K’irgau Na Zabarma Da Nau’o’insa (5)

 

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  BASHIRU SHEHU 


 


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KUNDIN KAMMALA KARATUN DIGIRI NA FARKO                          

SASHEN NAZARIN HARSUNAN NAJERIYA,                                               

  JAMI’AR USMANU ‘DANFODIYO                                                   

  SAKKWATO

 

 

BABI NA UKU: K’irgau Na Zabarma Da Nau’o’insa


3.0 Shimfid’a


K’irgau wani d’an rakiya ne mai bayyana adadin suna a lokacin da yake taimakawa suna a yankin suna na jimla. Sanin irin rud’anin da masu karatu kan samu a lokacin nazarin yankin sunan da d’an rakiya k’irgau yake raka suna shi ya sa wannan nazarin ya k’udurci bin sawun nau’o’in k’irgau na Zabarmanci daki-daki don fito da yanayin rakiyar da yake yi wa suna.

A kaso na farko za a kawo kalmomin lissafi, daga nan sai a nuna yadda kalmomin k’irgau kadina su biyo bayansu. Za a nuna yadda ake samun k’irgau odina na Zabarma da yadda yake gudana a cikin yankin suna. Haka kuma za a kawo nau’o’i kamar su; k’irgau ma’auni da na tambayau da na tsigalau da na amsa-kama da kuma na bai-d’aya. Za nuna yanayin rakiyarsu a yankin suna.

3.1 K’irgau Na Lissafi


Harshen Zarma kamar kowane harshe na duniya, shi ma yana da hanyar yin amfani da kalmomi don gudanar da lissafi. Zarma kamar harshen Hausa, yana da tsarin lissafi daga d’aya zuwa goma kamar haka:

ZARMA                                    HAUSA

Aho                                                   d’aya

Ihinka                                                biyu

Ihinza                                                uku

Itaki                                                   hud’u

Igu                                                    biyar

ZARMA                                    HAUSA

Iddu                                         shida

Iyye                                         bakwai

Ahakku                                    takwas

Yagga                                      tara

Iwai                                         goma

Wad’annan kalmomin su harshen Zarma ke amfani das u wajen lissafi daga d’aya zuwa goma. Harshen Zarma kamar na Hausa harshen yana da tsarin bayyana k’arin da aka samu bayan kalmar lissafi ta goma. A Hausa ana amfani da kalmar k’awatau ta ‘sha’. Amma a harshen Zarma kuwa ana amfani da ga’bar k’arshe ta kalmar adadin goma ne wajen bayyana k’arin da aka samu a kan goma wato’wai’ sannan a sake k’ara kalmar ‘kindi’ sannan kuma a yanke ga’bar farko ta adadin lissafi na d’aya zuwa biyar.Sauran ana kawo a cikakkun kalmomi. Ga yadda abin yake:

ZABARMA                                HAUSA

Wai kindi hoo                                    goma sha d’aya

Wai kindi hinka                                 goma sha biyu

Wai kindi hinza                                  goma sha uku

Wai kindi taaki                                   goma sha hud’u

Wai kindi guu                                    goma sha biyar

Wai kindi iddu                                   goma sha shida

Wai kindi iyye                                   goma sha bakwai

Wai kindi ahakkuu                             goma sha takwas

Wai kindi yaggaa                               goma sha tara

A nan za a kawo kalmomin lissafi da suka fara daga ashirin zu ashirin da tara. Harshen Zarma ya yi tarayya da na Hausa wajen amfani da kalmomin k’idayar da ake son yi wa k’ari. Idan goma ce za a fara da ambaton kalmar goma sannan a fad’i k’arin da aka yi mata haka abin yake a ashirin ko talatin ko arba’in, kusan duk gomiya haka ake bin su. Misali:

ZABARMA                                HAUSA

Waranka                                            ashirin

Waranka kindi hoo                             ashirin da d’aya

Waranka kindi hinka                          ashirin da biyu

Waranka kindi hinza                          ashirin da uku

Waranka kindi taakii                          ashirin da hud’u

Waranka kindi guu                             ashirin da biyar

ZABARMA                                HAUSA

Waranka kindi idduu                          ashirin da shida

Waranka kindi iyyee                          ashirin da bakwai

Waranka kindi ahakkuu                     ashirin da takwas

Waranka kindi oyaggaa                      ashirin da tara

Haka abin yake a dukkan lissafin da za a yi wa k’ari daga gomiya. Ta ‘bangare lissafi day a kai d’ari harshen Zarma kan kira kalmar d’arid a Zangu don haka kamar yadda ake bayyana adadin yawa d’aruruwan da ake magana a kan ta hanyar amfani da kalmomin adadi na d’aya zuwa tara haka abin yake a harshen Zarma. Misali:

 

ZABARMA                                        HAUSA

Zangu                                                                   d’ari

Zangu hinka                                                          d’ari biyu

Zangu hinza                                                          d’ari uku

Zangu taki                                                             d’ari hud’u

Zangu gu                                                               d’ari biyar

Zangu iddu                                                           d’ari shida

Zangu iyye                                                            d’ari bakwai

Zangu ahakku                                                       d’ari takwas

Zangu yaggu                                                         d’ari tara

Kalmar da ake amfani da ita wajen lissafin da adadin sa ya kai dubu kuwa a harshen Zarma ita ce ‘zambar’. Ana amfani da tsari k’idaya tun daga d’aya zuwa tara wajen ambaton adadin yawan dubunnan da ake son fad’i. Misali:

ZABARMA                                                HAUSA

Zambar hinka                                                        dubu biyu

Zambar hinza                                                        dubu uku

Zambar taki                                                 dubu hud’u

Zambar gu                                                            dubu biyar

Zambar iddu                                                dubu shida

Zambar iyyee                                                        dubu bakwai

Zambar ahakku                                                     dubu tawas

Zambar yaggu                                                       dubu tara

A wannan lissafin duk adadin da ake son k’arawa a saman dubu tun daga d’aya zuwa d’ari tara da casa’in da tara dole ne sai an yi amfani da d’afin ‘nda’.

3.2 K’irgau Odina (Ordinal System)


Harshen Zabarma ba kamar harshen Hausa ba ne ta fuskar nuna yanayi matakin kimar suna a lokacin amfani da k’irgau odina. Kalmomin k’irgau odina na zuwa ne kamar haka:

ZABARMA                                                HAUSA

Sangina/shintine                                                   na/ta farko

Ihinkante                                                              na/ta biyu

Ihinzante                                                               na/ta uku

Itakante                                                                 na/ta hud’u

Iggunte                                                                 na/ta biyar

Iddunte                                                       na/ta shida

Iyyante                                                        na/ta bakwai

Ahakkunte                                                  na/ta takwas

Yaggunte                                                    na/ta tara

Iwante                                                         na/ta goma

3.3 K’irgau Kadina (Cardinal Quantifier)


K’irgau kadina shi ne lambobin adadin lissafi ne da sukan biyo bayan suna a yankin suna don su bayyana adadinsa a lokacin da suke raka shi don yankin suna ya fad’ad’a. A Hausa akwai kalmomi irin su ‘d’aya’ ‘biyu’ ‘tara’ ‘bakwai’ ‘goma’ ‘ishirin’ ‘talatin’ ‘d’ari’ ‘dubu’ da makantansu. A hashen Zabarma kuwa akwai kalmomin irin su; ‘yagga’ ‘iyye’ ‘ahakku’ ‘iddu’ ‘iwai’ ‘waranka’ ‘zangu’ ‘zambar’. Duk wad’nnan kalmomin na iya zuwa tare da suna a yankin suna na jimla don su raka shi, ta hanyar fayyace adadinsa. Misali:

ZABARMA                        HAUSA

kuiya/manekuiyi iddu               riga/riguna shida

kwayiberi igu                           manyan riguna biyar

kway ikaina ihinka                   k’ananan riguna biyu

3.4 K’irgau Na Tambayau

Wannnan adadin na k’irgau na tambayau a harshen Hausa ana amfani da kalmar tambaya ta ’nawa?’ ne wajen
k’ok’arin fito da adadin sunan da yake raka wa. A harshen Zabarma kuwa ana amfani da kalmar ‘marge’ a matsayin Kalmar k’irgau tambayau wajen bayyana adadin suna a yankin suna na jimlar Zabarma. Misali

ZABARMA                        HAUSA

marge                                       ‘ tifar yashi nawa?’

ko

marge-marge                            nawa-nawa tifar yashi?

 

3.5 K’irgau Na Ma’auni


K’irgau na ma’auni ana amfani da sunan abin da aka auna suna gagara k’irga ne wajen bayyana adadin suna a yankin suna na jumla. Misalin kalmomin da ake amfani da su  na ma’auni su ne: ‘wuya’ ‘ mudu’ ‘tiya’ ‘buhu’. Ga yadda fasalin rakiyar take:

ZABARMA                        HAUSA

Sa’i                                                    mudu

Kwanabeeri                                       tiya

Kwalba                                              kwalba

Kwarfoo                                            iggiya

Tifa                                                   tifa

Mangala                                            mangala

Wad’annan  su ne kad’an daga cikin kalmomin k’irgau ma’auni da ake amfani da su a harshen Zabarma. Ga misalign su a cikin yankin suna:

ZABARMA                                HAUSA

Haamoo kwanabeeri foo                     dawa tiya d’aya

Hainii sai  iyyee                                 gero mudu d’aya

Manja kwalba iddu                            manja kwalba uku

‘Dansi mangala itaki                           gyada mangala biyu

Tasi tifa igu                                       yashi tifa hud’u

Fili kwarfoo zangu                             fegi/ fili kafa dari

3.6 K’IRGAU NA BAI-’DAYA


        A adadin k’irgau na bai-d’aya a harshen Hausa akwai kalmomi irin su; ‘duk’ dukka’ ‘yawa’ ‘ da dama’ ‘da yawa’ ‘kad’an’ ‘kad’ai’ da ake amfani da su wajen bayyana adadin suna jam’i a yankin suna na jimlar Hausa. A Harshen Zabarma kuwa akwai kalmomin irin su:

misalin rakiyarsu a yankin suna ita ce:

 

 

ZABARMA                                HAUSA

Farkai iboobo                           jakai da yawa

Zankai ikulu ikwai                    dukkan yaran sun tafi.

Mudum agasassabai                  wanduna da dama

mudum aigabaa ibobo              wanduna nake so da yawa

3.7 K’IRGAU NA MAIMAICI

Wannan nau’in yana d’auke ne da kalmomin adadin lissafi da ake maimaitawa, don samar da k’irgau na maimaici. Ana amfani da shi ne domin nuna adadin suna a yankin suna na jimlolin Hausa da na Zabarma.  Misali kalmomin daga harsunan biu su ne:

ZABARMA                                        HAUSA

Ihinka- hinka                                     biyu-biyu ko bibbiyu

Ihinza-hinza                                       uku-uku

Ahakku-hakku                                   takwas-takwas

Itaki-taki                                            hurhud’u ko hud’u-hud’u

Marge-marge?                                 nawa-nawa?

Misalin su a yankin suna:

ZABARMA                                        HAUSA

‘Damsi marge-marge?                        nawa-nawa gyad’a?

Wanna shi ne tsarin k’irgau na harshen Zabarma tare da misalan da aka kawo ta hanyar kwatanta shi da na harshen Hausa.

 

 

 

3.8 Nad’ewa


A wannan babin an tattauna kan nau’o’in k’irgau na Zabarma har guda bakwai. Da farko an kawo tsarin k’irgau na odina tare da misalan da aka bayar a yankin suna na sassauk’ar jimlar Zabarma, don bayyana yanayin yadda yake raka suna a cikinsa. Sai kuma aka jero kalmomin k’irgau kadina da yadda suke raka suna. A mataki na uku an kawo nau’in k’irgau tambayau tare da misalansa a yankin suna. An kawo nau’o’in k’irgau na ma’auni da na bai-d’aya da kuma na maimaici, tare da kwatanta su da na harshen Hausa.

 

 

 

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