Friday, 11 January 2019

Mene Ne Bori?: Fashin Baƙin Ma’anarsa Cikin Taskar Harshe, Adabi Da Al’ada



Harshe abu ne mai rai da masanansa suka tabbatar da cewa, yana rayuwa yana mutuwa. Yadda duk rayuwar ɗan Adam ke fuskantar barazanar haɗurra daban-daban haka harshe ke fuskantar su.[1] Harsunan mutanen duniya makaman yaƙi uku suke da su: (a) harshe da (b) adabi da kuma (c) al’ada. A ɗan nawa nazari, al’ada ta haifi harshe domin a cikinta yake farautar kalmomin da za a yi magana mai ma’ana. Haka kuma, da babu al’ada, kasuwar adabi ta gama ciniki, domin da bazarta adabi ke rawa. Idan aka ce harshe na masassara, dukkanin waɗannan abubawa uku zazzaɓin ya shafe su. Don haka, ƙoƙarin tantance ‘Bori’ da ‘Ruƙiyya’ a matsayin addini ko al’ada wata alama ce ta nuna cewa, kasuwar ‘Bori’ ta fara ban kwana a alƙaryu da birane…
Mene Ne Bori?: Fashin Baƙin Ma’anarsa Cikin Taskar Harshe, Adabi Da Al’ada


Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza
Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya
Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sakkwato
Waya: 08034316508


Takardar da aka gabatar a taro na musamman da Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya da Mutuntar ɗan Adam (CSNLF) Jami’ar Bayero Kano ta shirya mai taken BORI ADDINI KO AL’ADA ranar Talata 16 ga watan Yuni 2015 a harabar Cibiyar, mazaunin dindindin.


Tsakure
Daga cikin daɗaɗɗun al’adun gargajiyar Bahaushe, babu wadda ta kai ‘bori’ tagomashin bincike ga masana al’adu na duniya. Masana al’adun Hausa na cikin ƙasar Hausa, da wajen ƙasar Hausa, sun ce wani abu a kan bori. Aikin da ya fi daɗewa shi ne (Tremeane, 1915). Bayansa an samu ayyuka masu ma’ana sosai na fitattun muƙalu. An yi fitattun kundayen PhD huɗu musamman kan bori; (Greenberg, 1946) da (Conant, 1960) da (Constantini, 1972) da (Gobir, 2012). Babu marena ga waɗannan ayyuka, amma ma’anar bori ta kasa fitowa ƙarara a ciki. Bori ya samu taron dangi na masanan duniya a Ingila, wanda (Lewis, 1991) ya wallafa da taken Women Medicine: The Zar-Bori Cult in Africa and Beyond. A tsanakin nazari, masanan sun yi takin saƙa ga kai ga tsayayyar ma’anar ‘bori’. Wannan ɗan bincike, ya yi kakkaɓan gara ga ayyukkan da suka gabata, kana ya yi dabarar kallon ‘bori’ a ƙarƙashin gurabu uku na nazarin Hausa; harshe da adabi da al’ada. Bayan an jinjini nauyin bori a ƙarƙashin kowane gurbi, aka yi tankaɗe da rairayar tsayar da ma’ana ɗaya gawurtacciya. Bori dai a nahawun ma’ana, kalmar ta ci sunanta. A farfajiyar adabi  ba ta tsallake ma’anar ‘wasa’ ba. A kadadar al’ada, ta kasa yin canjanras da ‘addini’ ta yi taho-mu-gama da ‘aƙida’ ta ‘yan tsirarrun Hausawa. Babu shakka, yarda da samuwar Iskoki, da yi musu hidima, al’ada ce da ta game duniyar mutane farfarunsu da babbaƙunsu. Duk da haka, hulɗa da Iskoki da sunan ‘bori’ Bahaushe ya kaɗaita da ita a farfajiyar duniyar mutane. Ba don gudunmuwar addinin Musulunci da Larabawa ba, da borin Bahaushe bai tsallake bukukuwan matankan rayuwar Bahaushe ba (aure, haihuwa da mutuwa).

Gabatarwa:
Harshe abu ne mai rai da masanansa suka tabbatar da cewa, yana rayuwa yana mutuwa. Yadda duk rayuwar ɗan Adam ke fuskantar barazanar haɗurra daban-daban haka harshe ke fuskantar su.[2] Harsunan mutanen duniya makaman yaƙi uku suke da su: (a) harshe da (b) adabi da kuma (c) al’ada. A ɗan nawa nazari, al’ada ta haifi harshe domin a cikinta yake farautar kalmomin da za a yi magana mai ma’ana. Haka kuma, da babu al’ada, kasuwar adabi ta gama ciniki, domin da bazarta adabi ke rawa. Idan aka ce harshe na masassara, dukkanin waɗannan abubawa uku zazzaɓin ya shafe su. Don haka, ƙoƙarin tantance ‘Bori’ da ‘Ruƙiyya’ a matsayin addini ko al’ada wata alama ce ta nuna cewa, kasuwar ‘Bori’ ta fara ban kwana a alƙaryu da birane, a ƙauyuka an yi mata riƙon sakainar kashi, ana cikin jinya ‘Ruƙiyya’ ta bayyana aka raba wa Hausawa hankali biyu. Wasu na ganin ‘ya’yan tsatso ɗaya ne, wasu su ce, zumuntar daga gefen uwa ne, wasu su ce a’a ha - babu kare bin damo, masu sharhin bayin fage na ganin abin duk dai sabon salon ra’ayi ne cin burodi da aidin. A nawa hasashe, ‘Bori’ zan saka gaba domin tantance haƙiƙanin ma’anarsa a idon masu bori da duniyar harshe da adabi da al’adar Bahaushe.

Dabarun Bincike:
A duniyar ilmin zamaninmu, sai an san nauyin kaya ake jingar ɗaukar su. hankalin wannan ɗan bincike zai tattara a kan gano mene ne haƙiƙanin bori a idon Bahaushe  da manazarta al’adunsa? Don haka, makamin bincike na farko shi ne tattaunawa ta musamman da masu bori da wakilansu da masu sha’awar su da masu kushe su da ‘yan ba-ruwanmu. Ƙofa ta biyu ita ce, farauto fitattun sassan adabin Bahaushe da kalmar ‘bori’ ta bayyana, a yi tarken su da sakamakon tattaunawar da aka yi domin rarrabe zare da abawa. Mataki na uku shi ne, a lalubo fitattun ayyukan ilmi da duniyar nazarin al’adun ‘yan Adam suka tabbatar an yi a kan bori a ga irin shiga da fitar da kalmar ‘bori’ ta yi a ciki da yadda aka lugude ta. Mataki na huɗu shi ne, ga wuta ga masara, watau a kalli wasan bori a aikace daga masu shi, da masu wasan kwaikwayo da shi, domin a tanka zaren tunanin abubuwan da suka gabata a kan abin da ya bayyana a zahiri. Cikin waɗannan matakan, an harari jinsin da bori ya rinjaya, da shekarun masu shi, da wayewarsu da zurfin karatunsu (na addini da na zamani), da irin matsayinsu ga al’ummarsu. Bincike ba ya buƙatar keɓe wasu shekaru ko biyar wata ƙididdigen adadi ko hawa wani ra’i daga ra’o’in al’ada ko adabi ko harshe, domin kalmar ‘bori’ kaɗai ce ake son a tantance ma’anarta, a gano shin bori al’ada ne ko addini? Duk da yake an yi ɗan rangadi na can da nan, wannan bincike dabarun aiwatar da shi, shi ne biyar diddigin masu bin diddigin diddigi domin diddigance diddigaggen diddigi a kan ma’anar bori a Hausance.

Ƙila-Wa-Ƙala:
A kan komai ake yin muhawara da sa-in-sa da ɗaɗa juna sani, akwai turken da dole kowa a kan sa zai dinga mafaka wajen kai hari da garkuwa da shi idan aka darkako shi. Tunanin masana da manazarta da mu ɗalibai ya bambanta a kan ainihin ma’anar ‘bori’. Wasu sun kalle shi a matsayin wasan kwaikwayon gargajiya, wai domin iskoki ne ake kwaikwayo. A ganin wasu, addini ne mai cin gashin kansa domin hidimomin da ke cikinsa irin na bauta ne da za a yi da sunan addini. Wasu na hangen bori a matsayin ‘tsafi’, domin matakan neman biyan buƙata da ke ciki maguzantattu ne. Wasu na kallon bori a matsayin ‘bokanci’ domin ganin masu bonkanci suka fi kowa cin gajiyarsa. Wannan ba ta hana wasu su kalli bori a matsayin ‘wasannin nishaɗi’ na Bahaushe da ke da keɓaɓɓun lokutan aiwatarwa. A hangen wasu, bori wata gwamnati ce da mata suka kafa domin ƙwato haƙƙoƙinsu da bayar da tasu gudummuwa ga al'umma. A ra’ayi na bakwai, wasu na ganin bori a matsayin ƙullin zumunci tsakanin mutane da mutantani domin neman agajin juna. Waɗannan ra’ayoyi bakwai su ne ra’ayoyin da masu bori da manazarta da masu kushewa da na bayan fage suke kai da kawo a kai. Tuƙe tunanin kowace irin muhawara shi ne gano ma'anar abin jayayya.

Fashin Baƙin Kalmar “Bori”:
Tsarin ginin kalmar 'bori' gaɓa biyu ce, /bo/ /ri/. Furucin sautin gaɓoɓin kuwa dogaye ne, /boo/ /rii/. Idan aka duba hawa da saukar muryar furucin kalmar, gaɓar farko sama take /boo/, gaɓa ta biyu ƙasa take /rii/. Ga alama, turken kalmar bori shi ne /bor/. A biyar diddigin ginin kalmomin Hausa ‘yan gaɓa biyu masu doguwar gaɓa da hawa da saukar murya su ne mafi rinjaye a harshen Hausa. Wannan ɗan hasashe na iya zama wata ‘yar hujja ta cewa[3] kalmar ‘bori’ Bahaushiya ce a gininta da zubi da tsarinta. A li’irabin suna, kalmar ‘bori’ ɓoyayyen suna ne (abstract noun) kuma tsayayye ne (dynamic noun), yakan shiga rigar aikatau idan kalmar ‘nake’ ta gabace shi.
A tsarin nahawun ma’ana, ‘bori’ suna ne kuma suna gama gari.[4] Ta fuskar yawa, kalmar ‘bori’ takan ɗauki awon tilo da jam’i, a mahangar jinsi, ‘bori ’ namiji ne duk da yake ya fi tagomashi ga mata. Kalmar ‘bori’ taƙadara ce wajen karɓar ɗofanen goshi da ƙeya, face a fagen jinjina jinsi da yawa na masu bori kamar: ‘yan, ɗan, ‘yar da masu, da mai. Misali:
·        ‘Yan bori     - jam’i
·        Ɗan bori      - tilo/namiji
·        ‘Yar bori     - tilo/mace
·        Masu bori    - jam’i/ maza da mata
·        Mai bori      - tilo/ namiji

Ba abin mamaki ba ne a ga, a harshen Hausa kalmomin da ke da gaɓoɓin /bo/ da turken /bor/ ‘yan tsiraru ne ƙwarai. Ga ɗan binciken da na yi, akwai:
·        Bori
·        Bore
·        Bororo
·        Borewa
·        Bobbowa
·        Bobbotai
·        Bobboce
·        Boce
·        Borkono

A harshen Hausa, ‘bore’ wani aiki ne da mai shi ke aikatawa bayan ya fita a hayyacinsa ta kamala da tunani. Da yawa, za a ga ‘yan bore sun shafe fuskokinsu da baƙin tukunya ko shuni ko bula, a saka tsumma, a ɗaɗɗaure jiki da igiyoyi a ciro kayan faɗa da artabu ana rera waƙoƙin fito-na-fito na fitar da hankali. Da haka za a aikata duk wata ta’asa da ake son a aikata ba tare da jin wani tsoro ba. A wata fassara wanna boren shi ne zanga-zanga. Abin da za mu tsinta a nan shi ne, sai dukkan waɗannan abubuwa da muka ambata sun kammala sannan bore ke zama bore na gaskiya. A fassarar bori ta haƙiƙa, waɗannan abubuwa su ne ‘bori’.
Idan aka nazarci kalmar ‘bororo’. Ma’anar ‘bori’ na iya bayyana a ciki. ‘Bororo’ shi ne wani mikin wuta na girshi ko na ƙwaron ‘Bobo’ (shadare) da zai sauka a jiki wurin ya tsirar da ƙurji babba zama ɗaya ya kumbure ya ɗuri ruwa ya ƙabure, da an soka masa wani tsinke kamar allura sai ruwan da ke ciki su yi waje da ƙarfi. Ko ƙurjin maruru ko bar-ni-da-mugu, ruwa suka ɗuru ciki, suka kumbure, akan ce, a yi sakiya a fitar da ruwan da suka ja. Kumburin na girshi shi ne irin na ‘bore’ don haka ake cewa ƙurji ya ‘bore’, ko  zama ɗaya sai ‘borewa’. Irin ɗibar iska da ruwa da suke ja, haka nan ɗan bori yake kasancewa zama ɗaya ya rikice sai hawan ‘bori’.[5]
‘Bobbowa’ da ‘bobbotai’ wata halayya ce ta fito da ma’anonin bori a sarari. Bobbowa ana samunta ga raƙumi yayin da yake fitar da ƙoƙiyarsa in yana jin nishaɗa ko ana artabu da shi. Za a ga ya zazzago harshensa waje cikin kumfa yana ƙabure shi wata irin cida mai ban tsoro tana fita bakinsa. Da ya shiga wannan halin masana na cewa, ya fusata, ko ya firgita ya hau ‘bori’. Idan mutum ne ya shiga irin wannan hali, rai ya ɓaci, baki na kumfa, murya ta yi kauri ta shaƙe, magana na fita saɓanin al’adar mai ita, za a ce, an ji shi yana ‘bobotai’ irin na fitar hankali, watau an shiga yanayin bori ke nan.[6] Da kurma ne, za a ce, an ji shi yana cida kamar hadari ko a ce, yana ‘bololloƙai’ kamar an cushe makwararar ruwan gebe.[7]
          A nahawu, kalmar ‘bori’ ita ce wani abu da ya saɓa wa al’adarsa da aka saba da ita. Kalmar na wakiltar wani aiki ko wani furuci na fitar hankali mai motsa rayuwa. A nahawun ma’ana, kalmar ta yi kusa ga kalmar ‘hauka’ sai dai kalmar ‘hauka’ ta fi ta dogon zamani ga jikin mai ita. A zurfin ma’ana, kalmar bori da kalmomin bororo da bore da botso da bauri da bocewa da borowa wasu fassarori ne na faɗaɗa ma’anar kalmar ‘bori’.

Harshen Bori:
Cikin yunƙurin ƙyallaro daidaitaccen ma’auni na awon ma’anar ‘bori’ dole sai an sa ido ga ‘harshen bori’. Idan ‘yan bori suna cikin giyar bori sosai, zantukan da ke fita bakinsu ana ganin ba nasu ba ne, na iskokinsu ne, don haka ake yi wa zantukan suna da:
·        Saɓari
·        Sabbatu
·        Soki-burutsu
·        Batutuwa
·        Maganganu
·        Shirɓace

Saɓari - magana ce maras ma’ana da ke fita a baki bayan da hankalin mai ita ya fita daga gare shi.[8] Mai sauraronsa ba ya iya fahimtar ma’anar ta, kuma ko an saurare shi da kyau, ba a kama haƙiƙanin kalmomin bale a tantance ma’anarsu.[9] Ana samun irinsu daga bakunan masu ciwon farfaɗiya bayan sun ɗan tashi kaɗan daga magagin farfaɗowa.
Sabbatu - kuwa maganganu ne da ake yi cikin ruɗewa babu tsayayyar ma’ana da za a kama ciki. Idan ja-in-ja ta tsananta, abokanin husuma na amayo kalmomi ba da shiri ba cikin zafin raɗaɗin duka ko wata wuya da aka sha, ana ce da waɗannan lafuza ‘sabbatu’ a harshen bori.[10]
Soki-burutsu - magana ce da za a ji komai nata ƙarara amma a kasa fitar da ma’anarta nan take saboda shirmen da ke ciki.[11]
A fagen bori, maganganu irin na yi wa iskoki kirari da zuga su ana ce da su ‘batutuwa’ domin ga su da yawa amma kowace magana fuskar da ta dosa daban.[12] Haka kuma, maganganu ne masu sarƙeƙeniya da juna, ma’anoninsu na yi  wa juna shigar gizagizai, mai sauraro ya rasa tsayayyar ma’ana. A wata fassara, batutuwa maganganu ne da sai wanda abin ya shafa zai iya hango ruhin ma’anarsu kai tsaye. Saɓanin batutuwa, ‘maganganu’ kuwa magana ce da ba ta da kai ba ta da gindi. Ba a fara ta da wani tushe ba, kuma ba a kai ƙarshen da za a dasa aya ba. Maganganu ne daban-daban aka tattara wuri ɗaya hahhautsine babbarkace, shisshirɓace, don haka ake yi musu suna da ‘shirɓace’.[13]
Idan za a nazarci harshen bori sosai, musamman a bakin ‘Boboniya’ matar da suka sarƙu da iska na tsawon kwanaki ba su fice ta ba, za a ji surutan da take suna kai da kawo cikin waɗannan abubuwa shida da aka lisafa.[14] Harshen borin Bahaushe wata fassara ce ta ma’anar bori domin ma’anar harshen bori ita ce:
Gutsattsarin maganganu da ke fita a bakin mai bori marasa ma’ana da ba su hau kan kowane irin tsari na magana ba. Da jin su, za a fahinci, ba a cikin cikakken hankali aka furta su ba. A cikin kowane harshe aka yi su, ba su da tsrin da za a fahimce su. A koyaushe, ba su tare da hankali, don haka, hankali ba ya iya kamo ma’anarsu. Mai sauraro da ya ji su, zai ce; ai wannan magana saɓari ce ko sabbatu ko batutuwa ko soki-burutsu ko maganganun banza na shirme irin batutuwan gyaran garaya.

Buƙatar bincike gano ma’anar ‘Bori’ ba yadda ake bori ba. Idan za a saurari maganganun masu bori lokacin da suka hau bori ko bori ya shige su, za a ga:
1.     Shirɓatattun maganganun da suke yi shi ne bori.
2.     Abubuwan da za a sarɓa cikin batutuwan da suke yi, su za a fassara da cewa; “bori ya ce, abu kaza”.
3.     Da sun daina soki-burutsun, sun fara maganar da ake fahimta, za a ce; ‘bori ya sake su’.
4.     Da sun fara rawa na faɗuwa a ƙasa, suna birkaɗa jiki irin na jaki, idan ba su fara ire-iren maganganun ba, borin bai bayyana ba.
5.     Ko babu rawa, babu kiɗan garaya, babu kuwwa, aka ji ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan maganganu na kai da kawo, za a zargi bori daga bakin mai yin su, ko da ba a san shi da bori ba.

Baƙon Harshe:
Cikin ƙoƙarin tantance ‘harshen bori’, dole a kula da shigar baƙon harshe wanda ba Hausa ba. A iya saninmu, borin Bahaushe, Bahaushe ne, dole da harshen Hausa za a gudanar da shi. Idan wani baƙon harshe ya shigo ciki ba za  ya ɗauki Bahaushen ma’auni ba irin ma’aunan da ya gabata. Idan mai harshen na asali ya saurare shi, yana da damar kallonsa a matakai shida na Bahaushen bori. Kowane ɗaya suka hau bori ne. Idan ma sun kama daidaitaccen nahawun harshen, kuma aka tabbatar da shi mai borin bai taɓa sanin harshen ba gabanin borin, to yana shiga cikin wata fassarar bori.
A tsarin borin Bahaushe, shigar iskoki na ƙabilu iri-iri kamar Bafulatani, Badakkare, Ba’azbine, Balarabe, Bature, da sauran ƙananan harsuna na cikin gida da wasu ƙabilu da Bahaushe ya sadu da su ko suka sadu da Bahaushe abin kulawa ne da nazari. Abin ban sha’awa, daga cikin harsunan, ba a samun harsunan al’ummomin da Bahaushe ke takin saƙa da su na adawar yaƙi da ƙabilanci irin su Igbo (Inyamuri) da Yoruba (Bayarbe) da ire-iren su. Harsuna irin su Ingilishi da Faransanci da Larabci, siyasar addini da zamantakewa ta kawo iskokinsu cikin ƙasar Hausa har a samu harshensu a borin Bahaushe. A koyaushe mutum ya shiga wani mawuyacin hali ko tsoro da fargabar wani abu, aka ji yana magana da harshen da bai taɓa magana da shi ba a duniya, kuma bisa tsarin nahawun harshen, za a ce; “Ba shi ke maganar ba, Iskoki/iska ne ke maganar ta bakinsa”. Idan haka ne kuwa, Iska ba a cikin bakinsa yake magana ba, cikin jikinsa yake magana, ya sa magana da baƙon harshe. Idan haka ta faru, masu ruƙiyya kan ce; “Shigar Iska ne” wanda a nazarin Hausa ba ya da wani suna face ‘bori’.
A al’adance, ba za a ga mai bori na rawa ko yana daka tsalle yana direwa a ƙasa a ce; “Borin Bature ne ko Balarabe ko Bafulatani ko Babarbare ba.” Dole harshe zai iya tabbatar da wane/wace Iska ce ta shige shi? Idan za mu ƙyallaro ma’anar bori a nan, za mu iya cewa:
Magana da wani harshe da maras lafiya ko wanda ya shiga cikin wata matsala zai yi, kuma masu harshen su fahimci abin da yake faɗa kai tsaye babu wata tangarɗa. A haƙiƙance cewa, mai maganar bai san harshen ba, bai iya magana da shi ba, bai da hulɗa da masu shi gabanin haka. To! A cikin wannan hali da yake ciki shi ne bori a nazarin al’ada. Maganganun su ne bori. Don haka za a ce; mai yin su “bori ya kama shi” ko “ya hau bori”, ko “bori yake yi”. Da da harshensa na gado yake magana shi kaɗai sai dai a ce: “ya haukace”, ba “ya hau bori” ba.


Ma’anar Bori A Taskar Adabi:
Adabi babbar fitila ce ta hasko rayuwar al’umma da yadda take tafiyar da ita.[15] Duk wata al’ada da ake nazari kan al’umma dole a a lalubo adabi a ji yadda ya harare ta. Ma’anar bori shi ne abin da muke so mu fayyace. A ɗan  bincikena, tatsuniyoyi da kirari da salon magana da tarihihi da waƙe-waƙen yara maza da mata, da sauran sassan adabi irinsu ba su kamo bori da yawa a cikin ƙunshiyar ba.[16] Da yawa za a tsinci sunan bori kawai zai bayyana a ciki wanda ko an so a yi doguwar fassara ma’anar ya ɗan kakkamo kalmar a sarari abin zai ci tura. Karin magana bai ambaci bori da yawa ba face wurare ‘yan tsirarru da ba su ɗaukar bincike mai nauyi ƙwarai.[17] A dubi waɗannan karuruwan magana don a tantance abin da nake ƙoƙarin fayyacewa;
1.     Bori ya ci boka.
2.     Ba a bori da sanyin guiwa.
3.     Duk bori guda muke wa tsafi.
4.     Gyara garaya.
Bayyanar kalmar “bori” a karuruwan magana (na 1-3) ba su ba da wani haske da za a lalubo ma’anar bori ba. Sun dai tabbatar da samuwar bori da tabbatar cewa, aikin ƙarfi ne da kama jiki, kuma shi  borin wani abu ne da  ake yi wa hidimar ‘tsafi’ ba tsafi ne ke yi wa  bori hidima ba. Haka kuma, mun amfana da ganin cewa, bori wani nau’in warkarwa ne da ya ƙunshi kaɗe-kaɗe da raye-raye. A taƙaice, karuruwan magana tabbatar da samuwar bori suke yi, da yin imani da shi, amma sun kasa fito muna da mene ne “bori” a Hausa? Wannan giɓin da aka samu ga karin magana ya tilasta mu leƙo:

Bori A Riwayar Mawaƙan Baka:
          Mawaƙan baka adabin Bahaushe suke ƙara faɗaɗa wa ma’ana, da ƙara masa tsawo wurin da tasawonsa bai kai ba, da rage masa tsawo idan an ga ya zure, da ƙara kumbura shi, domin samun nishaɗi. An samu mawaƙa sun yi wa bori waƙa kamar Alhaji Muhammadu Shata Katsina ya yi wa Sule Sarkin Bori. Wani makaɗin zamani na Nijar mai suna Halilu Bori ya yi wa bori waƙa. Idan aka rairaye kayan cikin waƙoƙin sarai ba za a ga ma’anar bori ta fito ɓaro-ɓaro ba. Ganin haka, na ga tilas a yawata cikin ɗiyan waƙoƙin ɗaiɗaikun mawaƙa a ga yadda suka fassara bori a nasu gani.
          Alhaji Muhammadu Shata Katsina da ya yi wa Sule Sarkin Bori waƙa, abubuwa biyu kawai za mu tsinta na ma’anar bori a riwayarsa:
Jagora:        Akwai mu da borin ƙwarai
                    :Akwai mu da borin giri
Gindi:          Sarkin bori na Kande
                   :Uban ‘yan bori Suke.
(Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin muƙala ce)

          A fafitikar  tantance ma’anar bori Shata na ganin dole a kiyaye cewa, akwai ‘borin ƙwarai” (na gaske) kuma akwai ‘borin giri” (na ƙarya). Makaɗa Narambaɗa ya mara wa Alhaji Muhammadu Shata Katsina da ƙara masa sunan bori ɗaya a bakandamiyarsa:
Jagora:        Kui ta kiɗa rawa kama da na borin botso[18]
Yara:           Ai bana shi za mu yi ruwa sun canye gero
Gindi:          Gwarzon Shamaki na Malam toron giwa
                   :Babban Dodo ba a tamma da batun banza.
(Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin muƙala ce)

Yanayin Bori:
          Makaɗa sun ƙara lurar da mu cewa, bori abu ne da ya shafi hulɗa da mutanen ɓoye, waɗanda ke shigar mutum idan ya fita hayyacinsa, a ce:
‘ya hau bori”. Makaɗa Bawa Ɗan’anace a waƙar Shago yana cewa:
Jagora:        Ɗan Abdu ya hau bori
                   :Borin da ba shi da girka
                   :Arne ba a gyara maka iskoki ba.
(Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin muƙala ce)

          Mun ƙara da cewa, bori hawansa ake yi kuma dole a yi wa mai bori girka domin a gyara masa iskoki. Idan ba a gyara su ba, sai su haukatar da mai su, shi ne dalilin danganta rashin natsuwa ga ‘yan bori kamar yadda Narambaɗa ya zargi wani wagili a masarautar Isa yana cewa:
Jagora:        In ɗan tauri ka ke duk ɗai na
                   :In ɗan bori kake duk ɗaina
                   :In mahaukaci kake duk ɗai na
Yara:           In kat taɓa sarki ka gane(?)
                   :Ya gwada nake bai san tauri ba.
Gindi:          Bai ɗau wargi ba na Jekada
                   :Na Majikira baban ‘yan kwana
                   (Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin muƙala ne).

          Da tauri da bori, abubuwa ne da ake dangantawa da fitar hankali, da rashin natsuwa, wanda ya kai ga ake yanke musu hukuncin rashin hankali. Ashe a cikin tantance ma’nar ‘bori’ idan rashin hankali bai shigo ciki ba, ba a yi daidaitacciyar fassara ba.

Don Me Ake Bori?      
          Fayyace ma’anar bori na buƙatar a cikin fashi baƙin, a nuna, da me ake yin bori? Mawaƙan baka sun tabbatar da cewa, ana bori da Iskoki, su kuwa Iskoki a lokacin ana yi musu kiɗa na goge ko garaya. Makaɗa Bala Ambursa na cewa;
Jagora:        Kiɗin duma farauta
                   :Goge ka kiɗin bori
                   :Duk mai salati
                   :Garkan Malam shi ka komawa
Gindi:          Ba a gane manya
                   :Sai ci ya samu
                   (Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin  muƙala ce)

          Makaɗa Ɗan’anace a waƙar Shago ya bayyana bori da Iskoki ake yin sa bayan an girke su. Makaɗa Bala Mai Gumbe yana zagin karuwai da cewa ‘yan bori suke so, a cikin zargin ya fito da kayan haɗin bori yana cewa:
          :Wai ba a son mu ‘yan bori aka so
          :To, ba ni girka ba ni zondo
          :Sai dai kak ki za ka
          :Amma ƙanen Alu ya sake shiri
          :Zan samo goro ɗa hamsin da bakwai
          :Gidan turuwa in watsa bakwai
          :Hanyar mararraba in jefa bakwai
          :Murnar masussuki in jefa bakwai
          :Mange-Mange ko in ba ta takwas
          :Jama’a ku gafara Ifiritu zuwa!
Gindi:          Rabbani ahadun
          :Mai gudunmuwa lillahi
          :Ka ba mu komi
                   (Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin muƙala ce)

          A cikin ma’anar bori kada a manta da kalmar ‘zando’, mazaunin Iskoki, da guzurin hidima irin su goro da taba da makamantansu. Tabbas! Dole a yi nesa-da-nesa da wanda ya hau bori domin Iskoki irin su Ifiritu na tare da shi.

Taciya:
          ‘Yan misalan da suka gabata sun ba da hasken yadda za a iya kallon fassaar “bori”. A taciyar ƙwalailaice yadda mawaƙa ke fassara kalmar ita ce, bori sana’ar bokanci ce. Yayin da wani ƙwaro daga cikin ƙwarin Gambo mai waƙar ɓarayi ke neman sa’a a kashe masa Tsoho Tudu cewa ya yi:
Jagora:        An yi bori, an yi bori, an yi bori
          :Na yanka awakina da kaji
          :An ce sa’a ta samu babba
          :Yac ce “Dogon zango nab biyo Tudu”
          :Wai shi ya biyo Tsoho dag Gyalange.

Wani ɗan sarauta da ya shiga takara makaɗa Narambaɗa na gaya muna cewa:
Jagora:        Ga wani ya kunna ya ga ba ƙafa
                   :’Yan bori sun  kai shi sun baro
                   :Saruru ya baddala abinai
Yara:           Ya koma biɗan kwabon hura
Gindi:          Ibrahim na Guraguri
                   :Maishinkahi bajinin zagi
                   :Mu dai Allah Ya bar muna kaya.
                   (Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin maƙala ce)

          Idan aka ba bori matsayin bokanci irin na maguzanci bisa ga fassarar waɗannan fitattun adibbai ba a yi kure ba. Abin da ba bayar da magani ba a cikin bori, wasa ce kawai ta motsa jiki, da kece raini tare da mata masu dandi a faɗar makaɗa Narambaɗa:
Jagora:        Duk ɗan sarkin da kag ga ya lalace
                   :Ya shiga wasan bori
                   :Ba shi da niyyar sarki (?)
                   :… … … … … … … … …
                   :Katakoro zakara! Katakoro Zakaran ‘Yaɗɗamna[19]
Gindi:          Koma shirin daga
                   :Gwarzon bahago ɗan Iro
(Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin muƙala ce)

          Makaɗa Narambaɗa na da tunanin cewa, bori wasa  ce kawai, domin  ko Iskokin da ake riya cewa, sun hau  kan mai bori, da mai borin, da masu girka borin, da makaɗan bori, da ‘yan kallo, babu wanda ya taɓa ganin su, balle ya yi magana da su. Don haka ne Makaɗa Bawa Ɗan’anace ya yanke wannan hukunci a waƙar Shago yana cewa:
                   :Ban hana tsahi a yanke ‘yan kaji ba
                   :Amma kowag ga aljani bai kwana.

          A iya tunanin ‘yan abubuwan da hannayenmu suka kai gare su na mawaƙan baka da saura sassan adabi, za mu iya kirdadon tace ma’anar “bori” da:
Wata wasa ce ta musamman da ta haɗa mata da maza (manya) da kiɗa da rawa da ‘yan waƙe-waƙe. A kiɗan ana riya Iskoki ake yi wa shi don haka ake tanada musu wasu ‘yan kayan marmari da ake ajiye musu a wuraren da ake riya suke. Wasar babu mai shiga sai yardadde da ya shigo ta hanyar girka. A cikin wannan wasar bokanci ya tsira. Ga fahimtar adibbai masu wasan bori hankalinsu gaban goshi yake saboda hawa kansu da Iskoki ke yi. Rukunan bori a hasashen Bahaushe su ne, cewa: “Allah gaskiya, Iska gaskiya, bori ƙarya”.


Ma’anar Bori A Tunanin Al’ada:
          Fahimtocin masana harshe da adabi a kan ma’anar bori daga cikin al’ada aka tsamo su domin babu wanda zai yi tunani wajen al’darsa. Ma’ilmanta nahawun harshe kallon da suka yi wa kalmar “bori” bai fita wajen Bahaushen tunani ba. Adibbai na baka da rubutattu ayyukansu cikin taskar al’ada ce suka gutsuro abubuwan da suke yi wa sharhi daki-daki. A al’adance, za mu kalli fassarar bori da muhalli tantance bori cikin waɗannan ‘yan bayanan kamar yadda al’ada ta waiwaye shi:

Muhallin Bori A Jikin Mai Bori:
          Matuƙar an yarda da sanin amsa shi ne gane tambaya, a al’adance, sai an ga abu, za a iya ba da labarinsa mai gamsarwa. Al’adar Bahaushe ita ce, gani ya kori ji. A ganin Bahaushe, wurare shida ake iya ganin bori a jikin mai bori a halin da ya hau bori ko borin ya shige shi;
·        Baki                   Suna da kafar                                                       
·        Ido                     shigar Iska                                        
·        Hanci                                                                                    

·        Kai                    Idan Iska ya shiga su za
·        Hannuwa          su yi fizge-fizge su
·        Ƙafafu               bayyana akwai baƙo a jiki

          Kogon baki ta nan Iska ke bayyana a yi magana da shi, a gane shi, da dalilin shigan sa. Idanu kuwa, sauya launinsu zuwa ja ko fari fes kamar ba baƙi ciki, da zubar da hawaye, su ne alamar ana tare da baƙo. A kowane bori ta hanci ake tare shi (fyace shi) idan an gama shi. Wurin da Iska ya shiga ba ta nan zai fita ba, don haka, zai dinga yawo yana wahalar da doki a dinga rawa da kai ana daka tsalle da ƙafafu hannaye na fizge-fizge. Da an ga haka, an tabbata shigar Iska, kuma ba a nesa ga hawa bori. Ke nan, fassarar harshe da adabi, ba ta ba da wadatacciyar ma’ana sai an lalubo muhallin bori a jikin mai bori. A wannan ganin bori zai kasance:
Shigar Iskoki a ɗayan gaɓoɓin hanci ko baki ko kunne tare da haƙiƙance bayyanar su a idon mai bori. Yawo da ake yi da kai da rawar da ake yi da fizge-fizgen hannaye da gaɓoɓi na fitar hankali su ne ‘bori”. Matuƙar ba a ga haka ba bori bai hau kai ba.


Tantance Bori Ta Fuskar Rabe-rabensa:
          Ka-ce-na-ce da aka sha yi kan bori bai gushe ba amma idan aka harari rabe-raben da masu daɗa juna sani kan bori suka yi ittifaƙi a kan su, akwai abubuwan cewa da yawa. Idan aka kakkaɓe taskar adabi sosai, aka rairaye ma’anonin bori na ƙamus da na manazarta za a ga rabe-raben bori zai kasance:
·        Borin girka
·        Borin fage
·        Borin giri
·        Borin ƙwarai
·        Borin botso

Kowane irin Iska aka ce ya shiga mutum, ya hau bori, dole borin ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin su. Borin girka na shiga bori ne, wanda ya nuna ana shiga bori kamar yadda ake shiga addinai da sauran ƙungiyoyi. Don haka, girka ba hujja ce ta kasancewar bori addini ba. Borin fage ya ƙara tona wa girka asiri, domin shi ne haƙiƙanin bori da Narambaɗa ya ambata. Idan aka waiwayi Borin giri, abin zai ƙara dagule wa domin ya tabbatar da cewa, an haƙiƙance akwai borin ƙarya a al’adance. Borin botso wajen roƙon ruwa ake yin sa idan fari ya tsananta,[20] wanda ya tabbatar da kasancewarsa wata wasar al’ada. Borin ƙwarai a nan gizo ke saƙa. Ga alama, shi ne wanda aka tabbatar da Iskoki suka shiga jikin mai shi, suka taɓi hankalinsa, suka sa shi wani hali da aikata wasu ayyukka da suka saɓa wa hankalin tuwo. Irin wannan shi ne shigan Iska na haƙiƙa da ba ya buƙatar garaya da goge bale girka da rawa da waƙe-waƙe da ihe-ihe, ko akwai su, ko babu su, Iska ya riga ya shiga fitarsa kuwa sai yadda Allah Ya yi. A gaskiyar wannan hasashen, rabe-raben bori ta kowace fuska aka yi taliyon fassara ƙunshiyarsa za a ce:
Bori dai wata wasa ce ta gargajiyar Bahaushe da ta keɓanta ga wasu ‘yan tsirarru da ke da sha’awar kwaikwayar ɗab’un Iskoki da hulɗa da su. Shigan Iskoki na haƙiƙa, ya wuce bori, ya zama wata lalura ta daban. Don haka bori ba haƙiƙa ba ne kwaikwayon shigan Iska na haƙiƙa ne. Ina laifin Hausawa da suka ce: “Kama da wane, ba wane ba ne.”


Kalmar Bori A Fassarar Al’ada:
          A farfajiyar al’ada, kalmar “bori” takan bayyana wurare da dama da ma’ana ɗaya. Ma’anar da take fitowa da ita ta al’ada ta yi kusa da ta harshe sosai. A al’adance, Bahaushe na da:
·        Borin gyaɗa
·        Borin tukunya
·        Borin yaro
·        Borin kariya (a wata fassara shi ne borin giri)

Wata cuta kan shiga gyaɗa ta kumbura ta ta lalata mata ɗanɗano. Za a ga ta cika kwalfanta amma cutar ta cire daɗin sai a kira shi “borin gyaɗa”. Idan aka ɗora tukunya a kan murhu domin yin abinci. Idan ruwa kaɗai ke ciki, suka ji wuta sosai, suka zaburo, suna zaɓarɓaka za a ce: “ruwa sun tafasa”. Idan an saka gari cikin ruwan, suka tafasa, suka ture abin da aka rufe tukunya da shi, kumfan tafasasshen gari ya gangaro ta bakin tukunya sai a ce: “girki/tukunya na bori”. Yaro ƙarami idan an saɓa masa ya faɗi ƙasa yana kuka, yana birkiɗa a ƙasa, akan ce “bori yake yi”. Babu wai, idan takaici ya ci mace kan wani laifin da ta aikata ko wani abin kunya da aka riske ta tana aikatawa ko aka zarge ta da shi, nan take takan hau bori don kare kanta. A wannan fassara za mu ce:
Bori shi ne wani abu ya fita yanayinsa da aka san shi da shi, ko yanayin da ya kamata ya kasance. Idan mutum ne faɗuwa ƙasa wata babbar alama ce ta bori. Dabarar naɗe tabarmar kunya da hauka ana yi mata suna bori a al’adance.


Jinsin Masu Bori:
          Al’ada takan kalli rinjayen jinsi ga aikata wata al’ada domin yanke mata hukuncin masu yin ta. Za mu ga wasan dambe maza ne, wasan kokuwa maza ne, wasan tauri maza ne, wasan sharo maza ne, wasan dagajirau maza ne, wasan Ɗankamanci da gambara da zari da makamantansu duk mazaje aka sani da su. A wasan bori ko mu ce, bori mata aka sani da shi. A ko’ina ake aiwatar da bori Magajiya da uwar bori da Boboniya da Uwar girka da ‘yan rawa da makaɗa ƙwarya, mata ne. Wajen kiɗan garaya da goge kawai maza ke da hannu. Manazarta bori da yawa suna zargin cewa, matan da ke gudanar da bori mafi yawan su karuwai ne da gwagware waɗanda mazansu suka mutu ba su samu maza ba, da waɗanda suka wuce budurcinsu ba su yi aure ba, da waɗanda suka yi abin kunya suka ƙaurace wa garuruwansu, da waɗanda ba a san wurin da suka fito ba.[21]
          A ko’ina za a nazarci borin Bahaushe dole a ce, gwamnatin borin Bahaushe ta mata ce. Yadda mazaje suka mamaye sauran wasannin nishaɗi haka mata suka mamaye bori. Idan aka kula, da borin fage da borin giri, da borin botso, da borin girka duk mata ke cin karensu ba babbaka. In an ga namiji ciki daga Ɗandaudu sai kawali da karma ko ashararu. Waɗannan su ne bori a ƙasar Hausa domin “borin ƙwarai” ya saɓa wa dukkaninsu kuma ba ya da kama da su. Ga alama, neman ƙwato ‘yanci daga duniyar maza, da buƙatar fito da matsayin mata a al’umma, da neman wata makafa ta walwala ga mata shi ya haifar da bori.[22] Idan mun yi tarkakken nazarin wannan fasali dole a fitar da zancen addini a cikin wannan fasali, dole a fitar da zancen addini a cikin a cikin fassara ma’anar ‘bori’. A wannan matashiyar za mu ga:
Bori wata babbar mafaka ce da mata suka kafa domin ƙwato ‘yancinsu na zamantakewa da mutuntaka ga hannun maza tare da ba da tasu gudunmuwa ga al’umma. Matan da ke bori ba su kai shi matsayin addini ba domin ba su yi iƙirarin barin addinin da bori ya riske su da shi ba. Addini bai taɓa zama na jinsi ɗaya ba.


Musabbabin Hawan Bori A Kimiyyar Al’ada:
          Ƙoƙarin gano ma’anar bori ba zai kammala sai an gano abubuwan da ke sa a hau bori. A zuzzurtan nazarin bori mun san shigan baƙon Iska, da buƙatar girke shi ko fitar da shi, na sa a hau bori. Duk da haka, a ko’ina za a hau bori, dole a dubi abubuwa da ke wakana gabanin a ce, Iska ya bayyana dokinsa ya hau borinsa. A nan, abubuwa uku za a yi nazari:
·        Kiɗan bori na kiran Iskoki
·        Kirarin Iskokin bori
·        Waƙoƙin Iskokin bori

Duk wata al’adar Bahaushe da ta shafi zaburar da maza su harzuƙa, su fita hayyacinsu, su ɗebe tsoro, su yi gaba da gaba da abin da ya gabato su, dole sai an sa kiɗa. Ɗan tauri ba ya kuwwa sai kiɗi ya ratsa shi. Mayaƙa ba su faɗa fagen artabu sai an tsima su da kiɗa. Idan garaya da goge suka ratsi zuciyar doki sai a biyo da kirarin Iskansa ko Iskoki daban-daban. Ba a bari kirari ya lafa sai a saka waƙa a ciki. A al’adance, ko wanda ba ɗan bori ba, kiɗa da kirari da waƙa na na sa ya yi ƙarfin halin da ɗan bori ba ya iya yi. A waiwayi waƙar Shata ta Garba Jikan Garba[23] da waƙar Tudu Tsoho da Ɗanmaɗacci[24] da tayar da tuban Nazaƙi duk a waƙoƙin Gambo mijin Kulu[25]. Kai! Hatta da sojoji aka sa su harbe wanda aka yanke wa hukuncin kisa, sai an girgiza su da waƙar atisaye, da kirari da busa bigala, su gigice, su ɗebe idon sani su san a mugunta.[26] Babu wai, ba a taɓa hawan bori hankali kwance ba. Ba a hawa, sai abubuwan nan uku sun yi turnuƙu, hankali ya kawa, a shiga ɗabi’a irin ta Iskoki.  Babu kure idan muka ce:
Musabbabin hawan bori shi ne, tsakanin amon garaya da turnuƙun kirarin Iskoki da waƙoƙinsu, su ke tafiyar da hankalin mai bori ya shiga halayyar marasa hankali. Hankali ya riga ya tashi, da kunya da tsoro sun fita zuciya, sai Iska ya bayyana, a hau bori. A nan, da bori da wasan tauri sun yi tarayya. Ke nan bori aikin fitar hankali ne da marasa hankali ke aikatawa.


Kimiyyar Tsimin Girka Da Borin Fage:
          Wata gawurtacciyar maɓoyar sirrin gano mene ne bori? Ita ce, tantance saiwowi da tsirrai da ganyaye da sauran tarkacen da ake haɗa tsimin girka da na borin fage. ‘Yan bori na cewa, suna jiƙa saiwowi da ganye da ɓawon itacen magani kimanin tis’in da tara (99) su ne wanda za a yi wa girka zai riƙa sha yayin girka. Haka kuma, tsimin idan ana borin  fage, shi za a saka a randa, a girke tsakar fage, duk wanda zai taka bori ya sha. Sirrin da ke ciki shi ne, daga cikin itacen da aka haɗa tsimin akwai zaƙami (Babba jijji) da sayen tumfafiya da ganyen taba da na kaɗe. Kowane daga cikinsu ɗan kaɗan ake saka shi domin an san yana sa maye da juyar da hankali na matuƙa. Idan ba a daidaita su da jar kanwa sosai ba har kisa suke yi kai tsaye. Wanda ya sha tsimin zai ji jikinsa ba nauyi ko kaɗan, yana ganin kanun mutane bibbirkice. Don haka, da ya sha tsimin yana kama shi zai daka tsalle ya yi ihu a gaban kowa domin ruwan Iblis ne ya sha wanda ya fi tabar Iblis kawar da hankali.[27] A borin fage, ko mutum bai taɓa bori ba ya sha su sai ya kuwwata, an yi rawa da shi. Wannan shi ne dalilin da ko ɗan bori bai san sirrin abubuwan da ya sha ba sai dai ya ga ya noce cikin duniyar Iblis kai tsaye. Wa zai musanta abin da ya ji a jikinsa, ya gani da idanunsa? Na yarda da Bawa Ɗan’anace a faɗarsa:
Jagora:        Mai bori ba ya ce wa bori ƙarya ne
Gindi:          Maza na tsoron Karo da Ado ɗan Garba

          Wannan kimiyyar ita ce tushen kowane irin hatsabibin abu da aka ga mai bori na aikatawa. Idan za a yi wa tsimin bori adalci, dole a saka shi cikin ma’anonin bori domin shi ne kanwa uwar gami:
Bori wasar wartske jiki ce da holewa tare da tsimin maye da zai tsananta nishaɗantarwa da kawar da kowace irin fargaba da za a fuskanta. Saduwar mayen tsimin da hankalin mai bori shi ke sa ayyukkan rashin hankali ga mai bori a yayin da yake bori. Mayen babba jijji shi ne bori ba garaya da goge da kiɗan ƙwarya ba.

Bori A Ma’aunin Addini:
Fassarorin da suka gabata, na ji tsoron saka kalmar addini a fashin baƙin ma’anar ‘bori’. Fassarar addini faɗi gare ta, don haka wasu masana al’ada suka ɗora bori a ma’aunin ‘cult’, wato ƙungiyar asiri ko ƙungiyar sa kai. Daga cikin masanan da ke da wannan ra’ayi akwai: Besmar, 1977; da Lewis, 1960; da Lombard, 1969; da Onwejeogwu, 1969; da Tremeane, 1915; da Echard, 1991; da Greenberg, 1946. La’akari da ‘yan tsirarun da ke yin bori da dalilan yin bori, ya sa suka kira shi ‘cult’. Sun san da kalmar ‘religion’ amma suka kauce mata. Fitattun masana al’adun Afirka wasu sun ɗora ‘bori’ a kan kalmar ‘belief’ wato yarda ko imani da abu wanda Bahaushe ke kira miƙa wuya. Faulkinham, 1975 da Tremeane, 1915 sun fito da wannan ra’ayin. Ga alama, aikin Greenberg, 1946 da aikin Connant, 1960 su suka fara bijiro da kalmar addini a nazarin ‘bori’. Idan muka kwatanta aikin Greenberg, 1946 da na 1941, za mu ga, ba matsayin addini ya ɗauki bori ba, ya dai kalli cuɗeɗeniyar al’adun gargajiya da na addinin Musulunci a harkar bori, tare da ba da ƙarfi ga irin tasirin da addinin Musulunci ya yi cikin borin Bahaushe. ‘Yan bori a cikin hidimominsu na Iskoki, ba su taɓa yi wa bori suna da ‘addini’ ba. Babu nassin adabin Hausa da ya kawo sunan bori a matsayin ‘addini’. Masu sha’awar bori, ba mu ji wurin da suka kira shi ‘addini’ ba. Tubabben ɗan bori ba mu taɓa ganin wurin da ya jaddada kalmar shahadarsa ba, bale sauya sunansa na addinin bori zuwa sabon addini. Ashe ba mu yi kure ba idan muka ce:
Bori wata daɗaɗɗiyar aƙida ce daga cikin aƙidojin gargajiya na Bahaushe da suka makaro a farfajiyar tunanin mata. Da bori da tsafi da camfi da kwari da ƙofi da fatalwa da dodo da jihilma babban tsuntsu (Roch) yadda aka ji su, ba dole sai an gan su haka nan ba. Don haka, aƙidoji ne masu zamani da wayewar mutanen zamaninsu.

Taho-Mu-Gaman Bori Da Addini:
          Kallon da wasu ɗalibai da masana ke yi wa bori na ƙarnukan da Musulunci ya riga ya shigo, su manta da cewa, gabanin ya shigo akwai ƙasar Hausa da Hausawa. Idan aka nazarci adadin kwanakin girka, da yadda ake shiga bori, da sutarar girka, da yadda ake fita girka, da hidimomin da ake yi da kayayyakin da aka tara wurin girka (sadaka) za a ga biri ya yi kama da mutum suna da alaƙa da addinin Musulunci. Sunayen fitattun Iskokin bori irin su Malam Alhaji, Nana A’isha, Abdu, Hassatu, Adiza, Ali, Aljana, kamar yadda (Nicole, 1999) ya ambace su a ƙasar Adar. Za mu ga sunayen cike suke da Balaraben naso da tasirin addinin Musulunci. Yanke-yanken da ake yi wa Iskoki, da ranakun yanka, da siffofin dabbobi/tsuntsayen da za a yanka, kamar yadda (Greenberg, 1946) ya ambace su, Musulunci na da hannu a ciki. Binciken masana bori ya nuna, manyan biranen Iskoki biyu ne “Jangarai” da “Kwankwanɓilo”. Wasu ‘yan bori sun fi yarda da “Jangarai”, domin har borin ‘Jangarai’ akwai. A binciken da na yi 2002, ‘Jangarai’ wani babban wurin tsafe-tsafe da borin Larabawa ne a Tunis, yanzu haka babban Masallacin ƙasar a wurin aka gina shi da sunan Jangere wato “Masajidil Jangere”. Kayan kiɗan bori su garaya da goge da kuntugi, in ban da ƙwarya duk daga ƙasashen Larabawan Tunis da Maroko da Aljeriya suka shigo ƙasar Hausa. Da za a cire tasire-tasiren da addinin Musulunci ya yi cikin bori duka, ɗan abin da ya rage zai tabbata muna cewa,bori wata aƙida ce ta wasu ‘yan tsararru da ba su taka kara suka karya ba. Gabanin zuwan Musulunci, aƙidar bori ba ta kai camfi da mafarki ƙarfi ba. Ina da fahintar cewa, bori ba addini ba ne. A cikin wannan farfajiyar tunani muna iya cewa:
Bori wata dabarar warkarwa ce da bokaye suka yi fice da ita. Da Musulunci ya bayyana a ƙasar Hausa ya tarar da ‘yan bori ne jagororin al’umma. Da aka rinjaye su, suka miƙa wuya karkace. Kasancewarsu cikin summa kafaru summa amanu sai bori da Musulunci suka cakuɗe wuri ɗaya Musuluncin ‘yan bori ya koma barbaran yanyawa. Taho-mu-gaman aƙidojin addinin Musulunci da aƙidojin bori ya sa da wuya a tantance kama da wane ba wane ba ne. Bori ba addini ba ne, wata hidima ce da wasu ‘yan tsirarru ke yi wa Iskoki tsakanin ƙarya da gaskiya, har abin ya bi jikinsu da hankalinsu suka ɗabi’antu da ɗabi’a ɗaya da ake iya rarrabe su da sauran wasu ba su ba.

Cika Da Batsewar Bori:
          Binciken da aka yi ya gano cewa, bori ya yi lokacinsa na tashe, yanzu batsewarsa ta zo. Dalilan da suka haifar da haka su ne: Bori aikin manya ne ba a sa yara ciki. Da zamanin manya ya wuce ko sun mutu sun tafi da abinsu. Na biyu, bori wata jahiliyya ce da ta gabaci bayyanar saukakkin addininai a ƙasar Hausa. Da addinai suka bayyana haskensa (bori) ya dushe batsewarsa ta tabbata. Masu bori na da mata ne marasa kowane irin ilmi na addini da na zamani. Da ilmin addini ya tabbata, tauhidi ya zauni ƙirjin masu bori, dole a yi ban kwana da shirka.  Bugu da ƙari, ilmin zamani ba zai zauni ƙirjin mutum ba ya sha wa kansa guba da mayen da zai zama sanadiyyar halakarsa. Wayewar zamani ta tsafta da siyasar zamantakewa ta kasance wata annoba ga bori ƙasar Hausa.  A hasashen da na yi kashi 95% na Hausawa matasa mata na zamaninmu sun fi da son zama ‘yan wasan kwaikwayo ko ‘yan rawan zamani na shaye-shaye da sharholiya, da a ce musu ‘yan bori. Yau da za a ce, mace ‘yar bori ce, ko saurayi ɗan bori ne, abu mai ne mai wuya su samu mai son su aure. A ƙarnin da muke ciki, tabar Iblis da ƙwayoyin zamani sun karɓe wa Iskoki tutar hawa kan mutanen zamani. Idan don bokanci bori zai ci kasuwa, guguwar jihadi da wa’azojin da ke gudana ƙasar Hausa sun hana shi shanya garinsa ya miƙe ƙafafu yadda yake so. Da malaman duba da ‘yan bori duk jifa cikin duhu ne in ji Wazirin Gwandu Malam Umaru:
          Wanda bai wuce shi yi kwana na
          Bai wuce shi mance abinai ba
          Wanda bai sana ma rabonai ba
                   Yaushe za shi gane min nawa?
                   (Wazirin Gwandu: Gargaɗi ga Abokai)

Sakamakon Bincike:
          Yawace-yawacen da aka yi cikin farfajiyar nazarin harshe da adabi da al’ada an samu fassarori takwas mabambanta a kan bori. Fassarorin kowace ta kama ruhinn fannin da aka kalla. Nazarin fassarorin bai nuna bori addini ba ne. ‘Yan bori cikin Hausawa ‘yan tsirarru ne, da addini ne da ya game ƙasa gaba ɗaya. A cikin ‘yan tsirarrun jinsi mata ke da rinjaye. A fassara, al’ada faɗi ke gare ta, don haka, idan aka kira bori “al’ada” ba za ta kasance ta ‘yan tsirarun mata ashararu ba, a yi wa ƙasar Hausa bugun goro. Babbar al’adar Bahaushe da ta yi naso cikin bori ita ce “bokanci”. Kutsen bokanci cikin bori dole ne, domin mutanen bokaye da ake yi wa bokanci (mata) ke da kasuwar bori. Bokancin bori ga masu borin ya fi tasiri ba ga tarsashin al’ummar Hausa ba gaba ɗaya. Kasancewar “borin ƙwarai” wani suna ne da ake fassarar shigan Iskoki a jikin mutum na haƙiƙa ya sa ni ban ɗauke shi bori ba, ya fi adalci a kira shi “shafar Iska” ko “shigan Iska” a jikin ɗan Adam. A kan wannan tankaɗe da rairaya za mu fahimci bori shi ne:
Wata wasa ce ta musamman da ta keɓantu ga wasu ‘yan tsirarrun mata da ‘yan kanzaginsu makaɗa garaya da goge da ake gudanarwa a lokacin hunturu da bazara. Karɓaɓɓun ‘yan wasan, sai an girke su a kan Iska da suka zaɓa wa kansu ko aka zaɓa musu. Maganaɗison wasar shi ne tsimin bori wanda da shi ake hawa bori kuma sai ya sake jiki ake tara (fita) bori. Wasan bori manyan tubalanta su ne, rawa da faɗuwa ƙasa na fitar hankali, da fitar da yawu ko kumfa a baki, da furta zantukan saɓari da hannunka-mai-sanda ga halin  da mai  borin yake ciki. Wannan shi ya nuna bori naɗe tabarmar kunya ce cikin fitar hankali da ake laɓawa ga Iskoki ana fizge-fizge da kuwwa-kuwwace. Lallai bori aikin ƙarfi ne don haka Hausawa ke cewa: “Ba a bori ba sha dawo (fura) ba”, su kuma masu bori su ce: “Ba a bori da sanyin guiwa”. Kasancewa sai an kakance damina sosai ake bori ya sa na kira shi wasan cikan shekara na korar yunwa.

Naɗewa:
          Tantance ma’anar bori wani jan aiki ne mai buƙatar taron dangi. A ɗan yunƙurin da ya gabata, an yi garkuwa da nazarin harshe da adabi da al’ada domin a yi tara-tara kama da kamun zakaran yara daren babbar sallah. Babu addinin da bai yarda da samuwar Iskoki ba da shigar su a jikin ɗan Adam. Babu al’adar da ba ta san da zaman Iskoki ba da irin dangantakar su da mutanen duniya. Shigar Iska a jikin mutane sananne ne a duniyar ilmi, sai dai fitar da shi da sunan “bori” ko tsayar da shi da sunan “girka” Bahaushe ya kaɗaitu da shi a duniyar mutane (a iya bincikena). Rabe-raben borin Bahaushe, da jinsin da suka fi rinjaya ciki, da yadda ake aiwatar da shi, da maganaɗison haɗinsa (tsimi) su suka tabbatar da kasancewar bori wasa daga cikin wasannin gargajiya na ƙasar Hausa. Sunan “al’ada” ya yi masa faɗi da yawa, ko kusa ba su haɗa hannu da wasan kwaikwayo ba. A dai fassara shi da: wasan sagarci na tsirarrun fanɗararrun mata da ‘yan kazaginsu ‘yan Daudu da kawalai da ‘yan korensu ‘yan hamsin da ‘yan dandi da duniya ta sa wa ido da halinsu. Ga dai irin bulaliyar da Zabiyar ‘yantaru ta fyaɗa ga ‘yan bori da ‘yan kallo cikin waƙarta ta bege:
Jagora:        Masu bori da goge da dundufa
          :Masu kallonsu sun fi su dambala
Amshi:        Mai gari Makka farin Balarabe
                   :Mai Safa Marwa mai bi da Zanzama
                   (Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin ce)


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[1] Cuɗanyar Hausawa da wasu ƙabilu makusanta da manisanta ta hulɗar siyasa da kasuwanci da yaƙe-yaƙe ya haifar da wasu kalmomin Hausa su salwanta. Irin illar da harshen Ingilishi da Faransanci da Larabci da Indiyanci suka yi wa harshen Hausa ba ƙarama ba ce. A yau, kalmomin wasan bori irin su girka da saɓani da sabu da botso da goho da dursuna sun fara salwanta.
[2] Cuɗanyar Hausawa da wasu ƙabilu makusanta da manisanta ta hulɗar siyasa da kasuwanci da yaƙe-yaƙe ya haifar da wasu kalmomin Hausa su salwanta. Irin illar da harshen Ingilishi da Faransanci da Larabci da Indiyanci suka yi wa harshen Hausa ba ƙarama ba ce. A yau, kalmomin wasan bori irin su girka da saɓani da sabu da botso da goho da dursuna sun fara salwanta.
[3] Ana samun gamsasshen bayanin tsarin sautukan Hausa cikin ayyukan M. A. Z. Sani, musamman littafinsa Maraka Yanki A Tsarin Sautukan Hausa. Zaria, 2013 da Gamayyar Tasarifi da Tsarin Sautukan Hausa. Zaria, 2011.
[4] Domin fayyace suna a nahawun Hausa da ire-iren sauye-sauyen da suna yake samu, a dubi, Newman, P. The Hausa Language: An Encyclopedic Reference Grammar. London, 2000, shafi na 5 – 15.
[5]  Ƙunsar ruwan da ƙurji ke yi idan aka yi sakiya ruwan za su fito kamar turo su ake yi haukace, haka ɗan bori yake yi kamar jikinsa ya ɗebi iska irin na tayar mota ta yi babban faci.
[6] Makaɗa Garba Ɗanwasa Gummi (makaɗin ‘yan tauri) yana bayanin wani tauraro nasa da ya yi ta’adi aka kira shi rabon faɗa. Da ya zo rabon faɗa ya ce; ya tarar da tauraronsa:
Jagora: Kasko nak kai gare shi
:Sannan nar rungumai
:Shina bobbotai kama da mato mai injimi
:… … … … … … … … … … …
Gindi:  Mai sharanin biɗan faɗa ko ba nashi ba
:Na sarkin Kabi Kaɗo masu motsattsen hankali
(ƙarfawa ta marubucin muƙala ne)
A kowane lokaci ‘bobbotai’ shi ne ɗagar da murya baki na kumfa kalmomi wasu su fita babbarkace wasu su ƙagale.
[7] Makaɗa Sani Ɗanbalɗo Warama ya yi amfani da kalmar bololloƙai a waƙarsa ta ‘Zaura’, da kurma ya neme ta aure shi ta nuna ta aminta, aka je aka ɗaura aure da wani ba shi ba. Yana cewa:
Jagora: An kasa kurma ga biɗar zaura
:Ni rannan na ji bololloƙai
:Han na tashi biɗo gora
:Don na aza gebe na yad daɗe.
(ƙarfafawa ta marubucin muƙala ne)
[8] Malam Mamaki (Head Master na Saran Dosa Primary School, 1989/90) wani fitaccen sha’iri ne da aka yi a ƙasar Jega garin Saran Dosa ya yi amfani da kalmar ‘saɓari’ a waƙarsa ta yabon masu zikiri, yana nuna cikin ƙaunar Shehensa idan magagin zikiri ya ja shi, sai ya ce:
Sai in faɗi ina ta saɓari
Mis same shi? A ce: ‘hailala’
(Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin muƙala ne)
[9] Makaɗa Ɗan’anace a waƙar karon Shago da Buzu na Waila mai taɓa yaggwai ya ce: da Buzu ya sha ƙullin Shago nan take bori ya shige shi ya yi saɓari da faɗar:
Jagora: Galik ka mamma shif-shif
            :Gamas garin da ba ni kowa
:An kai ni an daka mini kashi
(Ɗan’anace: Waƙar Shago)
Kalmomin da Buzu ya furta saɓari ne ba su da wata ma’ana.
[10] Wata shekara, 1978, kunama ta harbi wani ɗan dako mai suna Onti a tashar Bunza. Ana yi masa kamu ‘yan tasha na yaba shi da juriya don bai yi kuwwa ba kuma bai yi kuka ba, amma fa bakinsa faɗar yake:
“Wayyo regede! Wayyo regede! Wayyo regede!”
Wannan shi ne sabbatu, bai san abin da yake faɗa ba.
[11] Soki-burutsu, ko dai a gina zance gaba ɗaya kan kure misali: “muna cikin tuwo muna cin zaure, ko da anka yi kura ga walƙiya tsugunne.” Abin nufi a nan shi ne: “Muna cikin zaure muna cin tuwo, ko da anka yi walƙiya ga kura tsugunne.” Haka kuma, soki-burutsu yakan ɗauki maganar shirme ta hauka. Misali, wani taɓaɓɓen mutum a ƙasar Aljannare ta Jihar Kabi a koyaushe maganganunsa su ne:
A san da wakko mori guɗɗa
Ba ta gai da kowa da gona
Da gona! Da gona! Da gona!”
Na ce: da gona, da gona da gona!
Me za a tsinta a nan? Haka ne soki-burutsu.
[12] A tsarin al’ada, kirari batutuwa ne domin maganganu ne aka tattaro barkatai. Sarkin Gwandu Halilu ya yi amfani da kalmar “batutuwa” a waƙar yabon sojan hayansa Garba Gande Janborodo, wadda Muhammadu Sambo Wali Giɗaɗawa ya yi wa tahamisi yana cewa:
Da sunan Ta’ala za ni fara batutuwa
Tunawa da manya masu kari da garkuwa
Fito-na-fito ka yi ta ba su ƙidayuwa
Yabon bajini ad dole don ba shi gasuwa
Zaman ba a … … … … … ba ta faruwa
(Waƙar Janborodo)
[13] Shirɓace ita ce maganar da ba ta da tsari kuma ta ɓata tsari. Malam Muhammadu Sambo Wali Giɗaɗawa Sakkwato ya kawo kalmar a waƙarsa mai suna “Waƙar Zaman Banza” yayin da yake yi wa ‘yan Izala habaici yana cewa:
Akwai wasu na nan da ba ni son in duba su
Suna aikin Jalla ba ya karɓar aikinsu
Sabili da baƙin nuhi da mugun niyyarsu
Akwai muni mai yawa cikin maƙasudinsu
Suna son sa shirɓace cikin addininmu.
(Sambo Wali: Waƙar Zaman Banza)
(Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin muƙala ce)
[14] Boboniya ita ce matar da iskoki suka aura suka lalata mata magana, komai za ta faɗi a birkice take faɗarsa. Misali:
Daidai:                                     Boboniyanci:
Barka da asuba                         Basua da kabar
Ina za ku je?                             Je ku za na’i?
A ba ni ruwa in sha                   Sha in waru ni ba a

Ko kuma ƙago wani harshe na musamman da sunan harshen Iskoki kamar:
Si gara ta mantasa buba.
A ba ni sigari in sha.


[15] Don ƙara tantance adabi da rabe-rabensa da tsarinsa a rayuwa a dubi, Ɗangambo, A. Rabe-raben Adabin Hausa Da Tasirinsa Ga Rayuwar Hausawa Ta Gargajiya. Kano, 1999.
[16] Rashin samun kai da kawon bori ciki ya tabbatar da cewa, bori na wasu ‘yan tsiraru ne daga cikin Hausawa. Da babbar haraka ce gama gari, dole a same ta daɓa-daɓa cikin taskokin adabin baka na asali irinsu Tatsuniya da Kirari da Karin Magana da sauransu.
[17] Don ƙara samun wadataccen bayani a kan haka a dubi, Gulbi, A. S. “Magani A Ma’aunin Karin Magana” kundin digirin PhD, Sokoto: Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, 2014.
[18] Borin botso – shi ne wanda mata ke yi da zane ɗaya kawai, idan ana kiɗa a dafi ƙasa da hannuwa biyu a ɗaga kwankwaso suma a kware zanen tsiraici ya bayyana. A da, idan farin ruwa ya tsananta shi ake yi wa kirari da:
Komi taka zama ta zama
Komi taka zama ta daɗe!

A ƙasar Gobir da Zamfara ana ce da shi ‘Taburtsetse-burtse’. Malam Ummaru Kwaren Gamba ya kawo kalmar a waƙarsa ta roƙon ruwa da kakansa ya yi, shi ko ya yi mata tahamisi yana cewa:
… … … … ……… … … … .. ….
Taburtsetse da siffar mahaukata
Irin haka ma na sa a ƙi ruwa
(Ƙarfafawa ta marubucin muƙala ce)
[19] Makaɗa Narambaɗa a nan yana kwaikwayon kiɗin bori ne da ake yi wa ɗan sarkin. Faɗar “Zakara” yana bayyana ƙaunarsa ga matan banza, “Yaɗɗamna” ita ce matar da ta fara karuwanci a garin Isa. Idan an ce mutum ‘Zakaran Yaɗɗamna’ ne, an dai gane ba sai da sharhi ba.
[20] Wai! Dalilin yin sa ga ‘yan bori shi ne, sun san Allah ba Ya son bayyanar da tsiraicin mata. Allah zai ji kunyar aikin da suke yi, ya sako ruwa, ya sallame su, su daina fasadi ban ƙasa.
[21] Wannan hasashe ya fito a cikin aikin Faulkingham, R. H. “The Spirit And Their Cousins: Some Aspects Of Belief, Ritual, And Social Organization In A Rural Hausa Ɓillage In Niger.” Research Report 15, Amherst 1975, p. 11.
[22]  A ƙasar da Hausawa suka baje kolin al’adunsu irin Nijeriya da Nijar da Ghana da Togo da Benin da Mali da Senegal da Sudan da Libiya da sauransu shugabannin bori mata ne. A ganin wasu masana al’ada maza suka yi wa mata juyin mulki a sarautun ƙasar Hausa da sarautun bori a yau. Hira da Dr. Bube Gado, fitaccen masani al’ada a Jami’ar Abdul Mumini, Niamey, Jamhuriyar Nijar, wajajen 1999 a ofishinsa na CELTHO, Niamey.
[23]  A cikin waƙar an sa Garba jikan Garba ya sha giya cikin watan azumi da rana kata. Bayan an ingiza shi ya yi ta’asa, Makaɗa Shata ya ce, “Ba ruwansa da shi”.
[24] Don samun cikakken bayanin artabun a dubi, Bunza, A. M. In Ba Ka San Gari Ba Saurari Daka: Muryar Nazari Cikin Tafashen Gambo. Egypt, 2014.
[25] Da turaye suka zuguguta Nazaƙi bai san lokacin da ya fasa kuwwa ba ya ce:
Jagora: Yaf fasa kuwwa yay yi yaya
:Yac ce; “Ayyururui! Gambo mijin Kulu
:Ai tuba ta tashi Gambo
:Mallami da zagin doka ga kai nai
:Ya baza hoda ya yi gazal
:Ba batun tuba akai ba!
[26] A al’adance, ɗan tauri ba zai daka wa kansa wuƙa ko ƙarfe ba sai kiɗa ya tsima shi jikinsa ya ɗauki mazari ya yi kuwwa ya ce: “Jarƙaniya! Jarƙaniya !Jarƙaniya!” Da ya furta haka ko sau ɗaya ne, yanzu Shaiɗan zai zo ya taimaka masa. Ɗanbashirwa (mazawayin kasuwa) ko ya tuba ya ji kiɗin bashirwanci sai an rirriƙe shi in ba a son ya yi tsirara a ko’ina yake. Kiɗa wata babbar allura ce a al’adun gargajiyar Bahaushe.
[27] A zamanance, ‘yan borin ƙarninmu giya suke sha mai ƙarfi domin su samu damar yin wasanninsu. Sau nawa ana hukunta fitattun ‘yan wasan ƙwallon duniya da safarar miyagun ƙwayoyi da shan su gabanin shiga fagen wasa? Babba Jijjin da ‘yan bori ke sha ya fi ko hodar Ibilis kawar da hankalin mai hankali. Irin wannan halayyar ce tsagerun matasa ke shiga idan suna son su ci idon gabaci. Alhaji Muhammadu Sambo Wali Giɗaɗawa a ‘Waƙar Zaman Banza” ya ce:
Ga jin daɗin rayuwa samari ka bicewa
Suna wasu ‘yan ƙwange-ƙwange don nuna ɓacewa
Su sa takalmin da ba wuya za a karewa
Su shawo tabar da hankali zai juyewa
Su gigice don su samu damar ɓacinmu.
(Ƙarafafa ta marubucin muƙala ce)

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