Makamin Dimokrad’iyya A Falsafar Al’ada




 Amsoshi 


Daga


Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza


Department of Nigerian Languages


Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto


K’ibd’au: mabunza@yahoo.com


Waya: 0803 431 6508


 


https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/11/06/yunkurin-samar-da-zaman-lafiya-da-sasantawa-bincike-kan-wakar-zaman-lafiya-ta-bashir-musa-liman/



Gabatarwa:


 


Gudunmuwar al’ada ga ha’baka demokrad’iyya daji ne ba ka da gambu. Don haka, na za’bi in yi masa gambu:[i] “Makamin Dimokrad’iyya a Falfasar Al’ada”. Muradina shi ne, sai na harari makaman da ke a hannu. Mu ga irin kaifinsu, da rawar da suka taka ta gara jiya da yau. Daga nan, mu d’an link’ayi matsalolin da dimokrad’iyya take ciki a yau, da irin  barazanar da masu hangen nesa ke ganin za  a fuskanta. Idan shimfid’armu ta daidaitu, sai mu yi karan gwajin dahi da ma’aunin al’ada d’aya da muke ganin, zai yi wa matsalolin, da barazanar, walki daidai da kwankwasonsu. K’unshiyar kayan cikin wannan takarda, ba zau yi muna susa gurbin k’aik’ayi ba, sai mun yi fashin bak’in fitilun kalmominta, domin karen da ya yi cizo da gashin da ake magani.


 



Fashin bak’in matashiya:


Ga alama, matashiyarmu tana buk’atar tak’aitacciyar d’auraya ga kalmomin da suka had’a ta gabanin a doki garwa balbelu su san inda dare ya yi musu. Kalmomi hud’u na matashiya da ke son bita su ne: Makami da Demokrad’iyya da Falfasa da Al’ada. Idan aka farke layar wad’annan fitilun kalmomi, sauran bayanan da za su biyo baya, cikon suna ne makaho da waiwaye.


Makami kalma ce mai harshen damo.[ii] Asalin kalmar a Hausa, ‘suna’ ce, kuma tilo. Kalmar na d’aukar ma’anar makamar wani ani abu idan ya rikice, ko ya buwaya, ko ana buk’atar a daidaita shi, ko a tabbatar da shi, ko a sarrafa shi. A wata ma’ana, makami kan d’auki wasu abubuwan sarrafawa na itace, ko k’arafa, a fagen fad’a, ko yak’i, ko kare kai.[iii] Makamin kan d’aukar ma’anar makaman hak’o irin na kama kifi ko namun daji.[iv] A wata fassara, [v]yakan d’auki ma’anar wani asiri ko magani ko siddabaru na tunkarar wani abu. Fassarorin k’amusun Hausa[vi] da Turanci[vii] da Larabci[viii] duk sun kakkamo ire-iren wad’annan ma’anoni na kalmar “Makami”. A wannan tattaunawar, kalmar makami da nake son in sarrafa ta had’e ma’anonin biyu duka ta harshe (Luga) da ta hak’ik’a. Don haka nake kallon makami a matsayin:


Wata dabara ko salo ko asiri da za a sarrafa, ko aikata, ko d’abbak’a, domin kai ga wani buri na rayuwa. Idan don yak’i, ko fad’a, ko hak’o, aka yi shi, muradinsa tunkarar abin gadan-gadan har zuwa ga nasara. Idan makamin na ak’ida ne da ya shafi imanin mai shi, muradinsa tabbatar da manufar makamin da aka yi garkuwa da shi.


 


Tsarin Dimokrad’iyya na da makamai daban-daban na jawo hankalin jama’a da neman yardarsu, da ba da had’in kansu zuwa ga kafa ta. A ganin wannan takarda, dabarun da aka bi aka sarrafa makaman Dimokrad’iyyar Nijeriya, ba su ce komai ba an raki bak’o ya dawo. Ganin haka, nake son a jarrabawa gawurtaccen makamin al’ada d’aya a ga irin k’ok’arinsa. Gabanin haka, ya kyatu mu auna nauyin dimokrad’iyya mu ga ko makamin na yi mata warki daidai da kwankwasonta.


https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/11/06/sansamin-gamji-mai-cika-bakin-akuya-bitar-littafin-sanyinna-district-events-trends-turning-points/

 


 



Mece ce Dimokrad’iyya?


Tsaftataccen aro wata babbar alama ce ta bunk’asar harshe, da irin tozonsa, cikin bunk’asassun harsunan k’arninsa.[ix] Kalmar “Dimokrad’iyya” asali ba Bahaushiya ba ce. Hausawa sun aro ta daga Larabawa.[x] Larabawa suna da salon da suke Larabtar da kalmomi musamman sunaye, ta farkonsu, ko k’arshensu.[xi] Hak’ik’a, su ma Larabawa daga Turawa suka aro ta wato daga “Democracy.”[xii] Ga alama, su ma Turawa daga tsohon harshen Girkawa suka aro ta.[xiii] A mak’urar bincikena, Bagirkiyar kalma ce, ta rikid’a zuwa Baturiya, ta birkita kwanci zuwa Balarabiya ta sake siddabarun zama Bahaushiya. Wad’annan sauye-sauyen mazaunin bai dubultar da ma’anarta ta asali ba.[xiv]


A fassara,”Dimokrad’iya”ita ce tsarin gudanar shugabancin mutane,ta hanyar ba mutane cikakkiyar dammar za’ben wanda zai jagorance su.[xv] Wasu masana siyasa,cewa suka yi,tsari ne da tarsashin gurabun muk’amai na gwamnati ga hannun mutane yake na gaba d’aya gamin-gambiza.[xvi] Wad’annan dalilan ke sa ana yi mata kirari da, gwannanti ce da aka kafa bisa yardar mutane, tare da mutane, a kan shugabancin mutane.[xvii] Watak’ila, ire-iren wad’annan hasashe hasashe ne ya sa k’amusn Hausa ya fassara ta da:


Tafarkin mulki da mutanen k’asa ke za’bar shugabansu ta hanyar jefa k’uri’a.[xviii]


 


A al’adance, k’uri’ar da ake nufi a tsarin Dimokrad’iyya ba sai ta kati kawai ba. Haka kuma, ba sai an kafa wani fati ko k’ungiyar takara ba. Haka kuma, ba dole sai da wata hukumar za’be ba. Haka kuma, ba dole sai kowane d’an k’asa, ala tilas ya sa hannunsa ba. Babbar buk’ata ita ce, a samu mutanen da za a gudanar da gwannati da su. A samu amintarsu, a kan tsarin da za a shugabance su. A samu yardarsu, ga wanda za ya ja akalarsu, ta kowace fuska al’adarsu ta tanada musu. Bugu da k’ari, a samu sa hannunsu ga tafiyar da tsarin da suka yi imani da shi ba tare da wariya ko tilasatawa ba.[xix] Hak’ik’a, yunk’urin tafiyar da irin wannan tsari ba tare da limantar da al’adar mutanen k’asa ba, shi ake cewa, gaba kallo baya da mamaki. Duk wani irin makami da aka k’era, ko aka saya, ko aka ara, sai an tabbata, bisimillahi ba ta yankan kura, sai an gama da wayyo Allah! Gabanin mu zage makamin a kube ga hotonsa.


 



Mece ce al’ada?


Asalin kalmar “al’ada” daga Larabci take Hausawa suka Hausantar da ita suka fad’ad’a mata ma’ana.[xx] A Hausa kwatankwaciyar ta ita ce “gado” ko “gargajiya” ko “saaboo”. Abin da aka taras kaka da kakanni ya zama “gado”. Abin da aka gada kaka da kakanni shi ne “gargajiya”. Idan ya zama wa mutane jiki, ya nashe a tafarkin rayuwarsu, ga’b’bansu za su saba da su, ya zama “sabo” gare su. Abubuwan da suka shiga a rayuwa ta haka, su ne al’ada, a al’adance, a gejeruwar fassara.


A idon manazarta, mutane ke da al’ada. Al’adar ta mutane wadda ta k’unshi rayuwarsu, da ibadojinsu, da fasahohinsu. Fahintarsu, iliminsu, dokokinsu, falsafarsu, da tarbiyarsu duk suna cikin al’adunsu.[xxi] Labudda babu wata al’umma da ba ta da al’adun da ke tafiyar da rayuwar mutanenta, bisa ga saninta, ta yadda al’adar za ta yi amo gare ta tun haihuwar su har zuwa kabarinsu. A Tsarin Dokokin Al’adu na Nijeriya an ce, al’ada ita ce:


Tarsashin hanyoyin rayuwar mutane na yunk’ure-yunk’urensu wajen tunkarar abubuwan da ke yi wa rayuwarsu barazana wanda zai fassara rayuwar jin dad’insu siyasarsu zamantakewarsu, tattalin arzikinsu, sha’awarsu, da addininsu, da d’abi’u/halayensu, tsare-tsarensu, da shirye-shiryensu, wad’anda za su bambanta su da wasu ba su ba.[xxii]


 


Fassarar da Ma’aikatar Wayar da kai da Kula Al’adu ta Tarayya ta bayar ya fad’ad’a ma’anar Al’ada zuwa:


Al’ada ita ce, waiwaye adon tafiya ga rayuwar magabata. Ta k’unshi d’abi’un mutane zuwa ga makomar nagartattun al’adunsu na gado tare da fuskantar buk’atocin kimiyyar zamani wadda take wani babban makami na ci gaba da bunk’asa.[xxiii]


 


A Bahaushen hasashe, K’amusoshin Hausa fitattu sun ba da irin tasu ma’ana ta al’ada a idon Bahaushe. Ganin kasawarsu ga kai ga k’ololuwar ma’anar al’ada a mizanin nazari ya sa na wadatu da taron dangin da Hukumomin K’asa suka yi wa ma’anar al’ada. Hak’ik’a, bisa ga yalwatacciyar ma’anar al’adar, babu wani mahaluk’i da zai iya tunani wajen al’adarsa ko ya zarce al’adarsa. Kowane d’an Adam cikin al’adarsa yake rayuwa, a ciki yake lelawa, a ciki burace-buracensa suke. Ashe, babu dabara ko makamin kama mutum a ci moriyarsa idan ba a bi fuskar al’adarsa ba. Tunanin haka nake ganin al’adar mutane ta fi cancanta ta jagorance su, ba al’adar wasu ba. A cikin kowane ik’irar, ko aiki, ko ak’ida ta al’ada, ba sa rasa hikima a ciki ba. Hikimar da sirrin da ke ciki su ne “falsafa”.


 



Mene ne falsafa?


Irin yadda kalmar “Dimokrad’iyya” ta shigo Hausa duk haka nan “falsafa” ta shigo. Bahaushe ya aro ta ne daga Larabawa, su kuwa sun aro ta daga Turawa, su ko Turawa daga Latin suka aro ta.[xxiv] Ma’anarta daga asali bai sauya ba. A wajen Larabawa falfasa wani babban gida ne na azanci, da fasaha, da hangen nesa, da tunani, irin na hankalin tuwo. A wajen Turawa da Latinawa, haka abin yake. Falsafa wata makaranta ce ta bitar karatu, tare da taliyon hak’ik’ance yadda akalar karatu ke sarrafuwa ga rayuwa ta zahiri. Falsafa wata hanya ce ta k’ololuwar sha’awar ilmi da hikimar da ke k’unshe da shi.[xxv] A kowane al’amari falsafa na kallon mafari ko sanadinsa da dalilin samuwarsa tare da hujjojin da za su tabbatar da hasashen.[xxvi] A fagen nazari, falsafa kimiyyar kanta ce.[xxvii] Hangen falsafar Bahaushe, bai sa’ba ga ta Bature da Balarabe da Bagirke ko Balatine ba. Tattatare da sanin K’amusoshin Hausa ba su kula da kalmar ba a hangensu, za mu iya cewa:


A wajen Bahaushe, falsafa ita ce, k’ololuwar basirar k’yallaro dalilan faruwar abubuwa da hasashen fassarorinsu na kusa da nesa, bisa ga dalilan hankalin tuwo domin su yi canjaras da al’adun mutanensu. Falsafa kimiyyar hasashe ce, mai tafiya da al’adun mai hasashe, da al’adar rayuwa da aka saba da ita. Falsafa karatun mutanen jiya ne, da ya gagari mutanen yau saukewa, ya zama maganad’isun rayuwar matanen gobe.[xxviii]


 


Idan za a yi hasashen falsafar Bahaushe, dole a dubi adabinsa na baka, da camfe-camfensa, da taje-tajensa, da nau’o’in bautarsa, da warkarwarsa, da tattalin arzikinsa, da tsarin siyasar zamantakewarsa. Sanin cewa, rayuwarsa ta gargajiya gaba d’aya a kan falsafarsa yake tafiyar da su, na ga ya dace in yi garkuwa da falsafa d’aya, in tunkari muradina, gudun ka da a yi kwasan karan mahaukaciya.


 



Makaman Dimukrad’iyya:


Masu yekuwar su ne iyayen gijin Dimokrad’iyya a duniyarmu ta yau, suna da makamai na musamman da suke sarrafawa wajen kafa ta. Babban makaminta shi ne, jama’a masu rinjaye na hak’ik’a ko akasin haka.[xxix] Da wad’annan jama’a za a la’be k’ark’ashin k’ungiya d’aya, da sunan ita ce k’ungiyar jama’a masu rinjaye. Cikin wannan rugumutsi, za a yi amfani da k’arfin mulkin da aka tarar, ko tsarin da aka tarar, a yi makami da shi, a yi wa talaka da moro barazana.[xxx] Daga nan, makaman k’abilanci da ‘bangaranci da yanki su yi katutu.[xxxi] Makamin addini wani gawurtacce ne a wurin da aka ga yana da k’ima ga jama’a.[xxxii] Bugu da k’ari, amfani da kud’i da k’azafi da yaudara da su za a yi garkuwa ga yak’in neman za’be.[xxxiii] Idan aka ga hasashen da aka yi d’uri da su, za su k’are, sai a fito da banga ta duka, da kisa, da d’auri, da sa gudun hijira, da tawaye, da zanga-zanga, da nau’o’in ta’addanci daban-daban.[xxxiv] Za a yi tsayin daka a kafa gwannanti harantacciya a k’a’idance, da sunan halastacciya, a magud’ance. Da wanda aka d’ora a kan karaga, da wad’anda suka ce ya ci, suka d’ora shi, da ‘yan k’ungiya/ fatin da ake k’ark’ashinsa, da ‘yan goyon baya, duk an san k’uddaranci da aka yi aka kai ga mulki.[xxxv] Makaman da aka sarrafa aka hau karaga, za su ci gaba da aiki na bi-ta-da-k’ulli, irin na k’aik’ayi ya koma kan mashek’iya.[xxxvi] Bisa ga wad’annan hasashe-hasashe, nake ganin, makaman sun kasa biyan buk’atar tsarin. Bayan kwalliya ba ta biya sabunu ba, sai baya ta haihu, da matsaloli barkatai.


https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/11/06/basarake-wakokin-sani-aliyu-dandawo/

Matsalolin makaman Dimokrad’iyya:


Had’arin yak’i da makamai masu guba, ko an ci nasara, bi-ta-da-k’ullin da zai biyo baya na gubar makaman da aka sarrafa wani sabon artabu ne. Na farko, k’arfin mulkin da aka yi amfani da shi, zai haifar da rashawa da cin hanci da handama da babakere ga gwannatin da aka kafa.[xxxvii] Wad’anda suka kafa ta adashi aka yi da su, dole a bari su kwashe kashinsu.[xxxviii] Abin da zai biyo baya, ta’bar’barewar shugabanci.[xxxix] Ana cikin haka, za a fara wofintar da ilmi da k’warewa sai ma’aikatun gwannati su durk’usa. Wannan zai haifar da masassara ga dokokin k’asa zazza’bi ya rufe ma’aikatun shari’a, sai tsaro ya buwayi ma’aikatun tsaro gaba ta koma baya, fargabar makomar k’asa da mutanen da ke cikinta, ya zama kulli yaumin abin farfaganda a kafafen yad’a labarai.


 



Barazanar bi-ta-da-k’ullin makaman k’are dangi:


Dimokrad’iyya da aka kafa da makaman k’are dangi irin wad’anda muka lisafa, bi-ta-da-k’ullinsu zai haifar da barazana ga k’asa da jama’arta. Barazana ta farko ita ce, d’ar-d’ar na yiwuwar dogewar k’asar ko ‘barkewarta kowane allazi ya ja nasa amanu. Abin da ke haifar da wannan tsoro shi ne, za a kasance koyaushe cikin zubar da jini da sunan addini da k’abilanci da ‘bangaranci da siyasa.[xl] Masu jefa k’uri’a na rege yawa, masu neman kujera na k’ara yawa.[xli] A irin wannan hali, za a samu juyin mulki maras tsari da zai iya haifar da yak’in basasa,[xlii] ko juyin-juya hali na marasa ilmin siyasa da shugabanci.[xliii] Narambad’a ya ta’ba hasashen irin wannan matsalar ga masarautar Isa yana cewa:


Jagora:      Dankali a ciki ka a kushe na Moyi


:Gando kaka ran da kah hwashe


Yara:                  Ran nan sai ka iske kowa na dawara


:Ruwa sun cika karkara


Gindi:                Na rabu da ganin Amali


:Yau na zaka in ganai


:Dad’in Tudu ya kamata


:Dad’in Tudu hank’uri


 



Makaman al’ada:


Kure ne babba ga masu ganin wai ba mu da tsarin dimokrad’iyya a tsarin siyasar k’asashenmu sai da Turawa suka shigo da ita.[xliv] Idan za a yi wa al’ada adalci, su kansu Turawan Biritaniya ai aro ta suka yi daga Girkawa. To! Gabanin su aro ta da me suke amfani? Mu da ake kuwwar an kawo muna tsarin, da wane tsari aka tarar da mu? Da ba a tarar da mu a kan wani tsari da ya cancance mu ba, da sakad’a muna wani sabon tsari a ci nasara a kanmu, yana da wuya ainun.[xlv] Idan aka dubi tarihin fitattun daulolinmu da irin gwagwamaryar da suka yi da junansu, da magabatansu, na ciki, da waje, tilas a yarda da zancen Gambo mai ‘barayi da ke cewa:


Jagora:      Dole nakiya ta yi zak’i Sanda Ummaru


       :Don da zuma aka fara yin ta


 


Babu shakka, idan aka waiwayi tarihim aka dubi irin shimfid’ar da Gobirawa suka yi wa daularsu.[xlvi] Da irin tsaron da ke ga daular Kabi.[xlvii] Da yadda aka sama wa Zamfara farfajiyar zama.[xlviii] Da yadda Zazzau ta jure wa hare-haren ciki da waje.[xlix] Da irin ficen da daular Katsina ta yi.[l] Da kasancewar Kano gambun Hausa.[li] Yadda D’anbaskore da Tsaga Rana suka shugabanci Marad’i D’ankulodo ya gaje su.[lii] Da kirarin da ake yi wa Daura na tushen Hausa.[liii] Masana tarihi da siyasa tuni suka aminta da kasancewarsu gwannatoci masu cin gashin kansu bisa ga tsarin dimokrad’iyya irin tasu.[liv]


Idan ba shafa da ma’anar Dimokrad’iyya da muka gabatar ba, za a ga tsarin sarautun k’asar Hausa bisa hanya suke. Sarautun k’asar Hausa taron dangi ne.[lv] bayan uban k’asa, kowane gari da sarkinsa. Kowace unguwa da shugabanta, kowace sana’a da shugabanta. Kowace albarka ta k’asa da shugabanta. Mata na da shugaba, samari na da nasu, gwauraye na da nasu, bak’i na da nasu, masu laifi da nasu, kuma duk ba babban sarki ke da iko a kan za’bensu ba. Za’bar su jama’arsu za su yi, su kai wa sarki, ya tabbatar da za’bensu, ya sa albarka, ya yi nad’i.[lvi] Da wannan Dimokrad’iyya aka tarar da k’asar Hausa tun gabanin saduwarta da kowace k’abila, ko al’umma, da ke jin, tana da wani wayewa a kanta.


A tsarin tafiyar da tsarin siyasar shugabanci a k’asar Hausa, bisa ga al’adar Bahaushe, akwai tsare-tsaren da al’ada ta tanada. Tsare-tsaren da al’ada ta tanada su ne makamanta, irin makaman da dimokrad’iyya ke tink’aho da su. Daga cikin makaman ana son shugaba ya zan: Baligi, mai hankali, mai lafiyayyun ga’b’bai, masani k’asar da mutanenta, jarumi, sananne, mai hak’uri, d’an gado, mai aure, mai wayo, ku’butaccen da keta haddi al’ada, uwa uba, dole ya kasance mai gaskiya abin gaskatawa. Duk wani sharad’i na zama sarki, ko shugaba, na kowace irin sarauta k’asar Hausa, “gaskiya” ita ce makamin al’ada na farko da za a duba. Idan aka rasa ta, komai ya lalace, ba ta da sauran gyara mai neman beli ya mari uwar alk’ali. A wajen Bahaushe, gaskiya ita ce makamin kowane irin yak’i. Ita ce maganad’ison kowace sarauta. Ita ce jagorar kowace irin al’umma. Mayak’i duk ya rasa makamin gaskiya cikin makamansa, an gama cin sa yak’i, domin Bahaushe cewa ya yi, gaskiya ka fad’a ba sanda. Don haka, ita ce makamin da nake son gwada tsawo da Dimokrad’iyya a ga wanda zai cira wani tsawo.


 



Gurbin gaskiya a gabacin Bahaushe:


Idan Bahaushe ya ce “gabaci” yana nufin shugabanci na kowane iri. Shugabancin na shekaru ne, ko sani, ko fasaha, ko sarauta da dai sauransu. A tsarin shugabancin Bahaushe, babu makamin da ya kai “gaskiya” tsawo, da tagomashi, da inganci, da fad’i, da cika ido, da nagarta, da dogewa, da kai ga buri ba tare da jin kunyar kowa ba. Gabanin mu fito da irin k’arfin wannan makamin ya kamata mu fayyace sunansa sarai.


 


Ma’anar gaskiya:


Sunan da gaskiya ta yi, ya sa ba ta neman wani k’arin bayani, da an ambace ta. Watak’ila wannan ce ta sa, idan an ce wa Bahaushe mece ce gaskiya? za a ji ya ce: “Gaskiya sunanta gaskiya”, wai a tunaninsa kowa ya san ta, sanin abinci. A wajen Larabawa sunanta “alhak’k’u”, da wannan suna Allah ya kira littafinsa Al’k’ur’ani.[lvii] A wajen Turawa sunanta “truth” duk wani abu na hak’ik’a, na asali, na tabbas, na daidai, na ya kamata, yana ciki.[lviii] A iya bincikena, babu harshen da ba ya da kalmar gaskiya ta asali a harshensa.[lix] A hangen K’amusun Hausa, gaskiya ita ce:


Nuna ko fad’ar ko aikata abu a ainihin yadda yake. Gaskata amince ko yarda.[lx]


 


Fassarar Bargery ba ta yi nisa da ta K’amusun Hausa ba. A fassararsa, kalmar “truth” kad’ai ya kawo a fassarar domin kasancewar ta sananniya.[lxi] Da za a ba da kandamemen ma’anar gaskiya a hangen Bahaushe za mu iya cewa:


Fad’ar abu yadda aka ji shi ko aka san shi, ko yadda yake, ko yadda aka saba da shi, ko yadda za a gane shi. Shaidar abu, yadda aka ji samatarsa in an ta’ba shi, ko shak’a shi, ko lasa shi, ko d’and’ana shi, ko aka zuk’e shi, ko aka sunsune shi. Ta fuskar aikatawa kuwa, ya zamo yadda aka saba aikata shi, ko yadda ya kamata a aikata shi, ko yadda aka ce, a aikata shi. Bin diddigin wad’annan hasashe-hasashe a lafazance da aikace shi ake ce wa gaskiya.[lxii]


 


Wannan ita ce gaskiya, kuma ita ce al’adar da Bahaushe ke yabo da fad’ar, ba ta neman ado ko zak’in muryar zabiya. Wanda duk ya kiyaye zancensa a kan tafarkinta. Ya tsarkake ayyukansa bisa ga yadda take, shi ne mai gaskiya abin gaskatawa a wajen Bahaushe.


 



Gaskiya a dimokrad’iyya


Hausawa cewa suka yi, da tsohon zuma ake maganai. An dai tabbatar da cewa, gaskiya ta tsufa domin ta girmi duk wani mai son ta, da mai son mai fad’arta, ko aikata ta, haka ma masu fad’ar ta, ko aikata ta. Tattare da irin tsufanta, da k’urciyar dimokrad’iyya, a koyaushe, a kowace k’asa, a kowace al’umma, a kowane tsari na dimokrad’iyya, da na kishiyar dimokrad’iyya, da gaskiya ake kirari, da ita ake tallar d’an takara, da ita ake tallar fatinsa, da ita ake tallar manufofin fatinsa. Gaskiyar Kassu Zurmi da yake cewa:


Jagora:      Gaskiya mugunyar magana


       :Ba a son ki sai kin tsufa.[lxiii]


(Wak’ar ‘Yan Jabada)


 


Halin Bahaushe da aka sani na son gaskiya, ya sa jam’iyyun siyasar dimokrad’iyyar zamani ke amfani da sunanta domin kiran kasuwa. A zamanin Jamhuriyya ta farko ana yi wa Abubakar Tafawa ‘Balewa, kirari da: “Gaskiya nagartar namiji”, irin wannan kirarin aka sake dawowa da shi ga Marigayi Hassan Usman Katsina.[lxiv] A tak’aice, kalmomin kirarin kowane fatin siyasar zamani, idan aka hau karagar yekuwar neman za’be, ita ce: “Nijeriya sai mai gaskiya.” Abin mamaki, ba za ka ji wani Janar na Soja ya hau doron ya ce, “Nijeriya sai soja.” Haka ba za ka ji wani goggagen d’an boko ya hau, a ce: “Nijeriya sai manyan ‘yan boko.” Ba za a d’ora wani mai addini a ce: “Nijeriya sai Ustaz ko Pastor ba.” Wani d’an kasuwa ba zai hau a ce: “Nijeriya sai mai Nera.” Ba za ka ji Nijeriya sai matasa ba ko Nijeriya sai Tsofafi, ko Nijeriya sai mata, ko sai maza ba. Don me ya sa haka? Dalili kuwa shi ne, duk ire-iren wad’annan mutane, sun rik’a an gani babu nagari ga iccen kabari. Mutane sun gane, babu abin da ke ceto su sai “gaskiya” da wanda zai limantar da ita ga tsarin tafiyar da mulkinsa. Da za a samu shugaba mai gaskiya ya hau, da dukkanin rikice-rikicen addini da k’abilanci da siyasa sun zama tarihi.


 



Nauyin gaskiya a sikelin dimokrad’iyya:


Tsarin dimokrad’iyya sa son mutane masu ilmi domin su yi amfani da ilminsu, su za’bo mutumin kirki[lxv] mai basirar da zai ciyar da k’asa gaba. Ana buk’atar namijin tsaye, jarumi, mai yi wa k’asa hidima da kare ta. Ana buk’atar, gogagge da d’awainiyar shugabanci ba za ta firgita shi ba. Ana buk’atar, mai amana da iya rik’on ta. Amana da rik’onta, ya fi jaruntaka da gogewa da ilmi nauyi a sikelin Dimokrad’iyya. Amana zafi ke gare ta, ba ta rik’uwa sai ga mai gaskiya. Ai wannan ne dalilin da ya sa, a sikelin siyasa akan sa gaskiya gaba a ce: “Ga mai gaskiya da rik’on amana.” Idan jam’iyya ta rasa gaskiya, ko zakaranta ya rasa gaskiya, ko magoya bayanta suka rasa gaskiya, batu ya lalace idan Bahaushe ake neman goyon bayansu. Nauyin da ke ga gaskiya ya sa, a ko’ina mai ita ya fito takara, bin sa Bahaushe ke yi, domin ya fi jam’iyyarsa nauyi saboda gaskiyar da ya runguma. A al’adar Bahaushe, idan kifi ya tashi lalacewa, ga kai yake ru’bewa. Idan kai bai lalace ba gangar jiki za ta ciwu. To! Haka gaskiya take ga jagora, da an samu mai ita, shi zai tsarkake al’umma, matuk’ar an ba shi dama. Narambad’a ya tabbatar muna da haka a Bakandamiyarsa da ya ce:


Jagora:      Na hore ki gaskiya bari tsoron k’arya


:Mai k’arya, munafuki Allah su Yak’ k’i


:Har yau ba mu inda an ka yi mai k’arya ba


Jagora/Yara:       Amma ita gaskiya gari da mutane tay yi


Gindi:                Gwarzon Shamaki na Malam toron giwa


:Baban Dodo ba a tamma da batun banza


 


Narambad’a na tabbatar da cewa, babu wani tsari na shugabanci da zai nare, ya doge, idan gaskiya ba ta zauna cikinsa kane-kane ba. Haka kuma, a ganinsa, samun gaskiya ga shugaba ya fi tasiri ga kowane tsari.


 



Daidaita dokoki da tabbatar da tsare su:


Babbar matsalar da ke ci wa dimokrad’iyya tuwo a k’warya ita ce, tabbatar da bin dokokin k’asa, da tsare su, a kan martabarsu. A al’adar gaskiya, Bahaushe na cewa, doka da gida takan fara. Abin nufi a nan shi ne, ka da mai dokar barci ya koma angaje har a ji hansarinsa. Idan dokokin k’asa suka kasance tsumangiyar kan hanya, fyad’e yaro, fyad’e babba. Gaskiya za ta sa aiwatar da hukance-hukuncen k’asa ya zamo ba sani ba sabo. Da ma kirarin alk’ali shi ne, kuliya manta sabo. Gaskiyar hukunci ita ce, sabo da kaza ba ya hana yanka ta. A al’adar Bahaushe, idan aka yanke hukunci, aka daidaita a kan magana d’aya, shugaba mai gaskiya zai tsaya sau da k’asa, sai an bi abin da aka yi ittifak’i a kai. Rashin samun shugaba mai yin tsaye a kan gaskiya shi ne musabbabin durk’usawar tsarin dimokrad’iyyar zamaninmu. Malamin kid’i Narambad’a cewa ya yi:


Jagora:      Duka sarkin da kas sani


:Basaraken da kas sani


:Amadu ya fi shi k’ane shiryayye


:Babu batun banza kuma babu sakewa


Yara:                  Kuma in yai tsaye ba mai kausai


Gindi:                Na rik’a ka da girma Audu k’anen Maidaga


:Kan da mu san kowa kai mun ka sani Sardauna


 



K’imar gaskiya a zukatan Hausawa:


Gaskiya wata furen kallon Bahaushe ce, wanda ya sa, hatta da wanda ba ya da ita, yana son a yi masa ita.[lxvi] Zuciyar Bahaushe ita ke k’unshe al’adunsa na gargajiya. A al’adar Bahaushe, gaskiya ita ce mutum, da mutum ya rasa ta, ba mutum ba ne a idon Bahaushe. Mai gaskiya, a al’ada, shi ne namijin duniya, mazajen da ke raye a zamaninsa, mata ne, ko yaransa ne, idan ba su yi fice da gaskiya ba. Wani misali abin bugawa a nan shi ne, wani d’an siyasa wanda ya yi takarar kujerar Shugaban k’asa a Nijeriya, a shekarar 2003 da 2007 da 2011, ya je wani k’auye yak’in neman k’uri’a, a jawabin da ya yi wa matan da suka tarbe shi ya ce:


Ku fito ku fake, ku tsare, ku raka. In sun ba ku kud’i, ku kar’ba, ku ci, naku ne, aka ba ku, ku kad’a wa wanda kuka tabbatar ya cancanta ya shugabance ku.[lxvii]


 


A cikin taron, sai d’an jaridar BBC ya yi hira da wata mata yana gaya mata cewa, ke ji gaskiya, duk wanda ya ba ku kud’i ku kar’ba, ku jefa k’uri’arku wurin da za a cece ku. Matar ta ce: “Haba! Yaya za mu kar’bi kayan mutum, turame da kud’i, kuma mu k’i kad’a masa? Ai mun yi rashin gaskiya, ko? Ka ga ko bai dace ba.” Irin tasirin da gaskiya ta yi a zukatan Hausawa, ya sa suke ganin, dole ne ko maras gaskiya, su yi masa gaskiya, su bar shi can da halinsa. Masu irin wannan ak’ida idan sun dace da shugaban da ya dace da su, da wace k’asa ce ba za su gwada tsawon ci gaba ba? Kaico! Allah wadaran naka ya lalace in ji ‘bauna da ta ga shanun noma.


 



Shekarun gaskiya:


A al’adar Bahaushe, ana gadon gaskiya, sai dai tana da shekarun da ya kamata a ce, ko ana takin sak’a da ita, da an kai su, a dawo mata. A kan yi wa yaro horo na tsawa, da bud’e ido, da sako, da Allah wadaran, idan an ji ya furta zancen da ya sa’ba wa gaskiya, ko ya aikata aiki irin na marasa gaskiya. Idan yaro ya kai shekarun a yi masa aure, a je yak’i da shi, a raba gandu da shi, a raba danga da shi, ya isa shekarun shiga cikin magabata, kuma ya cancanci a ba shi gabaci kamar dai yadda dimokrad’iyyar yau ke fad’a. Duk da haka, komai gaskiyar yaro, ana son ya shiga shekaru 45 – 50 ya shiga cikin dotti’ben matasan zamaninsa. Idan ya haura sittin, ya cancanci a saurare shi a ko’ina, domin kauce wa tafarkin gaskiya a wad’annan shekarun ya fi annoba, da ambaliya, da gobara muni ga al’umma. Da zarar ya furta magana aka musanta shi, sai kuka.[lxviii] Idan ya ce, a yi, aka k’i, sai hawaye. Don me? Domin al’ada ba ta kallonsa da wani ido, face na gaskiya. Da ya fand’are mata zai rasa abokin zama, zai rasa yara, zai rasa abokan huld’a, ba mai ba shi ajiya, bale kalihu, ko sa shi gaba a wata harakar jagorantar al’umma. A wajen Bahaushen jiya, ko ya gaji shugabanci, rashin gaskiyar da yake da ita, ta fitar da shi cikin dangi.[lxix]


Makad’a Narambad’a ya yi muna hannunka mai sanda a “Wak’ar Ya Ci Maza”, ya ce:


Jagora:      Na bar k’arya ko ina kid’i


:Na aje k’arya ko ina kid’i


:Nai sittin saba’in nika hwad’a


Yara:                  Mai saba’in yai k’arya


:Ana ta zund’e nai


:Ko yaran da ag garai


:Dut warwatse mishi sukai


:Shina yawo shi d’ai ‘baro-’baro!


Gindi:                Ya ci maza yak wan shina shiri


:Uban zaka dodo na Amadu


 


Mu d’ora wad’annan d’iyan wak’a a kan tsarin shugabannin da dimokrad’iyya ta d’ora muna a yau. Idan za a bi hasashen Narambad’a, a waste wa duk wanda ya yi k’arya, ya k’i gaskiya, wane shugaba zai kawo kujerar maza’barsa? To! Yau su ne shugabanninmu, d’aka gumi, waje sanyi, gado kazunzunmi, zani ga k’yaya. Wayyo Allah!


 



Zumuntar gaskiya da amana:


A Hausance gaskiya ita ce, “Amana”. Wanda duk ya rasa gaskiya, ya rasa amana. Wanda ba ya da amana, ba tare da gaskiya suke tafiya ba. A wajen Bahaushe, mai gaskiya ake ba amanar tsaron dukiya. Shi ake shugabantarwa ga shaidar bashi, da rance, da aro, da jingina, da kyauta, da musaya, da kalihu, da duk wani hak’k’in da ke jiran lokacinsa. Mai gaskiya ake ba sak’o, da ajiyar tsintuwa, a same su yadda suke, a kuma yarda da duk wani ru’bushi[lxx] da ya faru ga abin. Ire-iren wad’annan darajoji na mai gaskiya su ne falsafar karuruwan magana irin su: Ikon Allah kare da tallar tsire[lxxi], da D’a na barin halas don kunya[lxxii], da Mai hak’uri yakan dafa dutse[lxxiii], da dai sauransu. Buk’atarsu tabbatar da cewa, ba za a zama mai gaskiya ba, sai an nisanci son rai, da hak’urin rik’on amana a lokacin da rik’onta ke da tsananin wahala ga marik’in da sauran jama’a. idan jama’a suka ga wuyar abu, wanda suka tunkara ya rik’a musu, ko ya duba musu abin, sun aminta da ya fi su, ya cancanci ya jagorance su. Irin su ne ake yabo da: Ka yi an gani, mazan jiya, na dauri ba ku da raggo, a sa ku a huta, da dai makamantansu.


Kowane irin shugaba, ko basarake, ko jagora, Bahaushe zai za’ba, sai ya gwada tsawonsa da gaskiya. Bahaushe ba zai damu da asalinsa ba, ko gidan da ya fito, ko kyawonsa, ko wata martaba tasa ta can daban,[lxxiv] matuk’ar ya tabbata ko aka tabbata masa ba mai gaskiya ba ne, zai jaye jiragensa. Makamin martabarsa, ba ta rud’a shi ba, domin mafi yawan sarautunsa na amana bayi ake ba masu amana da gaskiya, a bar d’a maras gaskiya. Jaruntakar mutum, ba ta burge Bahasuhe in ba mai gaskiya ba ne, domin ya san, gaskiya ka fad’a ba sanda ba. Dad’in bakin jawabi ba ya rud’a shi, domin cewa yake, gaskiya mugunyar magana, ko gaskiya mai d’aci, abu ba dad’i kamar gaskiya.[lxxv] A ganin Bahaushe, gaskiya ita ce magana, komai dad’in magana in babu gaskiya ciki maganar banza ce.[lxxvi] A fagen yekuwar neman jama’a, Bahaushe na ganin gaskiya ba ta neman ado ko zak’in muryar zabiya. Da an tsayar da mai gaskiya, ba sai an yi wa Bahaushe kamfen da kid’a, da wak’a, da hawan durum da kirari, da d’aga hannun d’an takara, da tallar hotonsa ba, domin yana da ak’idar cewa, gaskiya nagartar namiji.


 



Hoton gaskiya a falsafar al’ada:


A falsafar Bahaushe, gaskiya ta riga duk wani abu da d’an Adam ya gani a duniya. Bisa k’addara, ya yi mata lamirin mace, domin sanin ita ta haifi kowa, tattare da sanin ita ma haihuwarta aka yi.[lxxvii] Ya kasa ba ta wani launi, duk da yake, yana dawara tsakanin fari da bak’i.[lxxviii] A d’and’ano, bai aminta tana da zak’i, da gard’i, da tsami, da baushi ba, a ganinsa d’aci gare ta ga bakin ‘yan adawa, a bakin ma’abotanta ta fi zuma zak’i.[lxxix] A zatinta, yana hasashen doguwa ce, domin kishiyarta ya ce raminta k’urarrare ne.[lxxx] Ga d’abi’a, ya ce, ba ta tsoro da fargaba gaban kowa, domin cewa yake, ciki da gaskiya wuk’a ba ta huda shi. A fagen artabu, ita ce yak’i, Hausawa cewa suka yi, gaskiyar fad’a harsashi.


A falsafar Bahaushe, bai sifanta gaskiya da kowace irin dabba ba. Ya san giwa bukkar daji ce, amma ganin takan kwaso karan gonan wani ta kai ma wani, ya ga ta yi aikin kinin gaskiya.[lxxxi] Ya san zaki sarkin dabbobi ne, cikin sarautar akan yi ci da k’arfi.[lxxxii] Tsananin rashin gaskiyan kura ya sa yake cewa, yi miki duhu yanzu abin wani ya ‘bata. A fagen tsuntsaye, da shao, da shirwa, da zar’be, da jimina duk Bahaushe bai ga sun yi kama da gaskiya ba. Haka a cikin k’wari, babu na gari ga icen kabari. Don haka, ya bar ta a matsayinta na mata kuma ba matar kowa ba, sai mai hali irin nata. Hak’ik’a, nagartacciyar mata ce, mai Koran kishiya don kirarinta shi ne, gaskiya mai Koran k’arya. A kinaya, gaskiya kyakkyawar mata ce, mai ado mai jan hankali, kuma da kyawonta take tsufa, saboda haka, duk wata mata ba ita ba, da ta tsufa, ta rakwa’be, don haka yake cewa kishiyoyinta, k’arya fure take ba ta ‘ya’ya. A dimokrad’iyyar Bahaushe, ya fid a son ya za’bi mai gaskiya, wanda ko ya mutu ya bar abin misali. Duk shugaba da Bahaushe bai yaba da gaskiya ba, yabon bai yi ba, yana das aura. Duk shugaban da yabon Bahaushe ya shaide shi da gaskiya, ya gama suna a k’asar Hausa, da duniyar Bahaushe, har a nad’e a dangane.


 



Mararen gaskiya a dimokrad’iyya:


Kowace dimokrad’iyya, to kowace zamani, a kowace k’asa, a kowace al’umma, so take ta kusanto da gwannati kusa ga jama’arta. Haka kuma, babban burinta shi ne, a yi dokokin da za su dace da zamanin mutanensu, a tsare dokokin bisa gaskiya. Wannan ne dalilin fito da salon ba jama’a dama su kafa jam’iyyun siyasa, su yi musu sunayen da suka dace da k’udurorinsu. A kafa hukumar za’be mai cin gashin kanta. Kowa ya za’bi d’an takarar da ya ga zai tsare masa k’udurorinsa na gaskiya. A fafitikar za’be a fito da katin jefa k’uri’a wani lokaci a yi ‘yar tink’e, domin tantance wanda ya ci nasara. Idan da k’uri’a d’aya, aka tsere abokin hamayya, cikin k’uri’u biliyan, an rinjaye shi. Kasawar da al’adar Bahaushe ke hange a nan ita ce, an yi kuren kyawo tun ranar haihuwa. Ba a tantance gaskiyar wad’anda za a bai wa hukumar za’be mai cin gashin kanta ba. Ba da sunan mutum ya tabbata mai gaskiya ake ba shi shugaban jam’iyyar siyasa ba. Sunan “gaskiya” ‘baro-’baro ba ya daga cikin abubuwan da za a tantance d’an takara a kansu. A ganin al’adar Bahaushe, da dai an za’bi masu gaskiya, su nemo mafi gaskiya a cikinsu, ya shugabanci k’asa, irin yadda sarki yake yi a za’ben shugabanninsa na gargajiya, da batun ta-zarce, da ta-lank’washe, da sauya shek’a daga wata jam’iyya zuwa wata, ba ta taso ba.


A ganin Bahaushe, gabaci na dattawa ne. dattawa su suka fi kowa kusa da gaskiya. Idan an bai wa dattawa za’bo dattijo cikinsu, domin a yi aikin dattako, babu sauran kukurukudu! Inyamuri ya harbe kurciya. A yau, an had’a mashaya, da tsofaffin masu laifi, da fitattun marasa kunya, da sanannun maciya amana, da gogaggun mak’aryata, da dak’ik’an takkwallai, a ce, su za’bo shugaba, an san ba ta mutu ba ta ‘balgace, an ce tashi bisa k’asa koma bisa da’be, an yi gudun gara an fad’a ragi, an yi zagege in ji D’anfulani, da ya fad’o kan giginya ya zarce cikin rijiya. Da an bai wa wand’anda suka san gaskiya, za’ben mai gaskiya, an huta da d’irkaniya mota cikin randa. Wa ya fi gaskiya sanin gaskiya? Ai mata ta san mijinta ko daji ta gane shi, komai taron maza tana bambanta shi. Tabbas! Bahaushe cewa ya yi, daga k’in gaskiya sai ‘bata. Anya! Dimokrad’iyyarmu ba ta shiga cikin wannan hali ba?


https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/11/06/yunkurin-samar-da-zaman-lafiya-da-sasantawa-bincike-kan-wakar-zaman-lafiya-ta-bashir-musa-liman/

Sakamakon nazari:


Kafa dimokrad’iyya ta hanyar jam’iyyun siyasa bai da alamun ceto wannan k’asa cikin halin da ta fad’a.[lxxxiii] Mulkin kama karya, irin na soja, rabon fad’an sarkin Aljan ne.[lxxxiv] juyin-juya hali, irin na matasan k’asa, na iya kai mu ga rufin kan uwar Dad’i.[lxxxv] Barin k’asa tana ragaita tsakanin mak’abarta da asibiti k’arshenta mak’abarta a shiga barcin da ba hansari.[lxxxvi] Makirtacciyar dimokrad’iyya cikin rigar k’abilanci da ‘bangaranci bud’a k’ofar yak’in basasa ne mai dabirta muna lisafi.[lxxxvii] Aron tsarin wata al’umma da ta d’ora tsarinta kan al’adunta, da matsalolinta, da manufofinta, ba zai dace da namu al’adu da matsaloli da manufofi ba.[lxxxviii] Gayyato bak’o rabon fad’an ‘yan gida da ta’barya kan mai uwa da wabi za a yi.[lxxxix] A ganina, kowace al’umma da ke a k’asarmu yau, tana da addini, tana da al’ada. Cikin al’adunmu da addinanamu “gaskiya” ita ce ginshik’insu.[xc] To! Me zai hana mu kai na hannu gida gabanin mu dawo mu kama na dawa? Babu d’an Nijeriyan da za a taya wa gaskiya, ya kawar da kai, ko da kuwa ba a kanta yake ba. Da an bar mu, muka jarraba al’adunmu, da muka taso da su, aka san mu da su, suka kai mu tudun-mun-tsira jiya, ba za mu take a yau ba sai mun bi su. Da don a gina sabuwar rijiya gara yaso, in ta yi ruwa rijiya in ba ta yi ba masai.


 



Nad’ewa:


A dimokrad’iyya, da mulkin soja, da mulukiyyar gargajiya, da gurguzu, da jari-hujja, da mulkin mallaka, duk mutane ake yi wasu, ba dabbobi, da tsuntsaye, ko k’wari, da kiyafun koguna ba. A ko’ina d’an Adam yake, yana son ‘yancin magana da addini da al’adarsa. Duk wani ‘yanci da mutane za su samu ga hukumarsu, kyakkyawan tsaron rayuwarsu da dukiyoyinsu ce gaba. Samun nagartaccen tsaro ga k’asa, da walwalar sakewa da za ta bunk’asa tattalin arziki, da zamantakewa, ita ce k’ololuwar tunanin ak’idar dimokrad’iyya. Abin ban haushi, ga ta an kafa wurare daban-daban, amma muradin ya kasa fitowa. Yaya za a yi a jiya ta kasance yau, yau ta zama cikin tarihi? A jarraba babban makamin kafa harsashen shugabanci d’aya na al’ada a gani wato “gaskiya”. A samu shugaba d’aya mai gaskiya, a gani. Duk wata dabara, da wani masani harshe, da adabi, da al’ada, zai so a jarraba, in ba makamin gaskiya ba ne, zance ne, domin babu irin daren da jemage bai gani ba.




 



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Skinner, N. 1971. “Realism and Fantasy in Hausa Literature”, in Africa.


Smith, M. G. 1960. Government in Zazzau 1800 – 1950. London. International African Institute.


Smith, M. G. 1978. The Affairs of Daura. University of California Press, Los Angeles.


Smith, M. G. 1997: Government in Kano 1350 – 1950. Westview Press, A Di’bision of Harper Collins Publishers.


Usman, Y. B. 1981. The Transformation of Katsina 1400 – 1883. Zaria. Ahmadu Bello University, Press.


Wali, M. A., Zagga, I. M. B. & Kura, S. Y. B. (ed) 2010. Islam and Government in Nigeria. Issues and Perspectives ‘bol. printed in Kaduna.


 





 





[i] Taken da aka ba ni a rubuce shi ne: “The Contribution of Culture to Democracy De’belopment and Popular Particpation in Nigeria.” Ganin fad’in bagiren na kira shi: “Daji ba ka da gambu.” Na tak’aita shi zuwa yadda yake yanzu domin in tattara tunani wuri d’aya.





[ii] Harshen damo biyu ne, duk wata matsala mai rassa da yawa akan sifanta ta da harshen damo.





[iii] A fassarar K’amusun Hausa, na Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya cewa ya yi: “Abin fad’a ko yak’i kamar bindiga ko takobi ko mashi ko mashi ko sanda da makamantansu (ii) tarko, shafi na 322.





[iv] A al’adar Hausawa makamai rukuni-rukuni gare su. Akwai makaman noma, makaman kamu kifi, makaman farauta, makaman yak’i da sauransu. Dabarar da za a sarrafa a warware wata matsala makami ce ga matsalar da aka fuskanta da ita.






[vi] A fassarar G. P> Bargery cikin, A Hausa- English Dictionary and English-Hausa ‘Bocabulary, ya ba da ma’anar makami da jam’insu kawai ya ce: “makamai”, 1- A weapon; 2-A wound made by a metal weapon, shafi na 753.





[vii] A bayanin Od’ford Mini English Dictionary. Makami shi ne: 1-A thing designed or used to inflict harm or damage; 2-a means or used gaining an ad’bantage or depending oneself.





[viii] A dubi Elias, A Modern Dictionary English – Arabic, ya ce, kalmar “silaahi” abin yin fad’a: ma’adaatil k’itaali shaukati fil binaati, shafi na 828.





[ix] Aro ga harshe ba kasawa ba ce, alamar bunk’asa ce, akwai aron kalma “loan words” aron kalma na gaba d’aya. Akwai “loan blends” aron sashen ma’ana. Akwai “loan shift” aron ma’ana da sauya tsarin lafazi.  Akwai “loan translation” fassarar k’wayoyin furucin kalmar yadda aka aro bi-da-bi. Don k’arin bayani a dubi, Crystal, D. 1993 A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, shafi na 205.





[x] Lafazin da Bahaushe ke furta kalmar “domokrad’iyya” Balaraben lafazi ne. a Turanci “Democracy” da harufan “cy” aka yi d’ofanen goshi, da daga nan Bahaushe ya aro ta sai ya ce “dimokrasi”. A Larabci “cy” ya koma “d’iyya”. Daga nan Bahaushe ya aro domin Balarabe “Dimokrad’iyya” yake cewa.





[xi] A nahawun tasrifin Larabci akwai harufan k’aari huruufuz ziyaada. Akwai harufan “al” da ake gane suna da su a farkon kalma. Akwai harufan “anaitu” hamza da nuunun da ainun  da taa’un da ake rarrabe aikatau da su. A mafi yawan arrarun kalmomi Larabawa na saka “iyyun” a k’arshensu. Bahaushe, “Hausiyyun” Ba’amurke “Amerikiyyun” da dai makamantasu.





[xii] Idan aka duba aron zai fad’o k’ark’ashin “Loan shift” idan muka dubi lamba ta (8) na k’arin bayanin da ya gabata.





[xiii] Don k’arin bayani a dubi, Hendrickson, J. M. (1977) “African ideas of Democracy: A cultural legacy,” cikin Nasidi, Y. da Igoli, I. (ed) Culture and Democracy. Published by, A.B.U. Press, shafi na 21.





[xiv] Da harshen da aka aro ta, da harshen day a yi aro, duk ma’anar ta ta asali tana nan ba ta sauya ba.





[xv] A ma’anar Riker, ya bayar cewa ya yi: “A form of government in which a substancila portion of the citizenry directly or indirectly participates in ruling the state. It is a distict from government controlled by a particular social class or by a single person.” In Kofoworola, E. O. “Culture, Democracy and Leadership: A Case Study of Some Oral traditions in Nigeria”, cikin tushen bayanin da muka ambata lamba ta 12, a riwayar (Ricker, 1980: 97).





[xvi] A fassarar K’amusun Turanci da muka ambata a lamba ta (16) cewa aka yi:1- A form of government in which the people ha’be a say in who should hold power; 2- A state government in such a way.





[xvii] A dubi, Ayua, I. A. (1997) “Culture, Law and Democracy” cikin tushen bayanin da muka ambata a lamba ta (12) shafi na 115, ya ce: “Government based on public assent (In this case, consent is the basis of democratic government – this is, government of the people, for the people and by the people) This means that the people should acti’bely and effecti’bely participate in their own government.





[xviii] A dubi K’amusun Hausa na Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano, shafi na 104.





[xix] A tsari irin na Bahaushe kowa na da hannu ga tafiyar da shugabancin k’asa. Kowane tafarki na rayuwar mutane akwai masu sarauta a ciki tare da sa hannun dukkanin jama’ar da ke da alhaki a ciki.





[xx] Masana ilimin harsuna a gannin ginin kalmomi sun ce, duk kalmar harshen Turanci da harshen Hausa da ke da harufan “al” a farkonsu na Larabawa ne aka aro. Wannan mujarrabi ne domin an yi bincike misalai sun tabbatar.





[xxi] Mallinowski a diddigin bayanin al’ada cewa ya yi: Culture in partly human, partly spiritual and partly materialistic. In its humanistic aspect, culture consist of ideas, ‘balues, knowledge, philosophy, laws, morals and so on. In its spiritual aspects, it consists of a system of belief and religious practices. In its materialistic aspect, it consist of artifacs and consumer goods made by man as oppesed to things found in nature. Culture is a distinguishing factor between man and man. A dubi, Nasidi, Y. da Bello, S. (1991) Culture Economy and National De’belopment, Nataional Council for Arts and Culture, Lagos, shafi na





[xxii] Matanin Turanci shi ne: “The totality of the way of life e’bol’bed by a people in thier attempts to meet the challenge of li’bing in their en’bironment which gi’bes order and meaning to their social, political, economic , aesthetic and religious norms and nodes of organization, this distinguishing a people from their neighbour.”





[xxiii] A Turanci ga matanin: “Culture is to merely a return to the customs of the past. It embodies the attitude of a people to the future of their traditional ‘balues faced with the demands of modern technology which is an essential factor of de’belopment and progress.”





[xxiv] Bahaushe sarauta yake da a gargajiyarsa. Bature kuwa “Administration” yake da. Masu satauta a wajen Larabawa su ne “Muluk” ko “Mala’u” ko a koma ga kalmar “Sayyid” ko “Ra’is” ga shugaba. Don haka, “Democracy” aro ta aka yi.





[xxv] A fassarar K’amusun The New International Webster’s Comprehensi’be Dictionary of the Englsih Language. Ya ce: Philosophy is the lo’be of wisdom as leading to the search for it: hence, knowledge of general principles elements, powers, or causes and laws – as ed’plaining facts and ed’istences. Shafi na 949.





[xxvi] A K’amusun Mini Od’ford Dictionary. Ya ce: The study of fundamental nature of knowledge, reality and ed’istence.





[xxvii] A wata fassara K’amus na fassara shi da: Reasoned Science, a scientific system as (formally) natural philosophy, new natural sciences.”





[xxviii] Na yi tunanin wannan fassarar bayan da na yi dawara a kan ma’anonin kalmar daga Turanci da Larabci da yadda Bahaushe ke kallon k’ok’onta da biyar diddigin abubuwa a tunaninsa. Ban ce wanna ita ce fassararsa ta dole ba. Na yi yunk’uri ne irin namu d’alibai da fatar za a taya nig yare-gyare.





[xxix] Tsananin magud’in da ake tabkawa a tsarin dimokrad’iyya shi ya sa duk wanda ya iya magud’i shi zai yi rinjaye. Haka kuma za a ja ta zuwa.





[xxx] A janhriyyar farko ga addini wasu ‘yan siyasa suka la’be da sunan su ke da sarakuna da masu shari’a. wak’ar da ‘yan jam’iyyar masu rinjaye NPC ke rerawa ita ce:


Sarki da alk’ali duk namu ne


Kowa ya zage mu bulaliya


Su kuwa ‘yan jam’iyyar NEPU marasa rinjaye su mayar da martani:


Allah da Manzonsa duk namu ne


Kowa ya doke mu sai hawuya.


Domin samun cikakken bayanin gwagwarmayar wad’annan jam’iyyu a jamhuriya ta farko a dubi, Birniwa, H. A. 1987. “Conser’batism and Dissent: A Comparati’be Study of NPC/NPN and NEPU/PRP Hausa Polical ‘Berse from Ca 1949 – 1983, PhD thesis, Sokoto: Usmanu Danfodiyo University.


Birniwa, H. A. 1987. “Ra’ayin Rik’au da Kawo Sauyi cikin Wak’ok’in Siyasa”, muk’ala, taron k’asa da k’asa na CSNL, kan Harshe, Adabi da Al’adu Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.





[xxxi] Haka ya wakana a wannan k’asa tamu. A da, an kasa mu, Kudu da Arewa. Aka sake tsagawa zuwa kasha hud’u, gabas da yamma, kudu da Arewa. An sake farfasata zuwa shida a yanzu. Duk wad’annan ba don talaka da masu jefa k’uri’a aka yi ba. An yi su ne domin ba wasu masu takaicin mulki da maitar lashe taskar haital malin wannan k’asa. Gani ya kori ji, a yau wa ke damawa ba mayaudara da maciya amana ba? Musibar yak’in k’abilanci da ‘bangaranci da addini ga kan talaka suka k’are. Allah Ya isa.





[xxxii] Da wani Habsan Soja, Marigayi Janar Azazi ya gaji da kasha-kashen da aka yi wa jama’a a Arewa, dole ya fasa k’wai cewa, fatinsu ne BOKO HARAM. Har yau ba a daina yaudarar talaka da addini ba a siyasa. A sabon salon yanzu Limamai da Pastoci ake kara wa mabiya a dabirta su da sunan ga Fatin Allah ga na Fir’auna





[xxxiii] Yau wanda ke da kud’i shi ke da k’uri’a. wanda ba a so a yi masa k’azafi da kushili da shan jini da maita da tsafi. Duk wad’annan abubaw akan sayo a kasuwa a lak’aba wa wanda ba a so ka ake tsoron gaskiyarsa za ta jawo masa jama’a.





[xxxiv] A jamhuriyyar farko a tilasta wa ‘yan adawa barin k’asarsu zuwa Ghana da Nijar da Mali da Sudan da Borkina da dai sauran mak’wabtan k’asashe. Wasu can suka mutu, wasu suka yi kaka-gida can, wasu suka raba k’afa, wasu suka dawo bayan an talauta su. Da za a ba gaskiya dama ta taka rawa da duk wad’annan ba su faru ba.





[xxxv] Marigayi, Umar Musa ‘Yar’aduwa da kansa yake gaya wa ‘yan jaridar duniya BBC, ‘BOA, Faransa da sauransu a jawabin bayan rantsar da shi yake cewa: “Babu shakka, akwai kurakurai da yawa ga tsarin da aka bi aka ba mu mulki, sai dai mun yi alk’awalin gyara a kan haka.” Wannan ya tabbatar da tsarin dimokrad’iyyar da muke a yau ba na gaskiya ba ne, dole a gyara a ba gaskiya tabarma ta mik’e k’afafunta.





[xxxvi] A jamhuriyyar da ta gabata, wata jaha daga cikin jihohin Arewa Gwanna ya kira gagarumin taro na tubar da ‘yan bangan da ya yi amfani da su a yak’in neman za’be. Bayan sun kasha sun raunana sun lalace da shaye-shaye da zaman banza da cin zarafin bayin Allah. Dalilinsa na yin haka, ya ga alamar k’aik’aiyi zai koma kan mashek’iya. Wannan shi ne gyaran zama na baya ga walle.





[xxxvii] Masana na ganin matuk’ar ba a haranta amfani da kud’i ga siyasa ba, babu yadda za a rusa cin hanci, da rashawa, da handama, da babakere a Nijeriya. Talaka ya san ko ya kad’a, ko bai kad’a ba, sanarwa za a yi na cewa, mai kud’i ya ci. Don haka, in ya kar’bi kud’in da aka bas hi, in bai kar’ba ba, an san wanda za a ba kujera. A nan, an sa talaka cikin ta-tsaka mai wuyar sani.





[xxxviii] Alhaji Muhammadu Sambo Wali ya yi nuni ga irin wannan yaudara a wak’arsa “Gaskiya Mugunyar Magana” ya ce:


Sai injiniya da shaidun k’arya ka ci nai,


Mun ji nufad da sun ka yo mun gane nufi nai,


Mun ji adashe na ashe ya kwashe zubinai,


Shi d’an kwangila shina famar fid da kainai,


          Yai ta k’ara-k’ara don baitil malil k’asag ga.


(Baiti na 25)





[xxxix] A da, shugaaba ya ba da umurni a k’i bi, ko ya furta magana, ta zama ta banza, ya isa ya yi murabus ga kujerarsa, mai so ya je yah au. Yau, k’iri-k’iri shugaba zai furta magana, ya san k’arya za, ya isa ya yi murabus ga kujerarsa, mai so ya je yah au. Yau, k’iri-k’iri shugaba zai furta magana, ya san k’arya za, ya isa ya yi murabus ga kujerarsa, mai so ya je yah au. Yau, k’iri-k’iri shugaba zai furta magana, ya san k’arya yake yi, an san k’arya yake yi, kuma a saw a k’aton banzai do yana ta shara k’arya har k’arshen mulkinsa. Da shugaban, da mabiyan, duk gaskiya ta k’arance su, da gaskiya ta ratsa ‘bangare d’aya sosai, dole ‘bangare d’aya ya ba da kai bori yah au.





[xl] Mutanen da suka rasa rayukansu cikin wanna jamhuriyya sun fi mutanen da Nijeriya ta yi hasara a yak’inta na basasa. Kuma ana kai, ba a fasa ba, babu shugaban da ya yi murabus don jinin ‘yan k’asa da ake kan zubarwa. A ba gaskiya wuri a gani, ruwa shu gugu shu.





[xli] Masu jefa k’uri’a su ne talakawa, su ne ake kisa, a d’aure, a sa gudun hijira. Msu neman kujere da su da ‘ya’yansu su ke da cikakken tsaro, babu wanda zai taba su. In rikici ya tsananta, su keta hazo, su yi waje, sai ta fad’i gasassa a dawo. Haka salon yake tun jamhuriyyar ta farko har yanzu ba ta sauya zani ba.





[xlii] Irin juyin mulkin su Nzegu da aka gina kan k’abilanci da bambancin addini aka karkashe shugabanni wani ‘bangare da addini kawai. Juyin mulkinsu G. Okar da aka so a yi wa Janar Babangida irinsa ne. ire-irensu za su mayar da hannun agogo baya.





[xliii] Matasan da muke da su yanzu, gubar zalunci da rashin gaskiya, da babakere,d a ta’addancin zamani, ta shige su. Da wuya su shiya wani sauyi da zai ciyar da mu gaba. A dai bi gaskiya sau da k’afa a gani, domin ita gaskiya tana maid a kowa kan tafarkinta, in da so, in da k’i.





[xliv] Fad’ar cewa, ba mu da tsari irin na dimokrad’iyya sai bayan zuwan Turawa, mummunan zato ne, rashin sanin tarihi ne, jahiltar al’adunmu ne. don k’arin bayanin wannan hasashe a dubi, Osaghae, E. E. (1989) “The Passage from the past to the present in African polical thought: The k’uestion of rele’bance”, in Agbaje, A. A. B. & Ayoade, J. A. A. (ed) 1989. African Traditional Political Thought and Institutions. Centre for Black and African Arts and Ci’bilization, CBAAL, Lagos, page 58. Ya ce:


“It is bad history and bad ci’bics to say that Africans ne’ber had democracy until the coming of the  white man to Africa.”





[xlv] An tarar da mu da tsarin shugabanci tun a bautar Tsumburbura da Barbushe. Da Musulunci ya zo, aka same mu da mafi kyawon tsari. A ganin cikakken musulmin Bahaushe, dimokrad’iyya ba wani abu be ne, face sabon salon yak’i da ak’idojin addinin Musulunci. Don haka, Turawan Birtaniya suka zo da salon ta’addanci domin su rusa tsarin da masu, bin sa.





[xlvi] Domin cikakken tarihin Gobirawa a dubi,  Gobir, A. S. H. 1982. Kunne Ya Girmi Kaka, Ingantaccen Tarihin Hausa. Da Augi,





[xlvii] Domin cikakken bayanin daular a dubi, Alkali, B. 1968. “Hausa Community in Crisis Kebbi in the 19th Century”, MA thesis, Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University.





[xlviii] Don k’arin bayani a dubi Nadama, G. 1977. “The Rise and Collapse of A Hausa State: A Social and Economic History of Zamfara”, PhD thesis, Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University.





[xlix] Domin samun cikakken bayanin Zazzau a dubi, Smith, M. G. 1960. Government in Zazzau 1800 – 1950. London. International African Institute.





[l] Domin samun cikakken bayani a dubi, Usman, Y. B. 1981. The Transformation of Katsina 1400 – 1883. Zaria. Ahmadu Bello University, Press.





[li] A dubi, Smith, M. G. 1997: Government in Kano 1350 – 1950. West’biew Press, A Di’bision of Harper Collins Publishers.






[liii] Domin samun cikakken bayanin Daura a dubi, Smith, M. G. 1978. The Affairs of Daura. University of California Press, Los Angeles.





[liv] A dubi tushen bayani na (43) domin k’ara tabbatar da wannan ik’irarin





[lv] Idan garin Bahaushe ya bunk’asa sosai dole a samu Sarkin Ruwa, Sarkin Daji, Sarkin Noma, Sarkin Mak’era, Sakke, Mai Kasuwa, Sarkin Makad’a,  Sarkin Bori, Sarkin Bak’i, Mai Samari, Sarkin Gwauraye, Sarkin Tsafta, Sarkin Kuwwa, Sarkin Karma, Sarkin Aska(ke), Sarkin Mayu, da dai sauransu. Wad’annan kad’ai za su wadatar da mai mararen rashin samun cikakkiyar dimkorad’iyya gabanin kowace al’umma ta shigo cikin k’asar Hausa.





[lvi] A tsarin dimokrad’iyyarmu, masana abu za su nad’a wanda suka aminta ya jagorance su ga abin da suke a kai. Idan sun daidaita, a kai ga Uban k’asa, ya yi wad’i. Don haka, mak’era ke za’ben Sarkin k’ira, manoma ke za’ben Sarkin noma, runji ke za’ben Sarkin fawa. Da irin wannan tsari dimokrad’iyyarmu za ta bi da zai fi wanda muke a kai yanzu, na an manta da wurin da aka fito, ba a san wurin da za a dosa ba.





[lvii] Allah ya fad’a cewa: “Alhak’k’u mir Rabbikum falaa ta kuunanna minal muntariina.”





[lviii] A bayanin K’amusun The New Hamlyn Encyclopedic World Dictionary. Ya ce: Truth which is true: The true or actual facts of a case: to tell the truth; 2- conformity with fact or reality ‘berity: the truth of a statement; 3 a ‘berified or indisputable fact, proposition, principle, or the like: mathematical truth; 4- the state or character of being ture; 5- genuineness, reality or actual ed’istence; 6- agreement with a standard rule or the like; 7- honesty, uprightness or integrity; 8- accuracy as of position or adjustment; 9- in truth, in fact, in reality, truly; 10- archaich, fidelity or constancy. Page 1803.





[lix] Hausawa su ce gaskiya; Kambari, Ngaski; Fulani, Gonga.





[lx] A dubi K’amusun Hausa. da muka ambata a lamba ta (3) shafi na 371.





[lxi] Ai ko Bahaushe da aka tambaye shi sunan gaskiya cewa ya yi: “Gaskiya sunanta gaskiya.” Dank’ari! Wai! Wato ba sai an fassara ba, ka dai gane.





[lxii] Na za’bi wannan bayanin, bayan da na yi dawara cikin ma’anonin gaskiya cikin sauran harsuna da yadda Bahaushe ke kallonta. Da fatar a taya nig yare-gyare mu kai ga muwafak’a.





[lxiii] Ina zaton, a nan ne Alhaji Muhammadu Sambo Wali ya samo sunan wak’arsa da muka ambata a lamba ta (37).































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