Yanayin Zuwan Mafayyaciya Da Lokatak’ Da Dirka Cikin Jumlolin Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci (5)

 

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HARUNA ABDULLAHI UMAR


 


KUDIN KAMMALA KARATUN DIGIRI NA FARKO (B.A HAUSA) DA AKA GABATAR A SASHEN HARSUNAN NIJERIYA, JAMI’AR USMANU ‘DANFODIYO, SAKKWATO


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BABI NA HU’DU: KWATANCI TSAKANIN WASU MUHIMMAN KALMOMI NA CIKIN JIMLOLIN SAKKWATANCI DA DAIDAITACCIYAR HAUSA


4.0    SHIMFI’DA


Wannan babi na hud’u shi ne babin da zai bayyana yadda mafayyaciya da yadda take zuwa a cikin jumla ko kuma wani yanki na jumla, haka kuma wannan babi ne zai bayyana muna lokatak’ da yadda take, da kuma yadda take zuwa a cikin jumlolin Hausa.  Bayan wannan kuma, wannan babin shi ne babin da zai bayyana muna kalmomin dirka da yadda suke.

4.1    MAFAYYACIYA


Galadanci(1976) ya nuna cewa abin nan (kalma) dake zuwa bayan fa’ili amma kafin aikatau a  cikin jumla, wak’ilin suna ne. Alal misali, Kalmar “ta” a cikin jumla Binta ta naa karanta jariidaa.

Babu shakka bincike irin na zamani (Tuller (1986). Yusuf (1991), Amfani (1996)) ya nuna cewa a wannan kalmar mafayyaciya ce (agreement element (AGR)) ba wak’ilin suna ba. Tana fayyace fa’ili (subject) ne dangane da jinsi da adabi.

Saboda haka, idan aka duba a nan dangane da wad’annan ra’ayoyi na masana a iya cewa mafayyaciya tana da alak’a da suna ne a cikin jumla ba wak’ilin suna ba ce. Ga misalin mafayyaciya:

Binta ta naa karanta jariidaa

Kalmar “ta” ita ce mafayyaciyar da ta zo domin ta fayyace sunan Binta a san cewa Binta jinsin mace ce, tilo kuma mutum ta uku wadda ake Magana a kanta. Ga wani misalin:

Ali ya a ci abinci

A cikin wannan misalin mafayyaciya it ace “ya” a nan ita ce mafayyaciya ta zo ne domin ta fayyace sunan Ali a san cewa jinsin namiji ne, tilo kuma mutum na uku wato wanda ake magana a kansa. A wani misali kuma da mafayyaciya ta fito a matsayin mai fayyace adadi, jam’i shi ne:

‘Dalibai su naa karatu

“Su” a nan ita ce mafayyaciya domin kalmar “Su” tana fayyace sunan d’alibai ne don a san sunan jam’i ne, kuma ba ta fayyace iya sunan dangane da jinsi, saboda ba a iya gane jinsi a cikin adadi.

Ga nau’o’in kalmomin mafayyaciya a daidaitacciyar Hausa:

Ya -   tana fayyace sunan namiji tilo

ta -     tana fayyace sunan mace tilo

su -    tana fayyace suna jam’i na mutum na uku (wad’anda ake magana a kansu)

ku -    tana fayyace suna jam’i na mutum na biyu (wad’anda ake magana da su)

Idan aka dubi wad’annan kalmomi na mafayyaciya na daidaitacciyar Hausa zuwa ‘bangaren karin harshen Sakkwatanci kuwa wannan mafayyaciya takan d’auki wani sabon fasali a lokacin da take k’ok’arin fayyace sunan da ta zo tare dashi. Misali:

  1. Audu ya naa cin abinci H

  2. Audu ya naa karatun jariidaa H


Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci

  1. Audu shi naa cin abinci

  2. Audu shi naa karatun jariidaa


Wasu misalan na mafayyaciya a karin harshen Sakkwatanci da ke fayyace suna a cikin jumla su ne:

A daidaitacciyar Hausa /-nan/takan koma /-nga/a Karin harshen Sakkwatanci. Misali:

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                             Sakkwatanci

Wannan                                                      Wanga

Wannan                                                      Wagga

Wad’annan                                                  Wad’anga

Wannan littafi                                              Wanga littahi

Wad’annan littafai                                        Wad’anga littahwai

 

4.2    LOKATAk’


Lokatak’ yana d’aya daga cikin kalmomi masu aiki irin na nahawu a cikin jumlolin harshen Hausa. A bisa ga rabon da aka yi wa azuzuwan kalmomin Hausa. Amfani (2004:)

Masana ilmin kimiyyar harshen Hausa sun raba lokaci gida uku: shud’ad’d’en lokaci (past), lokaci mai ci (present), lokaci mai zuwa (future) Galadanci (1976:60). Akwai kuma tak’i (aspect) wanda yake nuna cikar aiki cif-cif (completi’be/perfecti’be) ko kuma ana cikin yin shi ba a k’are ba (Uncomplete/Continuati’be/Imperfecti’be).

Masana Nahawun Hausa sun zo da ra’ayoyinsu mabambanta dangane da abin da Hausa ke da shi, a cikin jumla dangane da matsayin aikatau shi ne lokaci (tense) ne kawai ko tak’i (aspect), ne, ko har da hali (mood) ko kuma yaya abin yake? Ga yadda ra’ayoyin suka kasance daga taskar masana:

Galadanci (1976) ya nuna cewa lokaci (tense) kad’ai Hausa take da shi, a cikin jumla ya kuma raba lokuta zuwa guda takwas kamar haka:

Skinner (1977) cewa ya yi jumlar hausa tak’i (aspect) kawai ta ke da shi, ya ci gaba da bayani inda yake cewa, da alama Galadanci bai tsaya tsaf ya yi nazarin jumlar Hausa ba, ya ga cewa lalle dukkan abubuwan wato lokaci da tak’i, tare suke zuwa.

Yusuf (1991) da Amfani (1996) sun tabbatar da haka. Don haka suka yi matsaya cewa lallai abinda ake da shi a Hausa shi ne lokatak’ (tense-aspect) ba tsurar lokaci (tense) ko tak’i (aspect) kawai ba. Baya ga wannan matsayi, akwai irin su Newman da Schun har ma da Tuller wad’anda a wurare da dama sun nuna cewa abin da Hausa take da shi, shi ne had’akar lokaci da tak’i da hali (tense-aspect mood (TAM).

Kamar yadda wad’annan masana suka bayyana lokatak’ a ra’ayoyi dabam-daban haka ma Galadanci (1976) da Skinner (1977) sun nuna cewa lokatak’ ya karkasu har gida uku kamar haka:

  • Shud’ad’d’en lokatak’

  • Lokatak’ mai ci

  • Lokatak’ mai zuwa


Dukkan wad’annan lokatak’ d’in sukan kasance a cikin jumlolin Hausa, amma akan sami bambancin yadda ake amfani da wasu daga cikinsu, a wasu kare-karen harshen Hausa.

Bello (1992) ya bayyana cewa “yadda Sakkwatanci ke amfani da shud’ad’d’en lokaci ya sha bamban da yadda Daidaitacciyar Hausa da sauran kare-karen harshen Hausa ke amfani da shi a jumla. Haka kuma, Sakkwatanci  ya bambanta da Daidaitacciyar Hausa, da sauran kare-karen harshen Hausa, a wajen yin amfani da lokatak’ mai ci a cikin jumla.

Ga wasu daga cikin misalan:

4.2.1 SHU’DA’D’DEN LOKATAK’


DAIDAITACCIYAR HAUSA                 SAKKWATANCI

Muka cin abinci                                           Munka ci abinci

Kuka cin abinci                                           Kunka ci abinci

Suka cin abinci                                            Sunka ci abinci

Kika ci abinci                                              Kicci abinci

Aka ci abinci                                               Anka ci abinci

4.2.2 LOKATAK’ MAI CI


DAIDAITACCIYAR HAUSA                 SAKKWATANCI

Nii nakee cin abinci                                     Nii ka cin abinci

Kai kakee cin abinci                                     Kai ka cin abinci

Kee kikee cin abinci                                     kee ka cin abinci

Audu yakee cin abinci                                  Audu ka cin abinci

Binta take cin abinci                                    Binta ka cin abinci

Muu mukee cin abinci                                  Muu ka cin abinci

Kuu kukee cin abinci                                   Kuu ka cin abinci

‘Daalibai sukee cin abinci                                      ‘Dalibai ka cin abinci

Da daddare akee cin abinci                           Da daddare aka cin abinci

Haka kuma, wannan lokatak’ d’in, idan aka same shi a yankin jumlar da ba ya d’auke da aikatau za ya sha bamban dangane da yadda ake amfani da shi a Daidaitacciyar Hausa da kuma Sakkwatanci. Misali:

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                             Sakkwatanci

Nii nakee da kud’ii                                      Nii ad da kud’d’ii

Kai kakee da kud’ii                                               Kai ad da kud’d’ii

Kee kikee da kud’ii                                               Kee ad da kud’d’i

Muusaa yakee da kud’ii                               Muusaa ad da kud’d’ii

Kande take da kud’ii                                    Kande ad da kud’d’ii

Muu mukee da kud’ii                                   Muu ad da kud’d’ii

Kuu kukee da kud’ii                                    Kuu ad da kud’d’ii

Suu sukee da kud’ii                                               Suu ad da kud’d’ii

Abin da ya faru a wad’annan jumlolin shi ne, an yi amfani da manunin lokatak’ mai ci ‘kee’, na daidaitacciyar Hausa inda aka samu a karin harshen Sakkwatanci sai aka yi amfani da ‘ad’ a matsayin manunin lokatak’ mai ci. Wato aka shafe mafayaciyar da ke fayyace lamiran, sannan aka sauya ‘kee’ zuwa ‘ad’.

4.3    DIRKA


Zaruk da wasu (1987) ya ce dirka wasu kalmomi ne na nahawu masu daidaitawa a harshen Hausa.

A daidaitacciyar Hausa, dirka wasu kalmomi ne guda biyu wato nee da cee masu fayyace jinsin suna. Jinsin suna na iya zuwa namiji ko mace. Haka kuma dirka na fayyace adadi. Adadi na iya zama tilo ko jam’i. Idan suna namiji ne kuma tilo, ana amfani da dirka nee, idan suna mace ce kuma tilo, ana amfani da dirka cee. Idan suna jam’i ne ana amfani da dirka nee. Amma a lura, a Hausa ba a nuna jinsi idan suna jam’i ne.

Dirka a kare-karen harshen yamma (Sakkwatanci) daidai take da daidaitacciyar Hausa. Bambanci kawai shi ne a kare-karen harshen Sakkwatanci, dirka takan d’auki nau’in naa maimakon nee ta daidaitacciyar Hausa. A jam’i naa takan d’auki nau’in naa maimakon nee ta Daidaitacciyar Hausa.

Saboda haka, a Daidaitacciyar Hausa akwai kalmomin dirka iri biyu, wato nee da cee, haka ma a harshen Sakkwatanci akwai kalmomin dirka iri biyu amma sun sa’ba ma tsarin na Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Misali, ga yadda abin yake:

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                             Sakkwatanci

Hula ta cee                                                   Hulla ta taa

Wando na nee                                              Wando na naa

Riguna na nee                                              Riguna na naa

Bala nee                                                      Bala naa

A’isha cee                                                    A’isha taa

Mutane nee                                                  Mutanee naa

Bisa ga wad’annan misalan da aka bayar a sama, zamu iya cewa kalmomin dirka na cee, da nee na Daidaitacciyar Hausa sukan canja, wato cee ta mace ta koma taa, a harshen Sakkwatanci, a yayin da nee ta Daidaitacciyar Hausa takan koma naa a harshen Sakkwatanci. Haka ma nee ta jam’i  takan koma naa a harshen Sakkwatanci.

4.4    SAKKWATATTUN KALMOMI


Sakkwatanci yakan yi amfani da wad’ansu kalmomi wad’anda shi kad’ai ya ke’banta da su, sai wasu daga cikin kare-karen harshen yamma (Sakkwatanci), wad’anda su ma ba kowace kalma ce daga cikin kalmomin suke amfani da ita ba. Amma wannan ba ya haddasa bambancin ma’ana a kan ire-iren wad’annan kalmomi da sauran kare-karen harshen Hausa ke amfani da su, ko ire-irensu ake amfani da su a Daidaitacciyar Hausa.

Wannan na nufin idan Sakkwatanci ya yi amfani da wata kalma, to akwai irinta a Daidaitacciyar Hausa da sauran kare-karen harshen Hausa. Sa’annan kuma, Kalmar ba ta da bambancin ma’ana da irin ta, da ke a sauran kare-karen harshen Hausa ko a Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Alal misali, Sakkwatanci yakan yi amfani da kalmar ‘katattara’ wato wani sashe na kafar mutum mai tattare da nama, wanda ya taso daga guiwa zuwa d’uwawu). Amma a Daidaitacciyar Hausa da wasu kare-karen harshen Hausa sukan yi amfani da kalmar ‘cinya’ a maimakon katattara. A nan, ma’anar katattara da cinya ba bambanci. Akan iya a sami bambancin tsarin kalmomin, amma ma’anarsu d’aya. Ko kuma bambancin furuci, amma ma’ana d’aya tsakanin Sakkwatanci da Daidaitacciyar Hausa.

 

4.4.1 KALMOMI MASU BAMBANCIN FURUCI AMMA MA’ANA ‘DAYA


Bargery (1934) shi ne ya yi k’ok’arin kawo wad’annan kalmomin na Sakkwatanci tare da kwatanta su da na Daidaitacciyar Hausa.

Saboda haka, ga wasu kad’an daga cikin su:

Sakkwatanci                                        Daidaitacciyar Hausa

Agalemi                                             buuzuu

Alkwatoo                                          Katantanwa

Akaihwa                                            Farcee

Arbiik’ii                                            Ungoozoma

Badaraa                                             Tsuntsu

Bagajaa                                              Kwatamii

Bundii                                               Wutsiyaa

‘bartakee                                            Abaawaa

‘baaci                                                 Zaagi

‘baace-’baace                                               ‘baatayyaa

Hwarcee                                            Yaatsaa

Gabaa                                                Girtsi

Gambuu                                            k’yaure

Gulbii                                                Koogii

Gujjiyaa                                             Gyad’a

Guroo                                                Ku’beewaa

Gidan bisa                                          Beenee

Habd’ii                                              Tookaa

4.4.2  KALMOMI MASU MA’ANA ‘DAYA, AMMA SAUTI BAMBAN


A nan k’asa, in mun dubo za mu ga Sakkwatatun kalmomi wad’anda ma’anarsu d’aya da na Daidaitacciyar Hausa, amma sautinsu ya sha bamban da na Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Ga misalai kad’an daga cikin su:

Sakkwatanci                                        Daidaitacciyar Hausa    

Allooba                                             Annooba

Al’amurraa                                        Al’amura

Attanin                                              Litinin

Anguwaa                                           Unguwaa

Assibit                                               Assabar

Bahwaadee                                        Bafaade

Bushiyaa                                           Bishiya

Bukii                                                 Bikii

Ciiyyoo                                             Ciiwoo

Jibjii                                                  Juujii

Laahiyaa                                            Laafiyaa

Lak’yas                                             Lak’was

Lallai                                                 Lalle

Mussai                                               Mushee

Sabkaa                                               Saukaa

Saashee                                              Saashi

Shibkaa                                             Shuukaa

Shidda                                               Shida

Sihilii                                                Sifirii

Suuraa                                               Suumaa

Swa’baanii                                         Saa’baanii

Swaahwaa                                         Saafaa

Wad’annan su ne kad’an daga cikin wasu Sakkwatattun kalmomi duk da yake cewa kalmomin suna da yawa.

 

4.5    NA’DEWA


Wannan babi na hud’u shi ne gundarin wannan aikin. Domin a wannan babi ne na yi bayanin wad’annan abubuwa da na rattaba dangane da abin da ya shafi ma’anar mafayyaciya dangane da ra’ayoyin masana da kuma wasu ‘yan misalai. Haka kuma duk a cikin wannan babin ne na yi bayanin lokatak’ da ire-irenta had’i da kuma wasu ‘yan misalai. Bayan wannan kuma duk a cikin wannan babi ne na yi bayanin kalmomin dirka da kuma yadda suke zuwa a cikin harshen Sakkwatanci, had’i kuma da wasu ‘yan misalai domin fayyace abin yadda yake.

Haka kuma, duk a cikin wannan babi ne na hud’u na d’an yi tsakure game da Sakkwatattun kalmomi dangane da masu bambancin furuci, amma ma’ana d’aya, da kuma masu ma’ana d’aya amma sauti bamban.

Saboda haka, wannan babi shi ne babin da ya k’unshi gundarin abubuwan da nake nazari akan su, wato mafayyaciya lokatak’, da kuma kalmomin dirka, yadda suke zuwa a Sakkwatanci da kuma yadda suke zuwa a cikin daidaitacciyar Hausa, da kuma wasu daga cikin Sakkwatattun kalmomi.

 

 

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