Hausa Language Academic Website

Monday, 6 November 2017

Al’adar Roƙon Ruwa A Ƙasar Gobir: Daga Riwayar Bakandamiyar Malam Muhammad Umar Kwaren-Gamba

Ƙasar Gobir wani yanki ne daga cikin garuruwan Hausawa na asali. Garuruwan Hausawa na asali nan ake samun Hausawa na asali waɗanda yanayin rayuwarsu da al’adunsu suka yi daidai da yadda Hausawa ke gudanar da su. Al’adar roƙon ruwa tana daga cikin al’adun da suka maƙale wa rayuwar Hausawa har bayan da Musulunci ya yi tasiri ga rayuwar tasu. Maƙasudin wannan takarda shi ne fito da yadda Gobirawa ke gudanar da wannan al’adar, ta bakin Malam Muhammad Umar Kwren-Gamba, daga Bakandamiyarsa.

Al’adar Roƙon Ruwa A Ƙasar Gobir:
Daga Riwayar Bakandamiyar Malam Muhammad Umar Kwaren-Gamba

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Dr. Yakubu Aliyu Gobir
Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo Sokoto
Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Najeriya
È08035605024, email: yagobir@yahoo.co.uk
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1.0        Gabatarwa
          Al’adun Hausawa sun shedi sauye-sauye da dama, saboda tasirin addinin Musulunci da shigowar baƙin al’adu. Duk da kakkaɓar gara da Musulunci ya yi wa wasu al’adun Hausawa, musamman lokacin jihadin Usmanu Danfodiyo, amma har yanzu akwai sauran rina a kaba. Wannan shi ya ƙarfafa wasu marubutan waƙoƙin Hausa, irin su Malam Muhammad Umar Kwaren-Gamba, suka tashi tsaye, suka ci gaba da kakkaɓe sauran rinar da ta rage a kaba. Maƙasudin wannan takarda shi ne fito da wani babban gurbi a cikin al’adar Bahaushe, wato roƙon ruwan sama, daga Bakandamiyar  waƙar Malam Muhammad Umar Kwaren-Gamba ta Roƙon Ruwa.  An yi ƙoƙarin kauce wa bayani a kan ma’anar waƙa da ire-irenta, ganin cewa bayanan sun gabata a cikin ayyukan masana (Yahya, 1997/2001) da Ɗangambo, 2007) da sauransu. Da farko, ya kamata muƙalar ta fara bayanin wane ne Malam Umar Kwaren-Gamba.
2.0   Taƙaitaccen Tarihin Malam Muhammad Umar Kwaren Gamba:
          Hausawa sun ce ‘waƙa a bakin mai ita…’ Domin samun cikakken bayani a kan tarihin rayuwar Malam Muhammad Umar, na tattauna da shi kansa da wasu ɓangaren iyalansa da abokansa da kuma wasu almajiransa. Sannan aka harhaɗa waɗannan bayanai:
          An haifi Malam Muhammad Umar cikin shekarar 1949 a garin Kwaran-Gamba cikin ƙasar Sabon Birnin Gobir. Wato misalin kilomita 20 Kudu maso Yamma daga Sabon Birnin Gobir, a Ƙaramar Hukumar Mulki ta Sabon Birni, cikin Jihar Sakkwato a Nijeriya. Kuma a nan garin ya tashi har ya girma ga hannun mahaifinsa Malam Umar wanda kuma shi ne limamin garin. Sunan mahaifiyarsa kuwa Halimatu.
          Malam Muhammad Umar ya tashi gidan ilimi, ya yi karatun Alƙur’ani mai girma ga mahaifinsa, har ya sauka. Ya kuma fara karatun ilimi duk nan ga mahaifinsa. Lokacin da ya ga ya fara fahimtar karatun ilimin littattafai, sai ya fara begen tafiya makaranta wani gari, domin ya saba da jin karatun mahaifinsa. Yana son ya ji daga wasu malamai. To kamar yadda yanayin zaman Hausawa yake, idan lokacin rani ya kama, wato bayan damana, sukan fita su bar gida, domin babu wani aiki a gida. Wasu sukan tafi neman kuɗi, wasu kuma neman ilimi, har sai lokacin da wata damana ta fara, sai su dawo gida. To malam Muhammad ya fara fita zuwa makaranta a irin wannan lokaci a shekarar 1967. Garin da ya fara tafiya shi ne Maraɗi a Jamhuriyar Nijar inda ya yi karatu a wurin Malam Illo, a Gusau kuwa ya yi karatu wurin Malam Jelani da Malam Musa Kanoma. A garin Isa kuwa ya yi karatu a wurin limamin Isa. A taƙaice, Malam Muhammad Umar ya riƙa kai-komo tsakanin garin Maraɗi da Isa da Gusau don neman iliminsa. Wato wannan shekara ya je Maraɗi, wata shekara kuma ya je Isa ko Gusau, har ya samu iliminsa gwargwadon hali.
          A shekarar 1976 lokacin da gwamnati ta ƙaddamar da tsarin U.P.E, an buɗe makarantun furamare da sakandare da dama. Saboda haka an ɗauki malamai da dama. Malam Muhammad yana ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan malaman. An ɗauke shi a matsayin malamin Arabiyya da addinin Musulunci domin ya koyar a furamaren da ke garinsu. Wannan shi ya tilasta masa shiga karatun zamani na Kulliya a inda ya yi kwas na J.I.S a garin Ƙaura Namoda, S.I.S kuwa a garin Zurmi, daga shekarun 1983 zuwa 1989.
          Wani abin sha’awa ga rayuwar Malam Muhammad shi ne, duk yawuce-yawucen da yake yi na neman ilimi yakan samu gabata bisa sauran ɗalibai ga malamansa. Misali a Maraɗi da Gusau, duk shi ke jan-baƙi idan ana karatu. Wato duk wani wanda za a yi wa karatu, to shi ke jan Larabcin littafin, shi kuma malamin yana fassarawa. Haka kuma, tun zuwan sa karatun Kulliya shi ke jan ragamar ɗalibai, tun aji ɗaya har suka ƙare. Wato ya yi shugaban aji (Monitor), sannan tun a shekara ta huɗu har zuwa ƙarshen karatunsa, shi ne shugaban ɗalibai wato (Head students). Kai har ma da ya ƙare makaranta, shugaban makarantar da malamansa sai da suka nemi aronsa daga ƙaramar hukumar mulki ta Sabon Birni a kan ya ci gaba da karantarwa a nan Kwalejin, saboda ganin zai iya don irin ƙwazon da Allah ya ba shi, amma hakan ba ta samu ba. Malam Muhammad ya tashi da sha’war waƙa a rayuwarsa tun yana ƙarami, kamar yadda yake cewa:
Da ma na tashi ina sha’awar waƙa, domin ina karanta waƙoƙin Infiraji na Malam Aliyu da waƙar Limamin Isa mai suna ‘Allah Na Kira ka Ina Ƙuzami’.
          Malam Muhammad Umar, ya fara rubuta waƙa ta farko a lokacin da ya sami kansa cikin ƙauna da shauƙin son zuwa wani gari don ya zurfafa karatunsa. Wannan bukata ta zaƙulo da sha’awarsa da rubuta waƙa. Daga wannan lokacin ne ya rubuta baitoci waɗanda ya yi wa laƙabi da ‘Waƙar Makaranta’. Bai kammala rubuta wannan waƙar ba sai Allah ya cika masa burinsa na zuwa makaranta. Tun daga wannan lokaci ya ci gaba da rubuta waƙa da Larabci ko da ajami. A duk lokacin da wani abu ya faru a makaranta ko cikin gari, nan take zai zauna ya rubuta ’yan baitoci a kansa. Misali, a lokacin da aka samu ƙaramar hukumar mulki ta Sabon Birni, ya rubuta waƙa. ya kuma rubuta waƙoƙin wayar da kan jama’a a kan ayyukan gwamnati, kamar waƙar ‘Yaƙi da Rashin Tarbiyya’ da waƙar ‘Allurar Riga-Kafi’ da sauransu.
2.1  Bakandamiyar Malam Muhammad Umar Kwaren-Gamba:
          Malam Muhammad ya rubuta wannan waƙar ta roƙon ruwa a shekarar 1983, a lokacin da aka yi  wani fari wanda ya game ko’ina. A cikin  wannan halin ne ya rubuta waƙar da nufin wa’azi ga al’umma da kuma roƙo ga Ubangiji Allah don samun ruwan sama. Sannan ya ce, ya zaɓe ta ta zama bakandamiyarsa saboda dalilai guda huɗu kamar haka:
i)              Ita kaɗai ce ta ƙunshi manyan nau’ukan jigogi guda huɗu a cikinta.  Jigogin         kuwa su ne:  jigon addu’a, jigon tauhidi, jigon gargaɗi da kuma jigon bushara;
ii)           Haka kuma akwai ‘yan baitocin da mahaifinsa ya rubuta a ciki.  Saboda        haka yana ba waƙar wani matsayi na musamman.
iii)          Sannan sigar da aka tsara waƙar da ita ta yi daidai ainun da saƙonnin da       take ɗauke da su.
iv)         Ya kuma ce da ita mafi yawan mutane suka san shi.
          Haka kuma, wannan waƙar an tsara ta kan kwar biyar-biyar ne. Kuma tana da amsa-amo iri biyu a cikinta.  Wato amsa-amon ciki da na waje a kowanne baiti. Misali, a baiti na ɗaya:
                                      Ya Allah Sarkinmu Rabbana,
                                      Mai ikon komi da ko’ina,
                                      Duk bayi mun shaida naka na,
                                      In waƙati ya zo na damana,
                                                Muna roƙo Allah ka yo ruwa.

A nan, ɗango huɗu na farko, suna ƙarewa da ‘na’, shi ne amsa-amon ciki.  Amma ɗango na biyar mai ƙarewa da ‘wa’ shi ne amsa-amon waje. Amsa-amon wajenta duk bai ɗaya yake tafiya da harafin ‘wa’ har ƙarshenta. Amma amsa-amon ciki yana sassakewa ne tsakanin baiti zuwa baiti.  Misali, mun ga cewa a baitin da ya gabata, yana da amsa-amon ciki mai harafin ‘ba’ ne. Misali:
                                      Allah ba tilas gare shi ba,
                                      Mun san ba tamka gare ka ba,
                                      Ba shawara nika so mu ba ka ba,
                                      Roƙo na muka yi muna kira muna tuba,
                                              Allah ka yo ruwa.

          Haka kuma, wannan waƙa tana ɗauke da baiti tis’in da huɗu (94) ne.  Kuma baitocin suna da dangantaka da juna. Wani lokaci ma akan samu zaɓi-zarce ko gangara a tsakanin baitocin.  Wato ya zan ba a samun cikakkiyar ma’anar wani baiti sai tare da mai bi masa.
3.0  Yanayin Damana a Ƙasar Hausa
          A ƙasar Hausa, yanayin damana yakan ɗauki kimanin watanni biyar ana ruwan sama. Mafi yawanci ruwan kan fara sauka a watan bakwai na Musulunci (wato Rajab). Shi ya sa Hausawa ke cewa a karin maganarsu: ‘Watan bakwai maƙarar rani, ko babu damana da alamu’. Watan bakwai na Musulunci shi ke daidaita da watan Mayu ko Yuni (watan Turawa) zuwa watan Satumba ko Oktoba. Lokacin marka ko malka (wato watan Agusta) an fi samun ruwan sama mai yawa. Yawan ruwan sama bai yawaita kamar na kudu, kuma bai ƙaranta irin na hamada ba (Abdullahi, 2008). A wasu shekaru akan samu ruwan sama da yawa har ya yi ɓarna, a wasu shekaru kuma yakan ɗauke da wuri, tun kafin amfanin gona ya nuna (Abdullahi, 2008). A sanadin haka, sai a samu fari. A irin wannan yanayi ne Hausawa kan fita wajen gari domin roƙon ruwa ga Mai Sama’u. Hausawa na gudanar da wannan al’ada ta roƙon ruwa tun a lokacin Maguzanci[1]. Sai kuma suka yi sa’a addinin Musulunci shi ma ya zo da bayanin halaccin roƙon ruwa da kuma yadda ya kamata a yi roƙon ruwan. Saboda, maimakon Hausawa su cirata daga roƙon ruwan Maguzanci zuwa na Musulunci, sai suka hautsina al’ada da addini, wato suka ɗauko wasu al’adun Maguzanci suka haɗa da na Musulunci[2]. Wannan shi ya harzuƙa Malam Muhammad Umar Kwaren-Gamba, har ya rubuta wannan waƙa ta roƙon ruwa[3].
3.1   Al’adar Roƙon Ruwa a Ƙasar Gobir
          Ƙasar Gobir, babbar masarauta ce ta Hausawa a ƙasar Hausa da ke Arewacin Nijeriya. Gobirawa kuwa su ne Hausawa na asali da ke zaune a wurin, mutane ne masu faɗa da tsananin yaƙi. A fahintata, wannan ya sa har yanzu duk lokacin da wani ya ambaci Gobir, sai ka ji Hausawa sun ce “Gidan faɗa”. Kuma tarihin yaƙe-yaƙen Daulolin Borno da Mali da ƙasashen Hausa, ba sa kammala sai an taɓo Gobir, tun ma ba yaƙin jihadin Shehu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo ba. Cikakkiyar ƙasar Gobir ta haɗa yankin ƙasashen Jamhuriyar Nijer da Nijeriya, farawa daga Ƙonni da Tsibiri da Maraɗi, zuwa wasu sassa na Arewacin Nijeriya. Daga cikin sarakunan da suka jagoranci ƙasar Gobir akwai Sarkin Gobir Babari, wanda shi ne mahaifi ga Sarki  Bawa Jangwarzo 1789 – 1790, daga nan sai Sarkin Gobir Yakubu 1794-1795 , da Sarkin Gobir Nafata, da Sarki Yumfa. An taɓa yin wata Saraki mai suna “Inna Gobir”. Ana yi mata kirari da “Inna ’yar Bukuma, gagari maza” (Bunza, 1990:29). Daga cikin Sarakunan Gobir na farko-farko, Bawa Jangwarzo ya fi shahara. Shi ya sa makaɗa Maidaji Sabon Birni yake cewa cikin Waƙar sarkin Gobir Umaru:

Ga zamanin Jangwarzo,
Alhaji kura ba ta sauran cizo,
Zaki ba shi da sauran kuka,
Gara ba ta sauran gina.

A halin yanzu, manyan masarautun Gobirawa su ne masarautar Sarkin Tsibiri a Jamhuriyar Nijar, mai suna Sultan Abdu Bala Marafa da kuma Sarkin Gobir na Sabon Birni mai suna Alhaji Abdulhamid Balarabe Salihu.
          A fannin sha’anin addini, mutanen ƙasar Gobir, kamar sauran ’yan uwansu Hausawa, kafin zuwan Musulunci sun dulmuya cikin bautar iskoki. A tsarin bautarsu ta iskoki, Maguzawan Hausawa sun yarda da akwai ubangiji wanda ba a gani kuma ba a kusantar sa sai ta kan iskoki, su kuma iskoki  ba a kusantar su sai ta hanyar ’yan bori da bokaye da shugabannin tsafi (Ibrahim, 1982). Alal misali, a Kano, sun yi bautar Tsumburbura wadda mazauninta na a kan dutsin Dala, a Gobir an yi bautar Inna Doguwa, a Katsina kuma, sun yi bautar Durɓi ta Kusheyi da tsafin Ɗantalle a garin Dutsin-ma. A Kwatarkwashi da Tsafe an yi bautar Birkiɗi da Magiro (Bunza, 1990).
          Daga cikin al’adun Gobirawa na tsafe-tsafe akwai na roƙon ruwan sama, idan sun samu musibar fari. A cikin wannan al’adar, suna cakuɗa al’adar Maguzanci da ta Musulunci. Malam Muhammad Umar Kwaren-Gamba ya faɗa mana yadda suke wannan al’adar a cikin Bakandamiyarsa, a baiti na 32 – 34, yana cewa:
                              32.     Dan haka malammai ku tsawata
                                      Dan Allah mata su bar fita
                                      Kaburjeje da sifar mahaukata
                                      Irin haka nan nasa a ƙuntata
                                                Ma, al’umma Allah shi ƙi ruwa.



                             33.     Sai ka ga mata sun fita gari
                                      Tsirara sai kuwwa iri-iri
                                      Ga kuma gonakki cikin fari
                                      Ka ji daɗa saɓo iri-iri
                                                Waɗanda ka sa ma ba a yin ruwa.

                             34.     Ko can in saɓonmu yai yawa
                                      Sai a sako fari ba a yin ruwa
                                      To kuma in kuka fara ɗemuwa
                                      Kuna kuwwa zindir kuna rawa
                                                Kuna ɓacin Allah ina ruwa.
          Wannan ɗabi’a ta fita tsirara, akan yi ta ne a lokacin da aka samu fari, ruwan sama suka ɗauke tsakiyar damina, da sunan wai roƙon ruwa ne ake yi ga Allah. Za a biyo titi cikin gari kamar masu yin zanga-zanga. Mata sukan fito da rigunan mazansu, su kuma mazan su fito da tufafin mata (kuma duk tufafin waɗanda suka tsufa, ba masu kyau ba). Waɗansu matan kuwa sai su yi shigar irin sana’ar mazansu. Wato, idan misali mijin ɗan tauri ne sai ta yi sifar ‘yan tauri, idan kuwa makaɗi ne, sai ta ɗauko gangar ta riƙa kiɗawa suna rawa. Suna furta waɗansu kalmomi na batsa da saɓon Allah. Suna rausayawa, suna yin goho, suna gwada wa Allah duburarsu, cewa dole shi yo ruwa. Ga abin da suke furtawa:
Kaburjeje burje!,
Haba Allah dibo!,
Kwarkwarar munta zindir!,
          A waɗansu wurare cikin ƙasar ta Gobir abin ya ɗan saɓa da yadda ake yi a wasu wuraren. Wasu kuma sukan tafi da tsoho wanda ya tsufa tukuf, a gindin itacen gawo ko gidan Inna Gobir (matattarar ’yan bori da mata masu zaman kansu). Sukan kewaye tsohon, suna cewa Mai Sama’u ya yo musu fitsari ko su kashe tsohon nan. Wasu matan kuma, sukan fita daji suna sanye da tufafin mazansu ana tafe ana cewa:
“Allah yo ruwa!,
Anai maka burjaƙ ƙasa!”
Idan sun haɗu da namiji sai su yayyaga masa tufafi su mayar da shi tsirara, wai ya yi izgili, wai ana fari me ya kai shi fita daji wajen aiki? Wato kamar bai damu da halin da ake ciki ba. Waɗannan ɗabi’un su ne Malam Muhammad Umar Kwaren-Gamba ya yi kira ga malamai cewa, su tsawaci masu aikata su, domin suna ƙara fushin Ubangiji Allah, maimakon ma a samu ruwan, sai a ƙara samun tsanani cikin sha’anin fari. Sannan ya kawo muna bayanin irin yadda ya kamata a yi a Musulunci, idan har aka samu wannan matsala.  Yana cewa a baiti na 31:
                             31.     In fari yaz zo yadda za mu yi
                                      Roƙon Allah an kace mu yi
                                      Akwai sallah nan wadda za mu yi
                                      Da istigfari an kace mu yi
                                                Muna tuba Allah shi yo ruwa.

A wannan baiti malam Muhammad ya yi mana ishara da irin yadda ake son a yi roƙon ruwa na shari’a, kamar yadda Manzon Allah (SAW) ya tabbatar a cikin  Hadissai da dama[4], da kuma irin yadda ya kamata a aiwatar da wannan sallah da neman gafara ga Allah Ta’ala. Idan za a yi sallar roƙon ruwa, ana fita bayan gari inda ake sallae Idi ko masallacin Juma’a, ana son a fita da kaya tsofaffi da ƙanƙan da kai zuwa ga Allah Maɗaukaki. A yi nafila raka’a biyu, a yi huɗuba ga mutane da su ji tsoron Allah, su tuba daga zunubansu, kuma su daina saɓon Allah. Sannan a yi adu’a a roƙi Allah ya saukar da rahmarsa.
        Malam Muhammad ya ci gaba da tsawatar irin mutanen can da ke aiwatar da wannan mugunyar al’ada ta fita zindir da kama maras kyau, da kuma yi wa Allah izgili. Ta hanyar kawo tarihi na Annabi Nuhu da mutanensa a lokacin da suka yi wannan saɓon Allah, da kuma yadda Allah ya zubo musu azaba. Malam Muhammad ya kawo wannan ƙissar kamar yadda ta tabbata a cikin Alƙur’ani mai girma.  Mawaƙin ya yi waɗannan bayanai ne musamman daga baiti na 35 zuwa na 38:
          35.     Kun ga irin halin da kuka yi,
                   Shi fa mutanen Nuhu sun ka yi,
                   Shi tuba yacce su zo su yi,
                   Ga Allah suka ce sun ƙi ba suyi,
                             Shi tai shi faɗo Allah shi ƙi ruwa.

            36.   Da Nuhu ya tabbata sun ƙi jin kiran,
                   Shi, wudda suwa’an dai suke kira,
                   Sai Nuhu shi yar roƙi gafara,
                   Ga Allah yacce La tazar minal kafirina dayyara,
                             Allah sako ruwa.

            37.   Ba fa rowan rahama ba an ka yi,
                   Bale wata shibka ko su tai su yi,
                   Ruwa na azaba dai ake ta yi,
                   Saboda yawan saɓon da sun ka yi,
                             An ka kasha su sarai cikin ruwa.

            38.   Shi Nuhu tuba yab biɗa su yi,
                   Ga Allah suka kafirta ba su yi,
                   Kira ga gumaka dai suka ta yi,
                   Kashe su cikin ɗufana an ka yi,
                        Sai Nuhu shi ɗai abisa ruwa da baya tai jirgin su ba ruwa.

Wannan kissa ko tarihin halakar da jama’ar Nuhu (AS), wani misali ne da Malam Muhammad ya kawo domin gargaɗi da kuma lurar da mu jama’ar wannan zamanin cewa, irin wancan abu da ya faru ga mutanen Annabi Nuhu (AS) yana iya aukuwa gare mu matsawar ba mu bar wannan mummunan saɓo ba.  Ga dai baitin da ke tsawatar al’umma kamar yadda mawaƙin ya kawo shi:
                                   39. Halan mu dan an ba mu lamuni
                                      Mun ka ɗimauce wanga zamani
                                      Ga matan aure muna gani
                                      Suna kuwwa zindir da hautsine
                                                Suna ɓacin Allah shi yo ruwa.
A wannan baiti, kalmar lamuni na waƙiltar wasu hadissai ne, waɗanda suka yi bayanin cewa mu jama’ar Annani Muhammad (SAW) Allah ba zai riƙa kama mu nan take ba kan wani saɓo da muka yi gare shi ba.  Ya yi muna lamuni sai ranar tashin ƙiyama ranar tonon asiri, sannan a yi wa kowa hisabin abin da ya aikata a zamansa na duniya.  Ba kamar sauran al’ummomi da suka wuce ba, waɗanda da zaran sun aikata wani mummunan saɓo, nan take sai a aiko da Mala’iku su kife su ko su yi musu azabar bala’i.
          Daga nan sai ya ci gaba da kiran jama’a gaba ɗaya da a tashi tsaye a yi gyara a kuma roƙi Allah da ya sauko da rahamarSa ga bayinSa.  Wannan roƙon shi ne tun daga baiti na 42 har zuwa na 52.  Musamman a baiti na 50 in da yake nuna a koma ga Allah ga komi ba sai biɗar ruwan sama ba.
                                   50. Rabbi muna roƙon ka gafara
                                      Cikin son Rahma ba mu hanƙura
                                      Ga roƙo nai Allah maji kira
                                      Kai muka roƙo kai muke kira
                                                Ga komi ballanta biɗar ruwa.   
4.0 Naɗewa
          Marubata waƙoƙin Hausa sun taimaka wajen daidaita sahun imanin Hausawa da tsarkake zukatansu daga miyagun ɗabi’u da al’adu. Al’adar roƙon ruwan Hausawa na ɗaya daga cikin al’adun da suka samu kansu a hautsine tsakanin gargajiya da Musulunci. Bakandamiyar Malam Muhammad Umar ta tabbatar muna da haka. Hausawa na cewa: ‘Da rashin kira karen bebe ya ɓata.’ Yawaita karanta wannan waƙa ta roƙon ruwa, musamman a kafofin watsa labarai, ya taimaka ƙwarai wajen kawar da wannan al’ada ta kaburjeje-burje a ƙasar Gobir da sauran yankunan ƙasar Hausa. ‘In kunne ya ji gangar jiki ta tsira’.  


Manazarta
Augie, A.R. (1984), “The Gobir Factor in the Social and Economic History of the Rima Basin c. 1650 – 1808 A.D.”, PhD Thesis. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University.
Barira, I.B. (2008), “The Contributions of Some Selected Gobirawa Scholars to the Development of Islam in Sokoto and Zamfara States”. M.A. Dissertation. Department of Islamic Studies. Sokoto: Usmanu Danfodiyo University.
Dumfawa, A. A. (2003), “Waƙa a Tunanin yara” Kundin digirin PhD, Sakwkato: Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo.
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[1] Aliyu Muhammad Bunza. Laccar Aji, Kwas 710, 2000.
[2] Maguzawa sun saba da birkice tufafi da sanya tsofaffin tufafi da kuma mata su sanya kayan mazansu idan za su je roƙon ruwa. Musulunci kuma ya yarda idan za a yi sallar roƙon ruwa a birkice tufafi, ciki ya dawo waje, da sanya tsofaffin tufafi, da niyyar ƙasƙantar da kai ga Allah Maɗaukaki, amma bai yarda mata su sa tufafin mazansu ba.  
[3] Tattaunawa da Malam Muhammad Umar a Cikin Masallacin Juma’a, Sabon Birni, ranar Talata, 10/06/2001.
[4] Duba cikin littafin Muwatta Imam Malik, Hadisi na 441 – 443.

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