmar “ƙwarya” na ɗaukar ma’anar abinci (tuwo), a faɗar Bahaushe da ke cewa:
i.                    Muna ƙwarya
ii.                  Abin ya ci mini tuwo a ƙwarya
iii.                Ƙwarya a gabanku
iv.                Duniya gishirin ƙoƙo
v.                   Ƙoƙon bara
Ga alama “ƙoƙon bara” ko “gishirin ƙoƙo” duk dai cimakar Bahaushe ake son a fito da ita tare da wurin da ake saka ta ko adana ta. A al’adance don faɗaɗa ma’anar ƙwarya Bahaushe na da:
1.      Ƙwaryar kai: ƙoƙon kan mutum
2.      Ƙwaryar kogi: shimfiɗar kogi
3.      Ƙwaryar kunkuru: ƙoƙon jikinsa
4.      Ƙwaryar molo: aski tal kwabo
5.      Kwamitin riƙon ƙwarya: kwamitin ɗan lokaci
6.      Ƙwarya-ƙwarya: kaɗan-kaɗan ko shafi-mu-lera, sama-sama
Kwakkahe Bincike
Idan muka lura da yadda wannan ɗan bincike na ƙwarya ya fara da fashin baƙin ma’anar ƙwarya mun gano ƙwarya na da wani suna “duma”. Daga cikin dangogin ƙwarya mun ce akwai: gidauniya, masaki, ƙoƙo, luddai, gora, shantu, zunguru, moɗa, sakaina, kumbu da jallo. Ƙoƙarinmu a bincike shi ne, mu ga wuraren da suka fito a adabin Bahaushe da al’adarsa da abubuwan da suka wakilta na fannin rayuwa daban-daban. A bincikenmu za mu ga cewa:
1.      Idan aka shuka ƙwarya sunanta ƙwarya ko duma sai ta fesa ɗiya an ga sigarsu za a yi musu sunan da ya dace da su: misali gora, kumbu, luddai.
2.      Idan aka sarrafa ɗiyan za a ƙago moɗa, ƙoƙo, shantu, zunguru da sauransu.
3.      Idan aka farfasa ta, za a samu sakaina, mara, tanɗin mai da sauransu.
4.      Ayyukan da wasu ‘yan rakiyar ƙwarya ke yi nan ne sunansu ke fita kamar: mara ta yin marar tuwo, moɗa ta shan ruwa, sakaina ta kwasar kashi, masaki na awo, gidauniya ta shan fura, ga sun nan da.
5.      Adabin baka da al’adun Hausawa sun taimaka wajen adana ƙwaryar da dangoginta da taskace gurbinsu a al’ada.
Sakamakon Bincike
Wannan ɗan bincike ba tarihin ƙwarya ko amfaninta ya yi yunƙurin leƙowa ba. Bincike ne da ya ga ya kyautu a share fagen binciken ƙwarya ga ɗaliban ilmi da manazarta da masana domin su san in aka manta da binciken ƙwarya da nazarinta a karatun Hausa, an yi tuya an manta da albasa. Abin da wannan ɗan binciken ya gano shi ne:
1.      Ya zuwa yau 29/09/2019 babu wani Bahaushen bincike na ilimi da aka yi a kan amon ƙwarya a adabi da al’adun Hausawa. Wataƙila wanan ‘yar takarda ita ce zakaran gwajin dahi. Ban ce, na kewaye komai da sani ba, amma na duba, babu.
2.      Ga alama, ƙwarya ta riga sassaƙa da ƙira a ƙasar Hausa domin rawar da ƙwarya ta taka a adabin Bahaushe yana nuna cewa, ƙwarya ta mamaye gidan Bahaushe ta fuskar cimakarsa da adana ta.
3.      Binciken ya gano har yanzu ƙwarya ita ce kan gaba a awo, da cin abinci, da adana shi, da mazubi a adabi, domin duk da kwano da kwalla da kwando da robobi da luddunan roba da na ƙarfe, ba su samu shiga a ma’ajiyar taskokin adabi da al’ada ba.
4.      Bisa ga abin da muka samu a adabi a matsayinsa na kunne ya girmi kaka, ƙwarya a wajen Bahushe Bahausa ce, bai gan ta ga kowa ba, bai aro ta ga kowa ba. Sunayenta daki-daki sun tabbatar da babu sarkin wannan harshe ko wata baƙuwar al’ada a ciki. Za mu iya cewa, duma tsirowa ta yi a farajiyar fadamun ƙasar Hausa ba wani ya zo wa Bahaushe da ita ba.
5.      Bayyanar ƙwarya wani gagarumin ci gaba ne a ƙasar Hausa ta fuskar adanawa da taskace adabi da al’adun Bahaushe na gargajiya da sai ɗan asali kawai zai yi bugun gaba da su. Bahaushe ya tabbatar da wannan a karin maganar da ke cewa: “Sabon shiga Bature da feƙe.”
Naɗewa
Ban ce, wannan sabon bincike ne ba domin masana kimiyya sun yi ayyuka da yawa a kan ƙwarya a kimiyance. Da hannayensu ya sami kai ga adabin Bahaushe na ƙwarya da bincikensu ya ƙara tsawo da faɗi. Ƙwarya tsiro ce, ba hatsi ba, ba abinci ba, ba wata dukiya ba a farkon bayyanarta, amma ta mamaye adabin Hausa fiye da tsirran abincinsa. Rayuwarta a fadama tare da wake da gwaza da da dankali da rogo da mankani da guna da dumar kada da aya da albasa da shinkafa duk ana cin su ban da ita, bai hana ta fi su taka rawa a adabin Bahaushe ba. Na tabbata, ba don ƙwarya ba, da Bahaushe ya yi hararar abubuwa da yawa na adabinsa da al’adunsa da ci gaban duniyarsa. Kasancewar cewa, a duniyar mutane, babu wurin da ƙwarya ba ta shiga ba, kuma a Afirka ake ganin tushenta yake, sai a sa ƙaimin bincike a gano, wai, cikin al’ummar Afirka akwai al’ummar da ƙwarya ta mamaye adabinta da al’adunta? In babu, to, ban yi kure ba in na ce; Bahaushe ya fara saduwa da ƙwarya a duniyar mutane.











Manazarta
Alƙali, M. B. (1968). “Hausa Community in Crisis: Kebbi in the Ninteenth Centurey.” MA thesis, Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University.
Bada, B. D. (1995). A Literary Study of Themes, Functions and Poetic Devices of Hausa Karin Magana.” PhD thesis, Sokoto: Usmanu Danfodiyo University.
Baldi, S. (1977). Systematic Hausa Bibliography. Lagos: Rom.
Bargery, G. P. (1993). A Hausa-English Dictionary and English-Hausa Vocabulary. Zaria: NNPC.
BUNZA, a. M. (1985). “Tasirin Musulunci Cikin Rubutattun Waƙoƙi.” Kundin BA, Sokoto: Jami’ar Sokoto.
Bunza, A. M. (2009). Narambaɗa. Lagos: IBRASH Islamic Publication Center.
Dalziel, J. (1937). The Useful Plants in Wesst Tropical. London: Crown Agent for Overseas Government and Administration, HMSO.
Dalziel, J. M. (1916). A Hausa Botanical Vocabulary. London: T. Fisher Unwin Ltd.
Furniss, G. (1996). Poetry, Prose and Popular Culture in Hausa. London: Edingburgh University Press.
Hair, P. E. H. (1967). The Early Study of Nigerian Languages Esays and Biographies. London: Cambridge University Press.
Mahe, A. (1984). “Alhaji Bawa Ɗan’anace da Waƙoƙinsa.” Kundin BA, Sokoto Jami’ar Sokoto.
Mann, A., Muhammad G., Abdulƙadir, N. U. (2003). Medical and Economic Plants of Nupeland. Bida, Juba: Evans Books and Publications.
Mode, M. A. (2004). “A Stylistic Study of Hausa Towns Epithets.” PhD theisi, Sokoto: Usmanu Danfodiyo University.
Scientific and Vernacular Names of Hausa Medical Plants and Trees (Manuscript)
Tsiga, S. Sarkin Gobir Bawa Jangwarzo.




[1] Babbar madogarar binciken sunayen ayyukan da aka yi a Hausa akwai: Graham Furniss Poetry, Prose and Popular Culture in Hausa, shafi 293-339, da P.E.H. Hair, The Early Study of Nigerian Languages Essays and Bibbliographics, (1963) da Baldi, S. Systematic Hausa Biblioprahy. Rome, (1977) da Yahaya, I.Y. Hausa a Rubuce. NNPC, (1988) ban ci karo da wani aiki a kan ƙwarya ba.
[2] Yanzu aka ɗora harsashen bincike a kan ƙwarya bisa ga tallafin “TETFUND” 2018/2019. Mun yi rangadi sau uku, yanzu muke ƙoƙarin bitar rangadin da fara rubutu. Masu bincike su ne: Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza (Madugu), Aliyu Rabi’u Ɗangulbi, Musa Abdullahi, da Isa Sarkin Fada (ayari) a Sashen Nazarin Harsuna da Al’adu, Jami’ar Tarayya Gusau.
[3] A nawa ɗan bincike ban ci karo da dumar da ake yin buta da ita ba. Buta akwai ta ƙarfe da ta roba da ta yunɓu. Cikin ‘ya’yan dubu babu buta. Ina jin tuntuɓen alƙalami ne aka yi a nan. Allah Masani. Bahaushe bai ɗabi’antu da yin tsarki da jallo ko gyanɗama ba.
[4] A binciken Bargery “ƙore” ne jam’in. A wajen manoma ƙwarya da masu sana’ar ƙwarya ana amfani da “ƙore” da “ƙorai” duk a matsayin jam’i. Ai akwai kunamar da Bahaushe yake cewa “Mai ƙorai” saboda ƙwarya-ƙwaryan bala’in da ke ƙunshe a wutsiyarta.
[5] Duma da dume su ne tilo su ne jam’i ba a cika faɗar dumame ko dummai ba.
[6] Yadda kalmar ƙwarya ke yawo cikin adabi sauran ba a cika samun su ba.
[7] Yadda kalmar ƙwarya ke yawo cikin adabi sauran ba a cika samun su ba.
[8] A ƙasar Hausa wuraren fadama ake samun manoma ƙwarya kamar ƙasar Gummi da jahar Zamfara, Nijeriya.
[9] Mutanen farko bayan zamunan ƙanƙara sai aka yi zamunan dutse sabo da tsoho (Old Stone Age da New Stone Age). Daga nan ba a yi zamanin katako ko itace ba, sai aka shiga zamunan ƙarfe (Iron Age). Don ƙarin bayani a dubi Tarikh Vol. 1 No. 3 Man in Africa. Daga Borno sun shiga Kano sun kwashi bayi su koma da su Masar da sauran ƙasashen Larabawa a shiga uwa duniya da su. Ƙila daga nan suka shigo da ƙwarya domin ratso sahara a yi guzurin ruwa a jallo.
[10] Idan aka yi kirdadon hanyoyin da Fir’aunonin Masar suka buɗa zuwa duniyar baƙar fata da hanyoyin da masu haramtacciyar fataucin bayi ke bi zuwa Borno.
[11] Tsuntsayen da ke rayuwa a fadama a kowace duniya suka je sai a fadama suke rayuwa. Wata ƙila su ciwo irin duma su saka shi a cikin kogunanmu ko tafukkanmu ta hanyar kashi ko amai ko gawarsu.
[12] Na yi wannan tunani ne ganin irin yadda Turawa suka shigo da ire-iren shinkafar Turai suka dasa a ƙasarmu. An ce Swood Smith mai wandon ƙarfe ya zo da irin shinakfa Ba’ingila a fadamar Kware ta Sakkwato.
[13] Akushi da icce ake yin sa. Salka da fatar dabbobi. Su duka akwai wahala wajen birgarsu ba kamar ƙwaya ba.
[14] Don samun cikakken bayani kan karin magana da ma’anoninsa a dubi Bello D. Bada, Poetric Divices in Hausa Karin Magana, PhD thesis, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, (1995).
[15] A Larabci a ce waabilun, a Turanci a ce, it rains cats and dogs. Duk dai “Kamar da bakin ƙwarya” ake nufi.
[16] Ga alama ƙwarya ce domin ta gabaci sassaƙa da sarrafa yunɓu a ƙasar Hausa.
[17] Don ƙarin bayani a kan kirari a dubi Muhammad Aminu Mode, “A Stylistic Study of Hausa Town Epithets” PhD. Sokoto, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, (2004).
[18] Sama’ila Tsiga (Prof.) ya rubuta littafi mai suna Sarkin Gobir Bawa Jangarzo NNPC, Zaria.
[19] Ba a yi wani aiki a kan Shago ba amma Abubakar Mahe “Alhaji Bawa Ɗan’anace da Waƙoƙinsa,” Kundin BA, Jami’ar Sakkwato 1983 zai amfanar.
[20] Na taɓa jin kirarin wani ɗan tauri: “Ga masu ba matacce kashi mai rai da ya gani to shi tsaya ɗan falgacen burar uba.” Sunan ɗan taurin (Sani Maikware na Makama Bunza).
[21] Don ƙarin bayani a dubi Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza, Narambaɗa, Ibrash Publishers, Lagos, 2009 shafi na 14.
[22] Masassaƙan da ke yin jirgin ruwa daban suke a ƙasar Hausa.
[23] Don ƙarin bayani a dubi Aliyu Muhammad Bunza, kundin BA “Tasirin Musulunci Cikin Rubutattun Waƙoƙi” kundin BA, Jami’ar Sakkwato, 1985. Haka kuma Dano Balarabe Bunza ya yi aiki a kan “Tasirin Bakandamiyar Narambaɗa a cikin Waƙar na Ƙare da Lawwali Bari in yo Sani ta Liman Aliyu Isa,” a taron Nazarin Waƙoƙin Narambaɗa, Kano, BUK, 2019.
[24] Bayanin ƙafafun waƙa a dubi Ahmadu Bello Zaria, Hausa Prosody, NNPC Zaria, (2015).
[25] Awo da sawu ana ce masa “ƙafa”, na hannu ana ce masa “kamu” ko “gaba”, na yatsu ana ce masa “taƙi.”
[26] Kula ƙwarya ɗaya ana yi masa kirari: kowa ya ci ɗa ɗari ya ci mutum.