Hausa Language Academic Website

Tuesday, 6 February 2018

Nazarin Magani A Farfajiyar Karin Magana

 

                                            

https://www.amsoshi.com/game-da-mu/

 

 

                                             

 Daga

                                                Abdullahi Sarkin Gulbi PhD

asgulbi@yahoo.com

08089949294

Department of Nigerian Languages

Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

 

 

 

 

Tsakure


Karin magana wata farfajiya ce da ‘bangarorin rayuwa daban-daban kan sami gurbin zama a cikin ta. Gano hakan ba zai yiwu ba face ta hanyar nazari. Dangane da haka ne, wannan takarda ta k’uduri duba karin maganar Hausa tare da yin nazarin wani kaso da magani ya mamaye a ciki. Yin hakan zai taimaka wajen fayyace irin tunanin Bahaushe dangane da tantance irin kason da magani ke iya d’auka  a cikin karin magana.

https://www.amsoshi.com/tuntubi-masu-gudanarwa/

 

 

1.0 Gabatarwa


Wannan muk’alar, an   gina ta ne da k’udurin duba gurbin magani a farfajiyar karin maganar Hausa. Magani a nan, kan iya kasancewa domin kawar da ciwo ko cutar da  ake gani ‘baro-’baro a  jiki ta rauni ko wani abu da kan iya cutar da rayuwa. Nazarin zai karkata ne ga kallon irin yadda  magani kan bayyana a cikin karin maganar Hausa. Yin hakan, zai bayar da dama wajen hango tunanin  Bahaushe dangane da bagiren da magani ya mamaye a cikin karin magana.

Masana adabin bakan Bahaushe kamar Kirk Greene da C.H Craft da kuma Yahaya, ruwaitowar Musa (2005: 73) ya ce duk sun had’u a kan cewa karin maganar Hausa yana bayyana “Halayen rayuwar Bahaushe na hak’ik’ani.” Rayuwar Bahaushe ta hak’ik’ani kuwa ta k’unshi dukkan matakan rayuwar al’umma kama tun daga aure, da haihuwa, da mutuwa, da addini, da siyasa, da zamantakewa, da al’ada, da magunguna, da sauransu. Don haka, takardar ta  k’uduri duba  magani a cikin karin maganar Hausa. Kafin a duk’ufa wajen walware zare da abawar nazarin, zai kyautu mu hango ma’anar magani da karin magana daga bakin masana da manazarta.

 

 

2.0  Ma’anar Magani


A duk lokacin da rayuwa ta fuskanci matsalar rashin lafiya ko wata damuwa da kan k’ange ta ga jin dad’i da samun sakewa wajen aiwatar da al’amurranta na yau da kullum a cikin annashawa, to abu na farko da zai fad’o a rai shi ne, fafafitukar neman sauk’i da mafita  ta hanyar “Magani.” Don haka, masana da manazarta sun bayyana ra’ayoyinsu dangane da ma’anar magani, kamar yadda za a gani a nan gaba.

A cikin k’amusun Hausa an bayyana magani da cewa: “ Abin da ake sha shafawa a jiki ko d’aurawa ta hanyar yin allura, don neman samun lafiya. (Bello Sa’id 2006:316)

A fahintata magani shi ne:

Duk wata hanya da za a yi amfani da ita domin riga-kafin cuta, ko rage    rad’ad’inta, ko ma a kawar  ita gaba d’aya, ko walwale wata matsalar rayuwa. Galibi, bokaye da malaman tsibbu, da wasu  da suka yi fice a sana’o’in garagjiya, da kuma wasu mutane na musamman suke bayarwa.Wannan hanyar, tana iya kasancewa ta kimiyyar zamani, ko a gargajiyanceko kuma a cikin zantukan hikima na Bahaushe.[1]

 

 

3.0  Ma’anar Karin Magana


Karin magana gajeruwar jimla ce mai d’auke da ma’ana mai fad’in gaske idan aka yi fashin bak’insu.[2] Duk da haka, ina ganin karin magana  a matsayin wani zance ne da akan shirya cikin hikima da nak’altar harshe wanda kan zo da sigar tak’aita zance da ke k’unshe da hoton rayuwar al’umma ta gaba d’aya. Don haka, karin magana abu ne da ya mamaye dukkan rayuwar al’umma, dalili kuwa shi ne, babu wani ‘bangaren rayuwa da karin magana bai samar wa gurbin zama ba, asali ma babu wata al’umma da ke a duniya mai harshen sadarwa da ba ta da karin magana a cikin zantukanta na yau da kullum.[3]

 

4.0 Magani a Farfajiyar Karin Magana


A k’ark’ashin wannan fasali, takardar za ta himmatu ne wajen nazarin hikimar Bahaushe wajen tantance magani a cikin karin magana kamar yadda taken muk’alar ya nuna. Dangane da haka, za a dubi tunanin Bahaushe ne dangane da magani a cikin karin magangannun da aka yi misalai da su. Yin haka,  zai taimaka wajen hango falsafar a sarari. Daga cikin farsafar da nazarin  zai tattauna a kansu sun had’a da; k’wazo, halayyar rayuwa, siyasa, za’bi, dabarar rayuwa, gyaran  hali, wadata, hangen nesa, da kuma sulhu.

 

4.1  K’wazo


Kalmar k’wazo kamar yadda aka bayyana ta a cikin k’amusun Hausa, kalma ce da ke nuna k’ok’ari ko himma.[4]  Dangane haka, wasu daga cikin karin maganar magani suna d’auke ne da falsafar k’wazo a cikinsu. Misali;

  1. Karen bana maganin zomon bana.

  2. Maganin shege d’an gaton uwa.


iii. Maganin mak’i gudu ban kashi.

  1. Tafiya maganin gari mai nisa.

  2. Maganin bawa sanda.


Idan an kula da falsafar magani da Bahaushe ya yi amfani da ita a cikin wad’annan misalan da aka bayar, za a ga cewa, dukkansu suna magana a kan k’wazo ne. Domin akan yi amfani da su ne idan wani abu ya faru mai d’auke da sak’on k’ok’ari ko mazakuta ko ramuwar gayya. Bari mu dubi falsafar magani a cikin karin maganar   “ Karen bana maganin zomon bana”  mu kuma kwatanta shi da abin da ya faru a cikin wannan labarin.[5] Don haka, duk inda aka ji Bahaushe ya fad’i wad’annan karin magangannun, to lallai wani abin hazik’anci ne yaru tare da magance wata matsala.

4.2 Halayyar Rayuwa


Halayyar rayuwa wasu fitattun d’abi’u ne da ke faruwa musamman a tsakanin mutane da ma wasu halittu. Wasu daga cikin karin maganar magani suna tattare ne da fayyace falsafar halayyar rayuwar  da aka san mutane da su. Misali;

  1. Maganin kwad’ai lasar wuta

  2. Arha maganin mai wayo.


iii. Maganin k’iyayya rabuwa.

A cikin wad’annan misalan da suka zo a sama, za a ga cewa, karin magangannun suna d’auke da halayyar mutane irin ta kwad’ayi da wayo da kuma k’iyayya. Idan aka d’auki misali na farko, za a ga cewa karin maganar yana tsoratar da mutane  ne ga su kauce wa d’abi’ar kwad’ayi, wanda yake idan ba a yi sa’a ba wani lokaci sukan jefa kansu cikin fitina. Hausawa sun ce, in ba kwad’ayi ba walak’anci. Don haka, mai kwad’ayi yakan saka kansa ga fitinar da ta yi kama da lasa wuta[6]. Don kowa ya lashi wutar harshensa kan k’one, ba sauran cin wani abu bale a ce an ji kwad’ayin.

Karin magana na biyu kuwa ya bayyana muna irin yadda ake magance d’abi’ar wayo ta hanyar arha, musamman ga abin da ya shafi saye da sayarwa.

Misalin karin magana na uku kuwa ya tafi ne a kan fayyace irin yadda zama kan had’a mutane sai daga bisani a sami rashin jituwa ta hanyar k’iyayya. Idan hakan ya faru, to lallai babu wani maganin wannan k’iyayya face a rabu da juna a huta. Misali a zamantakewar aure.

4.3  Siyasa


Abin da ake nufi da siyasa a nan shi ne, irin yarda da lamarin shugabanci da Bahaushe ya aminta da shi tun kafin ya samun had’uwa da bak’in al’ummu.[7] Dangane da haka, wasu daga cikin karin maganar magani suna bayyana muna irin yadda siyasar rayuwar Bahaushe take ne, don haka tuni Bahaushe ya aminta da cewa akwai wani da ya halicce shi, kuma a gare shi ake samun biyan buk’atun rayuwa. Baya ga wannan, ya aminta da tsarin shugabanci a zamantakewarsa ta yau da kullum, inda ake samun shugabanni da ke kashe wata fitina idan ta taso. Ire-iren wad’annan karin magana sun had’a da;

  1. Gobara a kogi maganinta Allah sarki.

  2. ii. Allah maganin


iii. Allah maganin munafuki da azuzi.

  1. Sabo da manya maganin wata rana.


Wad’annan misalai da aka kawo a sama za a ga cewa, karin magana na 1-3, duk suna d’auke da tunanin Bahaushe dangane da samuwar Allah (S.W) da kuma ikonSa na magance kowace irin matsala a doron k’asa.

Karin magana na hud’u (4) kuwa yana fayyace irin yadda lalurar neman abin da mutum zai ci kad’ai ke zamar masa matsala a wasu lokuta. Wato jidalin neman abin biyan buk’atar talaka kad’ai ya isa ya sa ya san cewa Allah guda ne!

Karin magana na biyar (5) kuwa yana nuna irin yadda huld’a da  manyan mutane kan taimaka wa mutum wajen walwale masa matsalar rayuwa, musamman idan ya sami kansa cikin wani rikici. Misali matsalar shari’a a kotuna da sauran hukumomin gwamnati.[8]

 

4.4 Za’bi


Za’bi shi ne dama ta d’aukar wani abu ko abubuwa daga cikin wasu da yawa. Akan  iya danganta kalmar da ra’ayi ko dama ta za’bar wani abu.[9] Wasu daga cikin karin maganar magani za’bi ne suke bayarwa ga walwale  wata matsalar rayuwa. Misali;

  1. Gida biyu maganin gobara.

  2. Sana’a goma maganin mai gasa.


iii. Haske maganin duhu.

Idan an lura da abin da ya faru a cikin wad’annan misalai da aka bayar a sama, za a cewa dukkansu suna bayar da za’bi ne ga magance matsalar rayuwa.

 

4.5  Dabarar Rayuwa

Wannan yana nufin kyakkyawan shiri ko wayo ko hikima ko tsari na tunkarar al’amurran rayuwa. Dangane da haka, wasu daga cikin karin maganar magani suna d’auke ne da bayyana falsafar dabarun gudanar da rayuwar mutane ne.

Misali;

  1. Maganin a fad’i a tashi.

  2. Barin kashi a ciki ba ya maganin yunwa.


 Misali na farko, yana bayyana muna dabarar rayuwar d’an Adam wajen yin kazar-kazar domin neman hak’k’i. Ma’ana kada mutum ya yi kasala wajen neman abin kare mutuncinsa. Ko da mutum ya had’u da jarabawar fad’uwa da rashin nasara, wannan kar ya sa ya yanke k’auna ga cin nasara a wani karo. Don haka, tashi tsaye wajen nema, ya magance matsalar fad’uwa. Misali a fagen sana’a ko siyasa da jarabawa da makamantansu.

Misali na biyu kuwa, yana fayyace amfanin yin abu a lokacin da ya dace a yi shi. Yin hakan dabarar rayuwa ce don magance cin karo da matsala a nan gaba, da kuma da na sani.

 

4.6  Gyaran Hali


Wasu  daga cikin karin maganar magani suna magana ne a kan gyaran hali, wato daidaita al’amari suke, akan sami irin wannan karin magana ne a duk lokacin da aka hango wata matsala ta sami mutum wadda ke buk’atar amfani da hak’uri wajen warware ta. Misalin irin wad’annan karuruwan magana sun had’a da;

  1. Hak’uri maganin zaman duniya.

  2. Idan so cuta ne hak’uri magani ne.


iii.  Maganin kunama hak’uri.

A wad’annan karuruwan magana da aka yi misali da su, za a ga cewa, a karin magana na farko (1) yana bayyana muna cewa, idan mutum ba ya da hak’uri zai yi wuyar zama da kuma mu’amula da mutane ‘yan uwansa. Dangane da haka, hak’uri shi zai magance matsalolin zamantakewa a tsakanin al’umma.

Karin magana na biyu(2) kuwa, akan sami inda matsalar buk’atuwa da son samun wani abu a rayuwa zai zama matsala, sai a yi amfani da hak’uri wajen warwale wannan matsalar.  Musamman a fagen neman aure da shugabanci.

Karin magana na uku(3) kuwa, shi ke tabbatar muna da  ake gane rak’in mutum idan ya had’u da wata musiba. Idan akwai hak’uri kuwa, sai a magance matsalar wani bai san an yi ba.

 

4.7  Wadata


Wadata kalma ce mai bayyana faruwar abu cikin yalwa. Don haka, Wad’annan karin maganganu suna magana ne a kan yalwantar arziki ko abinci ko wasu abubuwan rayuwa wajen magance matsalalolin da kan faru. Misali;

  1. Babbar gona maganin awon bad’i.

  2. Haihuwa da yawa maganin annoba.


iii. Haihuwa maganin wulak’ancin duniya.

  1. Kaya da yawa maganin ‘barawo.

  2. Sana’a goma maganin kwanan rana.

  3. Dukiya maganin k’ask’anci.


vii. Kud’i maganin talauci.

viii. Sana’a maganin zaman banza.

  • Idan an dubi wad’annan misalai da idon basira, za a ga cewa, karin magana na farko yana bayani ne a kan muhimmancin noma wajen magance matsalar yunwa ko yankewar abinci.

  • Karin magana na 2-3 kuwa, suna d’auke da tunanin Bahaushe dangane da haihuwa wajen magance wulak’ancin rayuwar duniya.

  • Karin magana na 4 hud’u kuwa, yana magana ne a kan irin yadda yalwar arziki kan magance ‘banar ma’barnata.

  • Karin magana na 5-8 kuwa, suna bayani ne a kan muhimmancin sana’a wajen magance talauci da zaman banza.


 

4.8  Hangen Nesa

Wannan yana nufin hango wani abu daga nesa. A irin wad’annan karin magangannun kuwa, za a ga cewa hangen nesa suke karantar da mutune wajen magance matsalar rayuwa. Misali;

  1. In kura na da maganin zawo da ta yi wa kanta.

  2. Waiwaye maganin mantuwa.


A misali na farkon wannan fasali, za a ga cewa Bahaushe yana amfani da wannan karin magana ne domin a waiga tare da hango wata matsala da ake kan tattaunawa da zimmar magance matsalar. Misali mutum ne ya ce ka kawo naira dubu goma ya yi maka sihiri su koma dubu d’ari, a nan idan aka yi amfani da wannan karin maganar, za a magance fad’awa cikin tarkon mai sihirin ko damfarar.

Misali na biyu kuwa, yana yi muna hannunka -mai- sanda ne dangane da amfanin yin k’wak’k’waran nazari kafin mutum ya aikata wani abu, musamman wanda idan ba a yi hattara ba a k’are da abin da Hausawa ke yi wa lak’abi da “Da- na- sani.”

 

4.9  Sulhu


Sulhu kalma ce da ke nuna sasantawa.[10] Wannan sasantawa kan iya kansacewa a tsakanin wani da wani ko wasu jama’a dangane da wata matsalar rayuwa. Wata falsafa da ke cikin karin maganar magani ita ce ta sulhu a tsakanin al’umma.[11] Misali;

  1. i. Maganin biri karen Maguwaza.

  2. Maganin k’iyayya rabuwa.


iii. Maganin mak’i gudu ban kashi.

A wad’annan misalai da aka bayar a sama, za a lura da cewa, misali na farko ya kawo muna irin yadda ake shigowa da masu ruwa da tsaki wajen walwale matsala idan ta taso domin su daidaita lamarin. Misali akan yi amfani da wani mutum da aka san yana jin kunyar wani idan aka sa’ba masa domin ya ba shi hak’uri ko saukar da shi bisa ga wani mataki da ya d’auka. Wanda idan ya yi nasarar ba shi hak’uri, Bahaushe kan ce “Maganin biri Karen maguzawa.” Tunda yake an had’a shi da wanda ke iya saukar da shi.

Misali na biyu kuwa, mafita ce ga dukkan wata k’iyayya da tak’i ci tak’i cinyewa ta hanyar rabuwa idan da ikon yin hakan.

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5.0 Nad’ewa


A tak’aice takardar ta yi tsokaci tare da yin nazari a kan magani a gurabun karin maganar Hausa. An kuma yi  nasarar gano tunanin Bahaushe dangane da sha’anin magani a cikin  karuruwan magana talatin da hud’u (33) da aka yi misali da su. Inda aka nazarci yadda kalmar magani kan yi shige da fice a cikin karin magana. Kazalika  nazarin ya gano falsafar  da ke tattare a cikin karin maganar magani wad’anda suka had’a da; k’wazo, halayyar rayuwa, siyasa, za’bi, dabarar rayuwa, gyaran  hali, wadata, hangen nesa, da kuma sulhu.  Da fatar binciken ya zamar wa d’alibai da manazarta da kuma masana wani abin dafawa wajen haska tunaninsu don lalubo wani abu mai kama da wannan a cikin karin magana.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manazarta


Abdullahi I.S.S.  2008: “Maguzawa” Muk’alar  neman digirin Ph.D da aka

gabatar a sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya na Jami’ar Usmanu  ‘Danfodiyo Sakkwato.

Abubakar, Y.1998:  “‘Dankanoma:Nazarinsa Da Magungunansa a Garin

Sakkwato”. Kundin digiri na farko a jami’ar Usmanu

‘Danfodiyo Sakkwato.

Adamu, S. A. 2011: “Gurbin K’wari a Magungunan Gargajiya na Hausawa”. Kundin digiri na biyu (M.A), Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo, Sakkwato.

Ahmad, I. A. 1984: “Cututtukan Jiki da Magungunansu.” Kundin digirin       farko  Jami’ar Bayero, Kano

Al-Maurid 1977: English-Arabic Dictionary Alhadiyat Asharat, Eleventh edition.

Amin M. L 2004: “Falsafar Bahaushe a kan Rayuwar ‘Dan’Adam.” A cikin

mujallar Algaita, sashen koyar da harsunan Nijeriya B.U.K

Bada B.D.1995: “A Literary Study of Themes, Functions and Poetic Devices of

Hausa Karin Magana,” Ph.D Thesis, Usmanu Danfodiyo

University, Sokoto.

Bargery, G. P. 1934: A Hausa-English and English-Hausa Vocabulary. Oxford       University Press, London.

Birnin Tudu S.Y 2013: “Falsafar Malanta Cikin Littafin Ruwan Bagaja” Cikin

Special Research Project in Humanities.  U.M.Y.U. Katsina.

Bunza, A. M.1990: “Hayaki Fid Da Na Kogo”. Kundin digri na biyu (M.A.),          Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero Kano.

Bunza, A.  M. 1995: “Magungunan Hausa A Rubuce.” Kundin digiri na uku (PhD)                     Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero,       Kano.

Bunza, A.  M. 2006: Gadon Fed’e Al’ada . Ibrash ltd. Lagos

Bunza, A. M 2009: Narambad’a.  Ibrash ltd. Lagos

‘Dangambo, A .1984: Rabe-raben Adabin Hausa da Muhimmancinsa ga Rayuwar

                   Hausawa.Triumph. Kano

‘Danyaya, B. M. 2007: Karin Maganar Hausa, Makarantar Hausa Publishers,

Sokoto.

Furniss, G. 1960: Poetry, Prose and popular Culture, University Press Plc.

Gani, Y .1997: “Hakin Maye Yadda Yake da Yadda ake Sarrafa Shi”Kundin

neman digiri na farko a jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo,  Sakkwato.

Gidley, C. G. 1974: “Karin Magana and Azanci as Features of Hausa Sayings in

Hausa.” in African Language Studies.

Gobir, Y. A. 2012: “Falsafar Bahaushe a kan Cututtukan Iskoki” Muk’alar da aka

gabatar a Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo, Sakkwato.

Hamza, M. W. 1977: “Magungunan Hausawa”. Kundin digirin farko, Jami’ar         Bayero, Kano.

Ibekwe. p. 1989: “Proverbs for Africa and Carribean”In Wit and wisdom  of

Africa.U.K work view publishing company.

Isma’il. J da Tanimu,  M. 1997: Harshe da Adabin Hausa a Kammale Don Manya

                     Makarantun sakandare. Spectrum Publishers.Ibadan.

Knappert.  J. (1989)The A-Z African Proverbs.London Karnak House Publishers.

Muhammad,  D. 1990: Hausa Metalanguage,Vol.1,University Press.

Nahuce , I. M. 2008: “Karin Maganar Hausa A Rubuce”.Kundin M.A, Sashen

Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya.Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato.

Newma,  R. 1997: An English-Hausa Dictionary. Longman publishers, Ibadan.

Oxford 1933: English Dictionary.Vol. III.

Sa’id B. 2006: K’amusun Hausa, Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar

Bayero, Kano.

Umar, M. B 1987: Dangantakar Adabin Baka Da Al’adun Gargajiya.Triumph,

Kano.

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                     Language Literature And Culture.

[1]Don k’arin bayani a kan ma’anar magani, sai a dubi  ayyukan Bargery (1933:743), da Sofowara(1982), da Ahmad (1984:133), da Zulai (1984:25), da Musa(1986:6), da Bunza(1995:81), da Gani(1997:17), da Abubakar(1998:24), da Sarkin Sudan (2000:17), da Yusuf (2001:18), da Gobir (2012:2)  duk sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu a kan ma’anar kalmar magani.

[2] A dubi ayyukan masana da manazarta adabi irin su Furniss (1960:70) da   Gidley (1974:96) da ‘Dangambo (1984:38) da Bada (1995:47) da sauransu da dama, duk  sun baje kolin fahintarsu a kan yadda suke kallon karin magana.

[3] Bada B.D “A literary study of themes, functions and poetic devices of Hausa karin magana.” Ph.D thesis U.D.U.S. 1995, Page 65-70.  In a Caption titled “The Universality and Internationality of Proverbs.”

[4] Kamusun Hausa 2006, shafi na 293.

[5] Wani dattijo ne ya dawo daga gona a bisa jakinsa. Shigarsa gari ke da wuya, sai ya ga wata yalwantacciyar inuwar dalbijiya a kofar  gidan wani mutum, kuma an share ta tsaf. A d’ayan gefe kuwa, ga wata randar ruwa masu sanyi an ajiye. Sai ya tsaya domin ya  sha ruwan ya kuma d’an huta, ya d’aure jakinsa. Shi ko jakin sai ya ‘bata wurin da kashi. Ganin irin yadda jakin ya ‘bata kofar gidan da kashi ne, sai yaro ya fito daga cikin gida  a fusace ya kama fad’a da dattijon, shi kuwa dattijon yana ba shi hak’uri, yaron bai ji ba, sai da ya kai wa dattijon nan mari a fuska. Ashe duk abin nan da ke gudana a tsakanin dattijon nan da yaron, wani yaro na can yana hangen su. Marin dattijon nan ke da wuya, sai wancan yaron ya shek’o a guje ya kama yaron nan da ya  mari dattijo da kokawa ya fyad’e shi k’asa. Shi ko dattijon nan ya kame a gefe yana kallon sakayyar da ta faru. Daga k’arshe, ya raba fad’an, ya kuma gode wa yaron da ya kawo masa d’auki, ya ce: Tafi abin ka yaro na gode! Ai Karen bana maganin zomon bana. Allah Ya had’a ka da warin ka.

[6] Sau da yawa akan sami matsalar yara su k’one bakinsu wajen lasar tukanen girki a gidajensu a dalilin kwad’ayi.

[7] Akwai yarda da shugabanci tun a Bamagujen tunani, inda ake samun shugaban tsafi da bori da sauransu.

[8] Manyan k’asa sun sha yin ruwa da tsaki wajen warware rikicin shari’a ga yaransu da ‘yan uwansu ko da ba su da gaskiya a cikin lamarin.

[9] Dubi lamba ta 4, shafi na 487.

[10] Dubi lamba ta 4, shafi na 400.

[11] Dubi lamba ta 4 , shafi na  202.

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