Adabin Ruk’iyya A Goshin K’arni Na Ashirin Da ‘Daya: Waiwayon Tarihi da Diddigin Bunk’asar Ruk’iyya a Yau

Amsoshi

Yakubu Aliyu Gobir (PhD)


Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya


Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato


yagobir@yahoo.co.uk


08035605024


Takardar da aka gabatar a taron qara wa juna sani na Qasa da Qasa a kan Nazarin Harshen Hausa a qarni na 21st,  wanda Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya Jami'ar Bayero, Kano, ya shirya, daga ranar Litinin 10 zuwa Laraba 13 ga watan Nuwamba, 2014.


 

 

Tsakure


‘Ruk’iyya’ asalin kalmar  daga Larabci ne ‘Ruk’yah’ amma Hausawa suka mayar da ita ‘Ruk’iyya’. Bisa ga haka, za a ci gaba da amfani da kalmar Ruk’iyya a wannan muk’ala. Ruk’iyya wata hanya ce ta samun waraka daga rashin lafiya musamman wadda ta shafi cutar iskoki. Duk da kasancewar ruk’iyya ta samo asali tun daga Mazon Allah (SAW), amma a k’asar Hausa da mak’wabtanta, sha’anin ruk’iyya ya zama kamar wani sabon abu. A goshin k’arni na ashirin da d’aya, farkon shigowar ruk’iyya an samu sa’bani da zanga-zanga na halaccin ta, daga ‘bangarorin malaman addinin Musulunci. Malaman K’ungiyar Izala su suka kar’bi ruk’iyya da aiwatar da ita bisa ga tsarin da ta zo da shi. Daga baya wani ‘bangare daga cikinsu suka soki yanayin yadda ake aiwatar da ita. Wannan sukar, ta k’ara wa garin ruk’iyya nono, ta samu kar’buwa sosai a k’asar Hausa da mak’wabtanta, musamman bayan samun k’arin shigowar rubuce-rubuce da bayanan hujjoji daga masana. Ha’bakar ruk’iyya ya dushe hasken bori da girka a k’asar Hausa. A k’asashen Larabawa ma da na Turai, babu wad’anda kasuwarsu ke ci gadan-gadan, daga cikin masu ba da maganin iskoki, kamar masu ruk’iyya. Masana da dama da d’alibansu sun yi rubuce-rubuce a kan lamarin ruk’iyya, musamman a cikin Larabci da Turanci da kuma Hausa. Wad’annan rubuce-rubucen sun kawo ha’bakar ruk’iyya, ta zama ruwan dare game duniya, musamman a wannan lokaci na ‘Dayanta Duniya. Mak’asudin wannan mak’ala shi ne bitar wasu daga cikin wad’annan rubuce-rubucen, domin fito da tasirin da suka yi wa al’ummomin Duniya a wajen tunkarar lamarin iskoki.

 

Abstract


EXORCISM AND LITERATURE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Exorcism (Ruk’ya) is a process by which those who are ill due to spirit possession are treated. Though exorcism originated from the time of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) it is seen as a strange thing in Hausa land and neighboring countries. Initially, in this century, exorcism has not been fully accepted. This was because there was an in-house dispute among the Izala movement on its authentication. The dispute makes the exorcism becomes more spread and prominent to people. With the arrival of more literatures in Arabic, English as well as Hausa Languages on the virtues of exorcism, people begin to invite and accept it.  The popularity of ruk’iyya also makes the use of bori/girka as therapy becomes diffused. Now, the use of exorcism becomes globally accepted. The aim of this paper is to review these literatures and show their global influence on the treatment of spirit possession.

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/10/20/mene-ne-bori-fashin-bakin-maanarsa-cikin-taskar-harshe-adabi-da-alada/

 

1.0    Gabatarwa


Al’ummar Hausawa, kamar sauran al’ummomin k’asashen Afirika, sun dad’e suna huld’a da iskoki. Masana al’adun Hausawa kamar Greenberg (1946), Besmer (1973), Ibrahim (1982), Bunza (1990/2006), Ismaila (1991), da sauransu, sun tabbatar da cewa wannan huld’a ta samo asali ne tun lokacin da Hausawa suke cikin addininsu na gargajiya. Bayyanar addinin Musulunci ta rage wa huld’a da iskoki k’arfi, duk da sanin cewa, bai k’aryatar da huld’ar ba, sai dai wasu ayyukan da ke ciki ya yi hani. A k’arni na 19 masu jihadi sun hasa wa bori da huld’a da iskoki wuta sosai domin tsarkake imanin Hausawa Musulmai. Duk da haka, ba  su k’aryata huld’a da iskoki ba, sai dai huld’a da su ta fuskar bori suka tsawata. A yau, goshin k’arni na 21st  tattare da wayewar kai ta addini, da samun kimiyyar zamani, Hausawa sun bud’e wani sabon shafi na huld’a da iskoki, wato “ruk’iyya”, wadda ta zo da sigar addini. Farkon shigowar ruk’iyya ta d’aure wa 'yan kallo kai, ta saka sa’bani tsakanin masana addini, waad’ansu suna sukar yanayin da ake aiwatar da ita. Wannan sukar, ta k’ara wa garin ruk’iyya nono, domin tun ana yin ta da shakku, har ta samu kar’buwa sosai a k’asar Hausa da mak’wabtanta, musamman bayan samun k’arin shigowar rubuce-rubuce da bayyanar hujjoji daga masana. Babban abin ban sha'awa shi ne, Hausawa sun fi kowace k’abila a Nijeriya kar’bar ruk’iyya hannu biyu da gudanar da ita a koyaushe. Ganin haka, wannan mak’alar za ta waiwayi tarihi da bin diddigin hanyoyin da ruk’iyya ta bi ta samu bunk’asa, har ta zama ruwan dare game duniya, musamman a wannan lokaci na d’ayanta Duniya.

 

2.0    Ma’anar Adabi:


         Masana sun tabbatar da cewa, adabi wani hoto ko madubi ne da ake iya hango al’ada, wato hikimomi da fasahar wata al’umma, da iri-iren abubuwan da take cud’anya da su a rayuwarta, musamman ‘bangarorin siyasa da tattalin arziki da zamantakewa da addini da sauransu. Ta la’akari da yanayin adabin Hausawa, masana sun kasa shi gida biyu: adabin gargajiya da na zamani. Adabin gargajiya shi ne adabin baka, wato fasaha da hikimomin da Hausawa suka gada kaka da kakanni. Shi kuwa adabin zamani shi ne rubutacce, wato k’arin fasaha da hikimomin da Hausawa suka samu bayan sun iya karatu da rubutu, ko sun shak’u da wasu al’ummomi. A wannna muk’ala an yi amfani da kalmar adabi a matsayin aro, saboda fito da hikimomi da fasahar da ke k’unshe a cikin rubuce-rubucen littattafan da aka rubuta cikin harsunan Larabci da Turanci da kuma Hausa, a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya da abubuwan da ta. k’unsa.

 

3.0    Ma’anar Iskoki


Iskoki, kalma ce mai nuna jam’i na iska, wadda k’amusoshin Hausa zuwa Hausa, suka ba ta ma’ana kamar haka: K’amusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, Kano, ya ba ta ma’anar ‘Mutanen ‘boye’. Shi kuwa Calvin Y. Garba, ya ba ta ma’anar ‘Rahwani, musamman na bori’[i]. Wad’annan k’amusoshi sun bayar da ma’anar iska ne a matsayin kalma kawai, ba ma’ana ta ilimi ba. Bisa ga haka, ga abin da masana ke cewa:

Iskoki a wajen Bahaushe wasu halittu ne masu kama da mutane ta fuskar halittarsu, da surarsu, da ayyukkansu, da al’adunsu, da d’abi’unsu, da harshensu, da siyasar rayuwarsu, da dai makamantansu. (Bunza, 2006:1)

 

A nan, Bunza yana son ya tabbatar da imanin Bahaushe dangane da iskoki  cewa, su ma halittu ne kamar mutane masu ayyuka da sunaye irin na mutane, amma kuma ba mutane ba ne. Wannan ne ya sa Hausawa suke kiran su ‘Mutantani’, wato sun yi kama da mutane amma ba mutane ba ne, don haka aka ciro sunansu daga ‘mutum’ ya koma ‘mutantani’ kamar mutum ba mutum ba, ko kuma a ce mutane-mutane hakanga.

Masana sun tabbatar da cewa, ba Hausawa kad’ai ke kiran aljani da ma’anar iska ba. Akwai mutanen k’asar Dahomey suna kiran aljani ‘Djo’ da ma’anar iska (Greenberg, 1946:28). Haka shi ma Ibrahim (1982:28), ya kawo sunayen wasu k’abilu a Afirika ta Yamma da yadda suke kiran nasu iskokin. Misali, Ashanti suna kiran iskarsu ‘Abosomi’, Yarbawa kuwa nasu ‘Orisha’, Angas kuwa nasu ‘Jigwell’, Mutanen Bambara kuwa ‘Nyena’, Jukun, ‘Jo’, Barebari suna kiran nasu ‘Sunamma’ da sauransu. Duk ma’anar wad’annan kalmomi a nasu harshe shi ne ‘iska’. Wannan shi ya nuna cewa al’ummomin k’asashen Afrika sun yi tarayya a kan sha’anin imani da mu’amula da iskoki. Haka kuma, suna kiran sa ‘iska’, saboda akwai dangantaka ta kama mai yawa tsakanin ‘iska’ a ma’ana ta farko da iskoki a ma’ana ta biyu kamar haka: iska – ba a ganinta, amma ana jin kad’awarta, ko shigarta cikin jiki, ko shak’awa don rayuwa. Haka su ma iskoki ba a ganinsu, amma suna shiga jikin mutane, har a ga illarsu ga ga’bar jiki ko jikin duka.  Iska – na iya kai wa wuri mai nisa cikin lokaci kad’an. Haka su ma iskoki suna iya tafiya wuri mai nisa cikin lokaci kad’an. Iska - jiki ne mai laushi wanda ke iya ratsa ko’ina ya shiga. Haka su ma iskoki jikinsu mai laushi ne ba kamar jikin mutane ba, shi ya sa suke iya shiga jikin mutane ta ko’ina. A fahimtata, ana iya kwatanta shigar iskoki a jikin mutane da misalin shigar k’arfin wutar lantarki ga waya, wato current, idan an rik’a ta, ta ja mutum, ba tare da an ga wutar a fili ba.

Bayan bayyanar Musulunci a k’asar Hausa, Bahaushe ya fara amfani da sunaye irin su. Aljani, da Ira'izzai, da Jinnu, da Rafani, da Shaid’ani, da sauransu. Dalili kuwa shi ne, nassoshin littattafan addini, Alk’ur'ani, da Hadisai, da sauran litattafan Furu'a, da Tauhidi, da Tafsiri da Adabi, da yawa sun zo da bayanin wad’annan sunayen. Tasirin Musulunci ya sa Bahaushe a yau, ya fi yawan amfani da sunan “Aljannu”  saboda yana da nason addini, ya rage yawan fad’ar “Iskoki” saboda ya fi kusanci da bori da tsafi, sai a bakin bokaye, da 'yan bori, da manazata ko d’aliban al'ada kawai. Don haka, wannan takarda za ta ci gaba da amfani da dukan sunayen guda biyu, wato “Aljannu” da “Iskoki”.

 

2.1    Matsayin Iskoki a Musulunci


Addinin Musulunci ya tabbata da samuwar iskoki ga halittarsu. Yarda da samuwar halittar iskoki wajibi ne ga kowane Musulmi, k’ark’ashin imani da Gaibi. Ayoyin Al-K’ur’ani da dama sun yi umurni da irin wannan imani.[ii] 'Gaibi' kuwa shi ne, abin da ya faku, amma Ubangiji ya ba mu labarinsa cikin Alk’ur,ani, ko ta hanyar ManzonSa (SAW).

Dalilan samuwar Aljannu sun zo a cikin Alk’ur’an da Sunnah. Daga cikinsu akwai Sura musamman da ke magana a kan aljannu, wato Suratul Jinn. Akwai kuma ayoyi daban-daban da ke magana a kansu.[iii] Haka kuma kamar yadda aka samo daga Aisha (R.A) ta ce Manzon Allah (SAW) ya ce:

An halicci Mala’iku daga haske, kuma an halicci Iblis daga tsantsar garwashi daga wuta, kuma an halicci Adam (AS) daga abin da aka siffanta muku wato yum’bu. (fassarar mai bincike).

 

Iblis shi ne asali ko uba ga aljannu, kamar yadda Annabi Adam yake asali ko uba ga mutane. Hasanul Basari yana cewa:

Aljani d’an Iblis, Mutum kuma d’an Adam. Daga cikin aljannu da mutane akwai na k’warai mumunai, kuma dukkansu sun  yi tarayya ne a wajen lada da azaba. Wanda duk ya kasnce mumini daga aljannu da mutane, to shi waliyin Allah ne. Wanda kuma ya kasance kafiri daga cikin aljannu  da mutane, to shi shaid’ani ne. (fassarar mai bincike).

 

Wannan ya nuna cewa, daga cikin aljannu akwai na k’warai da miyagu, kamar yadda mutane suke, wato sun yi tarayya da ‘yan adam a wajen siffar hankali da fahinta da samun damar aikata alheri ko sharri. Daga cikinsu akwai mumunai da kafirai, kamar yadda Alk’ur’ani ya tabbatar mana.[iv]

Wad’annan dalilai na ayoyin Alk’ur’ani su suka tabbatar mana cewa, daga cikin aljannu akwai mumunai masu shiga aljanna da yardar Allah, haka kuma fajiransu da kafirai za su shiga wuta da adalcin Allah.

 

3.0    Ma’anar Ruk’iyya


A Larabci kalmar  'ruk’iyya'  ta tsiro ne daga 'Ruk’a', jam'inta shi ne 'Ruk’iyya' , tilo kuwa a ce 'Ruk’’ya', wadda ke nufin, yin tawada ko tofi ga maras lafiya.[v]

A ra'ayin malamai kuwa, ga yadda masana d’ibbi suka yi mata madogara:

Iliyasu Muhammad Gummi yana cewa:

Ruk’iyyah na nufin amfani da wasu kalmomi ko lafuzza domin warkar da wani mutum da ya kamu da wata rashin lafiya.[vi]

 

Bunza, (2000) yana cewa:

 

Ruk’iyyah, addu'ar da akan yi wa maras lafiya da ake jin aljannu suka hau kansa.[vii]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Karrafiy yana cewa rukiyya:

 

Ruk’iyya wasu laffuzza ne na musamman wad’anda in an yi ana samun waraka daga rashin lafiyoyi, amma duk abin da ake yi don cutarwa, to ba a ce masa ruk’iyya, sai dai sihiri.[viii] (fassarar mai bincike)

 

Bisa ga wa[ix]d’annan ma'anoni, muna iya cewa, ruk’iyya addu’a ce, da dogara ga Allah domin samun waraka daga rashin lafiya iri-iri, musamman wad’anda suka shafi cutar iskoki. Ubangiji Allah na kar’bar addu’ar mai addu’a idan ya kira shi.

 

Allah yana cewa:

“Kuma Ubangiji ya ce, ku kira Ni in kar’ba muku.”[x]

(fassarar Abubakar Mahmud Gummi).

 

Kuma Allah yana cewa:

 

“Kuma idan bayiNa suka tambaye Ka daga gare Ni, to lalle Ni makusanci ne. ina kar’ba kiran mai kira idan ya kira Ni. Saboda haka, su nemi kar’bawa ta, kuma su yi imani da Ni, tsammaninsu, su shiryu.”[xi]  (Fassara Abubakar  Mahmud Gumi).

 

3.1  Rabe- Raben Ruk’iyya


Imam Al- Kurd’abiy, ya ce ruk’iyya iri uku ce:

  1. i) Ruk’iyyar da ake yi lokacin jahiliyya (wato surk’ulle), maras ma’ana,     wannan            wajibi ne a nesanci aikata ta, don gudun fad’awa cikin shirka. A kan wannan,           Ibn Taimiyyah yana cewa:


Musulunci ya hana a yi tawada da abin da ba a san

ma’anarsa ba, don gudun kada ya kasance shirka ne. ( Al’ashk’ar, 1989)

 

  1. Ruk’iyyar da ake yi da maganar Allah da kuma sunayensa. Wannan ta halatta a yi, domin fad’ar Allah:


 

 

Kuma muna sassaukarwa, daga AlK’ur'ani, abin da

yake waraka ne da rahma ga muminai……"[xii] (Fassarar

Abubakar Mahmud Gummi).

 

Haka kuma Manzon Allah (SAW) yana cewa:

Na hore ku da yin amfani da masu waraka guda biyu,

                        (wato) Alk’ur’ani da Zuma.”[xiii]

 

  • Ruk’iyyar da aka yi da wanin sunayen Allah, kamar a fad’i sunan wani babban sarki ko malami, ko waliyyi, ko amfani da hatimin Annabi Sulaiman (AS), ko kuma wani abin halitta mad’aukaki, kamar Al’arshi. Wannan ba wajibi ba ne, kuma ba ya daga ayyukan kwad’aitarwa ga aikatawa, saboda haka barin sa ya fi.[xiv]


 

4.0    Tarihin Ruk’iyya da Yad’uwarta a K’asar Hausa


Malamai masu ruk’iyya sun tabbatar da cewa ruk’iyya ta samo asali ne daga Manzon Allah (S.A.W), domin kuwa shi ya yi ruk’iyya, kuma an yi an zo an ba shi labari kuma ya tabbatar. Ga wasu daga cikin hujjojin da suke bayarwa:

  1. An kar’bo daga Abi Ka’ab, ya ce: Na kasance a wurin Annabi (S.A.W), sai wani Balarabe ya zo da koken d’ansa baya da lafiya, yana fama da shan-Inna. Sai Annabi (S.A.W) ya ce, aje a kawo shi. Koda aka kawo shi, sai ya zaunar da shi, ya karanta masa Fatiha, da Ayatul kursiyyu da Falak’i da Nasi, sai ya samu lafiya. (fassarar mai bincike).


 

  1. An kar’bo daga Ibn Abbas cewa: wata mata ta je wajen Annabi (S.A.W) tare da d’anta marar lafiya, mai hauka, ta ce Ya Rasulullahi wannan yaron yana damunmu da ta’adi da ‘barna, yana zubar mana da duk wani abu da ya gani, kuma yana farfasa mana duk wani muhimmin abu da ya gani. Sai Annabi (S.A.W) ya dafa k’irjinsa ya yi tofi a ciki, kwai sai aka ga wani abu ya fito daga bakinsa (shi yaron) bak’i wuluk! Sai ya tashi ya sami sauk’i.(Al Imam Ahmad da ‘Dabarani suka ruwaito wannan Hadisin). (fassarar mai bincike).


 

  • Usman ‘Dan Abil Asi ya ce lokacin da Annabi (SAW) ya tura ni a matsayin Gwamna a Ta’ifa sai na rik’a samun rud’ani da shakku a cikin sallolina da ibaduna. Shike nan na je wurin Annabi (SAW) na kai kukana, sai Annabi (SAW) ya ce  'Ai wannan shaid’an ne yake wasa da hankalinka. Matso  nan kusa da ni. Sai na matsa kusa da Annabi (SAW) sai ya dafa k’irjina ya rik’e kaina yana dukan k’irjina kuma ya yi tofi a cikin bakina yana cewa: fita mak’iyin Allah! Ka sani ni Annabin Allah ne! ya fad’i haka har sau uku, wato yana ce wa Aljanin ya fita daga jikinsa. Usman ‘Dan Abil As  ya ce: 'Tun daga lokacin ban k’ara irin wanan matsalar ba'.[xv]


 

Wad’annan bayanai suna nuna mana cewa lalle manzon Allah (SAW) ya yi Ruk’iyya, ya yi magana da aljani, ta bakin marar lafiya, kuma ya yi masa duka.

 

4.1      Rubuce-Rubucen Magabata


Haka kuma, bincike ya nuna cewa daga cikin malamai magabata 'Ahlus Sunna Waljama’ah’, su ma sun yi ruk’iyya. 'Ahlus Sunna Wal Jama’ah’, su ne ‘bangaren malaman Sunna, masu k’ok’arin kare ak’idar Musulunci daga bidi’o’i, suna kuma girmama ko fifita “Nassi” bisa ga hankali. Sa’banin sauran d’ariku kamar Mu’tazilawa, Khawarij, Shi’ah da sauransu. 'Ahlus Sunna sun had’a da Mazhabobin Imam Malik, Shafi’i, Abu Hanifa da Ahmad bin Hambali, da kuma Mazhabobin ak’idun Tauhidi, kamar Ash’ ariyya da sauransu.[xvi]

Daga cikin Malaman Ahlus-Sunna Wal Jama’ah, da suka shahara a kan harkar ruk’iyya, cikin magabata (Salaf), Kuma wad’anda suka yi rubuce-rubuce a kan ruk’iyya akwai:

  • Imam Abdurrahman As-Suyud’iy

  • Imam Ahmad Bin Hambali

  • Shehun Musulunci, kuma Malamin Al'umma Ibn Taimiyya

  • Ibn K’ayyum

  • Abdul Faraj Ibn Al-Jauziy, da sauransu.


Wad’annan magabata sun yi ruk’iyya a aikace, kuma sun yi rubuce-rubuce da yawa a kan matsalolin ruk’iyya a zamaninsu.[xvii]

 

4.2    Gudunmuwar K’asar Saudi Arabiyya


Gwamnatin Saudi Arabiyya ta kafa wata Hukuma mai k’arfi kan Binciken Ilimi da Fatawa da Wa’azi da Shiryarwa, wadda Shaikh Abdul Aziz Bin Abdullahi Bin Baz ke shugabanta. Wannan Hukuma, ta yi ta amsa fatawar halaccin yin ruk’iyya da matsayinta a Shari’a, kuma duk abin da aka wallafa daga Hukumar, ba sayar da shi ake yi ba, ana watsa shi cikin duniya, da rarrabawa wurin aikin Haji kyauta. Haka kuma, fatawowin da Malamin zamani Masanin Hadisi, Shaikh Nasiruddeen Albaniy ke bayarwa ana wallafawa, kan sha’anin ruk’iyya, shi ma ya k’ara kawo ha’baka da watsuwar ruk’iyya a ko’ina cikin k’asashen Musulmi.

 

4.3    Ruk’iyya A Rubuce-Rubucen Malaman Zamani


Bayan da wad’annan magabata suka wuce, an samu zamani mai tsawo, musamman a nan k’asashen Afrika, ‘yan bori da bokaye da malaman tsibbu, suka yi ta cin karensu ba babbaka a kan sha’anin warkar da marasa lafiyar cutar iskokai. Sai a wannan k’arni (Goshin k’arni na ashirin da d’aya) ruk’iyya ta sake danno kai, ta hanyoyi kamar haka:

 

4.3.1    Littafan Da Aka Rubuta Cikin Harshen Larabci


An sake samun marubuta a wannan zamani da suka jaddada rubuce-rubuce da aiwatar da ruk’iyya, kuma wad’annan rubuce-rubucen, sun watsu a duniya kuma sun taimaka wajen k’arfafa bincike mai zurfi a kan gano gaskiyar abubuwan da suke bayani a cikin littattafansu. Misalan littattafan

-Wik’ayatul Insaan Minal Jinni Wash-Shaid’an

- Assarimul Battar Fit-tasadi lis-Sihiril Ashrar

Wad’annan littattafai na wani Shaihin malami mai suna: Shaikh Wahid Al-Bali, sun samu  shiga lungu-lungu na k’asashen Musulmi ko’ina cikin duniya, har a nan k’asar Hausa da mak’wabtanta. Kafin ma a samu isowar littattafan, har a fayafayen rikoda aka d’auke su, ana sayarwa wajen aikin Hajji da Umrah. Wad’annan fayafayen rikoda, misali, da su aka fara binciken ruk’iyya a Sakkwato.[xviii]

Daga baya, an ci gaba da samun littattafan Larabci suna shigowa da yawa, kuma cikin sauk’in kud’i da rahusa, kuma da sauk’in fahimta. Ga kad’an daga cikin misalan ire-iren wad’anan littattfan:





































































S/NSUNAN LITTAFISUNAN MARUBUCISHEKARAR WALLAFA
Alimus Sihiri Wash-sha’awazahDr Sulaiman Al’ashk’ar1989
Arradul Mubin…Ibrahim Abdul-Alim Abdul-Wahab1999
Alminhajil K’ur’aniy Fi Ilajis Sihir Wal Massis Shaid’aniyAl’iwadiy, U.M1989
Akamul Murjan Fi Ahkamul JaanAsshabli, A.B1985
Ad’d’urukul Hisan Fi Ilajil Amradil JannKhalil I. A1992
Alwik’ayati Wal’ilaji bil Kitabi WassunnahAbdul’aziz Muhammad Bin Shayi’i1994
Addawa’ul K’ur’ani Liljinni Wal Massis Shaid’aniAliyullahi bin Aliyu Abulwafah2000
Kaifa Tu’aliju Mardaka Bir Ruk’yatil Shar’iyyahAbdullahi bin Muhammad As-Sidhan1422
Sara’al Jaan Li banil InsaanAbdullahi Nuwara1997
Da sauransu.

 

4.3.2             Littafan Da Aka Rubuta Cikin Harshen Turanci


Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, ruk’iyya ta zama ruwan dare a duniya yau. Ta shiga kowane sak’o da lungu da nahiya. Saboda haka, kasancewar turanci abu ne da masu amfani da shi ke mulkin Duniya, ba mamaki a samu  littattafan Turanci da aka rubuta a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya. Wasu littattafan na Larabci ne, amma saboda ana son sak’on ya isa ga Turawa, sai aka fassara su da Turanci. Ga misalan kad’an daga cikin littafan ruk’iyya na Turanci:

 

 

 

 































































S/NSUNAN LITTAFISUNAN MARUBUCISHEKARAR WALLAFA
The Excorsist Tradition in IslamPhilips, A.A.B1997
Prayer and Healing in IslamSalih Yucel2010
Prayer, Medicine and Science: The New DialogueLarry Dossey1998
Man’s Protection Against Jinn and Satan Fassarar:

Haytham Kreidly
2006
The Cutting Edge How to Face Evil SorcerersFassarar:

Haytham Kreidly
2006
Healing With the Medicine of the ProhpetFassarar:

Jalal Abual Rub
1999
Preventive Measures Against Shaytan and Authentic Ruk’k’ah According to the Shari’ahFassarar:

Binta Manzur Elahi Bhatti
2008
The Rules and Etiquettes of Ruk’uahShaikh Saalih bin Abdil’azeez Aali Skaihk2008
The Jinn and Human Sckness, Remedies in the Light of the Qur’an and SunnahAbul’ Mundhir khaleel bin Ibrahim2005

 

4.3.3             Littafan Da Aka Rubuta Cikin Harshen Hausa

         Hausawa suna cikin k’abilun suke aiwatar da ruk’iyya sosai a nan Afrika. Saboda haka, ba mamaki a samu littafan aka rubuta da Hausa, ko aka fassara zuwa Hausa. Ga misalin kad’an daga cikinsu:































































S/NSUNAN LITTAFISUNAN MARUBUCISHEKARAR WALLAFA
Garkuwan d’an Adam Daga Sharrin Shaid’anu        da        MatsafaYahaya Chedi FaggeBabu shekara
Fitar da Aljani Daga KJikin d’an Adam ta Hanyar Alk’ur’ani (Ruk’iyya)Abdullahi Idris MuhammadBabu shekara
Amfanin Man Zaitun goda 50 ga ‘Dan AdamIbrahim A. FaggeBabu shekara
Hanyoyin Waraka Daga cutar Aljannuda SammuMahmud A.MBabu shekara
Hanyoyin gane Sihiri da Warware ShiMahmud A.M.1997
Muhimman Bayanai a Kan Asiran AljannuUmar faruk Sulaiman2000
Fassarar ‘Bayyanar da gaskiya a kan Shigar Aljani Cikin Jikin Mutum da raddi ga wanda Ya Yi Musu’ Na Bin BazUmar faruk Sulaiman2000
Maganin Kowace Irin CutaZakariyya M.N. Zaria1997
Alak’ar Aljannu da ‘Dan AdamMuhammad S.U. Umar da Mijinyawa A.MBabu shekara

 

  • Shirya Tarukan Kara Wa Juna Sani


A nan gida Nijeriya, lokacin da sha'anin ruk’iyya ya bayyana, an samu sa’banin ra’ayoyi tsakanin ‘ya‘yan K’ungiyar ‘Izalatul Bidi’a Wa Ik’amatus Sunnah’, wato K’ungiyar da ke k’ok’arin tsayar da Sunnah da gusar da bidi’o’i cikin ibada, (wad’anda aka fi sani da suna ‘Yan Izala). Wasu daga cikinsu sun fahinci hujjojin da aka bayar, kuma sun ci gaba da aikatawa. Wasu ‘bangaren kuwa sukan yi inkarin cewa, ta halatta a yi. Bisa ga wannan an yi ta shirya tarurrukan wa’azi da na k’ara wa juna sani, da sa-in-sa a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya. Misali, A wani gari da ake kira Sahorame cikin Jihar Nija, an shirya wata muk’abila tsakanin K’ungiyar Izar Jos da ta Kaduna,  a ranar Litinin 3 ga Maris zuwa Juma’a 6 ga Maris 1998. Akwai  fayafayen bidiyo guda tara (9) da suke k’unshe da wannan muk’abila. Wad’annan muk’abiloli da ake ta yi, ana d’auka ga fayafayen bidiyo da rekoda, ya taimaka k’warai ga k’ara yad’uwar ruk’iyya ko’ina cikin Nijeriya, da ma wajen Nijeriya nan mak’wabta, kamar a k’asar Nijar, Mali, Ghana, Kamaru da sauransu.

Haka su ma a ‘bangaren Jami’o’i, an gabatar da tarurrukan k’ara wa juna sani a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya, musamman Jami’ar Bayero Kano. Misali, an shirya babban taron k’ara wa juna sani na shida (6) kan al’amarin ruk’iyya, a inda Shaihin Malami Aliyu Muhammad Bunza, ya gabatar da muk’ala mai taken: “Magana da Iskoki Ta Bakin Dokinsu”. An shirya taron a tsohuwar harabar Jami’ar, a ranakkun Litinin 13 zuwa Laraba 15 ga Disamba, 2004.

Haka kuma, an sake shirya wani taron muhawarar da aka gabatar, tsakanin Shaikh Yusuf Ali Kano da Taha Adamu (Baba Impossible) da kuma Aliyu Muhammad Bunza, a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya, d’akin taro na Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriaya, Jami’ar Bayero Kano, ranar 19 Maris, 2005, inda aka saka marigayi Shaikh Ja’afar Adam da Shaikh Ibrahim Khalil suka yi alk’alancin muhawarar. Bayan an tashi daga muhawarar, jama’a sun gamsu k’warai da gaske, a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya. Haka kuma, a babban Asibitin Kula da Masu Ta’bin Hankali ta K’asa da Ke Kware, a jihar Sakkwato, as shirya taro mai taken: “Occupational Psychotherapy”, a Agustan 1999, inda aka tattauna a kan sha’anin fitar da aljani a jikin mutum ta hanyoyi daban-daban, ciki har da ruk’iyya.

 

  • Kundayen Bincike a Kan Ruk’iyya


An ci gaba da zurfafa bincike a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya a k’asar Hausa da ma wasu k’asashe. Misali, a Turai, an samu wani d’alibi mai suna Philips A.A. B. (1996), ya gabatar da digirin digirgir (PhD), wanda daga baya aka wallafa shi,  mai suna: The Exorcist Tradition in Islam, a Kwalejin St. David, a jami’ar Wales ta k’asar Turai.

A nan gida Nijeriya, lokacin ana cikin tattaunawa mai zafi a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya, an samu wani d’alibi mai suna Yakubu Aliyu Gobir, (a Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo Sakkwato), ya yi bincike mai zurfi a babban digirin Hausa (M.A) a kan lamarin ruk’iyya, mai taken: “Iskoki a Idon ‘Yan bori da Masu Ruk’iyya”, a shekarar 2002. Ya kuma sake dawowa a shekarar 2012, a inda ya zurfafa bincike a matakin  digirin digirgir (PhD) mai taken: “Tasiri Iskoki a Cutuka da Magungunan Hausawa”. Har ila yau, yanzu haka a Jami’ar ta Danfodiyo akwai d’alibi a Sashen Nazarin Addinin Musulunci yana gudanar aikin bincike mai taken: “Ralationship Between Man and Jinn in Islam”. Aikin na nan ana gudanar da binciken, ba a k’are ba.

 

4.3.6 Kakkafa K’ungiyoyi da Cibiyoyin Gudanar da Ruk’iyya


A k’asar Hausa da kewayenta an kakkafa k’ungiyoyi da cibiyoyi inda ake gudanar da ruk’iyya. Misali, a Sakkwato, akwai k’ungiyar masu ruk’iyya, k’ark’ashin shugabancin Malam Iliyasu Muhammad Gummi. Haka kuma, an kakkafa cibiyoyi masu gudanar da ruk’iyya, kamar yadda ake gudanar da su a k’asashen Larabawa da ma Turawa. Wad’annan cibiyoyin, sun d’auki sigar asibitocin zamani na Nasara wajen aiwatar da su. Suna bud’a rijista ta kar’bar maras lafiya, suna ba da irin katin asibiti na ganin Likita da lokacin ganin Likita da sauransu. A wad’annan cibiyoyin, za a tarar da jama’a cikin layi sun yi dafifi, suna jiran su kai ga ganin Likita (malamin Ruk’iyya). Ga kad’an daga cikin wad’annan cibiyoyin:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
























































































S/NSUNAJIHA/GARI
       1.‘Danfodiyo Islamic CentreKano, Gummel, Adamawa, Birnin Kebbi, Gombe, Jigawa/Dutse, Katsina, Legas, Sakkwato, Zamfara
       2.Albarka Islamic MedicineKatsina
       3.Alhuda Medical CetreSakkwato
       4.Ar-Riyad Islamic MedicineKatsina
       5.Centre for Atta’awun Herbals and Islamic HealthKaduna
       6.Dalala Islamic MedicineKatsina
       7.Gidan ZumaZariya
       8.Hidaya Islamic ChemistKaduna /Giwa
       9.Hilal Islamic ChemistKatsina
   10.Himma Islamic MedicineZamfara/

Gusau
   11.Ibn Sina Islamic MedicineKatsina, Kano
   12.Markaz Alyusra Islamic ChemistKano
   13.Natural Medicine Nigeria LimitedZariya
   14.Shaikh Ibrahim Khalil Herbal HealthKano
   15.Shifa’ul Qur’anKano
   16.Tasneem Herbal Stores and General EnterprisesSakkwato

 

Haka kuma, wad’annan cibiyoyin, sukan bud’a shagon sayar da had’ad’d’un magungunan cutukan iskoki daban-daban. Bayan an yi wa maras lafiya ruk’iyya, sai kuma ya sai had’ad’d’un magungunan da zai rik’a amfani da su. Haka kuma, a d’akin muhallin da ake yin ruk’iyya a wad’annan cibiyoyin, akwai na’urorin zamani na d’aukar magana da k’arin sauti da na’ura mai k’wak’walwa, da sauransu.

Wad’annan cibiyoyin suna taimakawa k’warai, wajen yak’i da cutukan jiki da k’wak’walwa, kuma sai k’ara ha’baka suke yi, saboda kulawa da kiyon lafiya da Bahaushe ke yi. Haka kuma, cibiyoyin sun zama wata hanya ta samar da harkar yi da bunk’asa tattalin arziki, musamman ganin yadda masu cibiyoyin ke ta bud’e rassa a manyan garuruwa a cikin Nijeriya da mak’wabta.

Bayan wad’annan cibiyoyi, akwai d’aid’aikun shahararrun malamai da suke aiwatar da ruk’iyya a gidajensu ko a wani muhalli da suka ke’be, ba tare da sun ayyana masa wani suna ba. Misali, a Sakkwato, akwai Malam Iliyasu Gummi, wanda ke zaune a unguwar Lowcost, layin G, a nan gidansa yake gudanar da ruk’iyya. A Kano akwai Shaikh Yusuf Ali, a Zariya akwai gidan Zuma, a Gusau (Zamfara) akwai Malam Abdulkarim bakin kasuwar Gusau, da dai sauran malaman da, wannan muk’ala ba ta kai ga gano sunayensu ba, saboda wasu a ‘boye suke aiwatar da harkar ruk’iyya, wanda shi ne asalin yadda aka so a yi ta a Musulunci, kamar yadda wasu malamai suka yi bayani[xix].

 

4.3.7 Ruk’iyya A Kafofin Yad’a Labarai


Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, farkon shigowar ruk’iyya an samu sa-in-sa da muhawurori a kan haliccin yadda ake gudanar da ita. Wannan ya haifar da kafofin watsa labarai shigowa su taka tasu rawa. Misali, gidan radiyon Rima, ya gabatar da wani shirin mako-mako, mai suna: “Cikin K’ira Ake ‘Dad’i”, inda suka gabatar da ra’yoyin malaman addinin Musulunci da likitocin asibiti a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya. Haka kuma, cibiyoyin da aka yi bayani a baya, suna gabatar da shirin kiyon lafiya a gidajen rediyo da FM, musamman na jihohin Sakkwato da Kano da Kaduna da Zariya da sauran manyan garuruwan k’asar Hausa. Wad’annan shiraruwan, su masun taka rawa wajen ha’baka sha’anin ruk’iyya.

Haka kuma, akwai tasoshin talabijin da ake yad’a ayyukan ruk’iyya. Misali, akwai Tashar Talabijin mai suna: “Alhak’ik’a”  a Layin Dish na Nilesat, ba abin da ake yi awa ashirin da hud’u (24 hours) sai gudanar da ruk’iyya aikace, da gabatar da bayanai da shirin ‘amsa-kira-nan-take’, inda ake bugo waya daga sassan duniya daban-daban, ana tambayoyi a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya suna kar’ba wa masu bugo waya kai tsaye. Akwai kuma Tashar “Sunnah T.V”, suna gabatar da shirin “Magungunan Musulunci”, wanda a ciki suna gabatar da matsalolin gudanar da ruk’iyya. Haka kuma, a cikin Jaridar Aminiya,  akwai filin da ake gabatar da “Duniyar Aljannu”, A halin yanzu, yana wuya a iya k’irga kafofin yad’a labarai da ke gudanar da sha’anin ruk’iya, ciki da wajen Nijeriya.

 

4.3.8 Ruk’iyya a Wasan Kwaikwaiyo da ‘Yan Damfara


Ha’bakar ruk’iyya da samun kar’buwar ta ga jama’a, su suka haifar da shigar masu Wasan kwaikwayo, suna kwaikwayon yadda ake ruk’iyya da halayen masu ruk’iyya ko wad’anda ake yi wa ruk’iyya, ko a kwaikwayi halayyar bayyanar aljani, a lokacin da ake rud’iyya. Misali, akwai d’an wasan nan da ake kira ‘Ibro’, sun yi kwaikwayon yadda ake ruk’iyya da shi da ‘Ciroki’.  Suna kwaikwayon wasu d’abi’u ko halayen masu ruk’iyya da kuma hannunka-mai sanda, da manufar a gyara. Da yake a cikin kowane al’amari ana samun ‘bata-gari, masu kawo cikas ga al’amarin.

Haka kuma, ‘yan damfara suna la’bewa k’ark’ashin yanayin huld’a da aljannu suna cutar jama’a. Saboda sabawa da jin maganar aljanu da masu ruk’iyya ke d’auka a na’urar magana, shi ya ba ’yan damfara damar bugo waya ga wasu jama’a, su ce wai aljani ne ke magana da su, yana son ya taimake su. Wannan al’amari ya zama ruwan dare a k’asar Hausa a yau. Har akan samu kafafen watsa labarai suna ruwaito irin wannan damfarar da aka yi wasu. Misali, Sashen Hausa na Rediyon Muryar Amurka yana gabatar da wani shiri mai suna: “Ciki da Gaskiya…”, inda suke ruwaito labarai da muryoyin aljanun damfara, da kuma yadda ta kaya da su. Haka kuma, jaridar Aminiya takan d’auko ire-iren wad’annan labaran. Ga wani misali daga Aminiya ta satin 09/11/2012:

 

Mai Damfara da Cewa Shi Aljani ne Ya Shiga Hannu’

Wani mutum da ake zargi da zamba cikin aminci mai suna Yusuf Abdullahi ‘Dan Fulani ya fad’a hannu a daidai lokacin da yake k’ok’arin amsar Naira miliyan d’aya daga wajen wani wanda ya rik’a damfara… Al’amarin dai ya faru ne a lokacin da wanda aka yi wa damfarar mai suna Ibrahim Sharif, wanda ke zaune a garin Bwari da ke yankin babban birnin tarayya Abuja, ya ji an bugo masa waya makonni biyu kafin Sallah babba da ta gabata, inda d’an damfarar ya yi masa sallama tare da sanar da shi cewa, “ka yi wa Allah godiya saboda zan gabatar maka da wani sak’o daga wajen Allah wanda Ya halicce ku bil’adama da kuma mu aljanu. Ka je kasuwa ka sayi abun sadaka ka bai wa almajirai kafin in sake bugo maka waya don sanar da kai tarin alherin da zai same ka, sannan kuma ka kame bakinka, kada ka sanar da kowa…”[xx]

 

Bincike ya tabbatar da cewa, wad’annan ’yan damfara suna da hanyoyin da suke neman lambar wayar mutane masu hali. Wani lokaci suna amfani da ’yan kore, kamar yadda bokaye ke yi. Haka kuma, sukan samu lambar waya ta hannun wanda suka yi damfara suka ci nasara. Kamar yadda suka nemi wani mutum a Sakkwato da ya ba su lambobi waya da sunayen mutane biyar masu hali da kuma sunayen mutane biyar matalauta, don su taimake su.[xxi] Wani lokaci kuma kawai kirdado ne suke yi sai fad’uwa ta zo daidai da zama.

 

5.0    Nad’ewa


Tirk’ashi!, Hausawa kan ce, ‘in ka ji k’i-gudu, sa-gudu ne bai zo ba. Ruk’iyya a k’asar Hausa da mak’wabtanta, ta zama ‘hankaka mai da k’wan wani naki’.  Bak’o ya mamaye gida. Ha’bakar ruk’iyya ta dushe hasken bori da girka a k’asar Hausa. Irin yadda kasuwar masu ruk’iyya ke ci gadan-gadan, a wannan k’arni, a nan k’asar Hausa da k’asashen Larabawa da na Turai, ya tabbatar da hasashen cewa, iskoki suna taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen samar da cutuka a rayuwar d’an Adam. Masana da dama da d’alibansu sun yi rubuce-rubuce a kan lamarin ruk’iyya, musamman a cikin Larabci da Turanci da kuma Hausa. Wad’annan rubuce-rubucen,  tare da gudunmuwar kafofin yad’a labarai, sun taimaka wajen ha’bakar ruk’iyya da yad’uwarta ko’ina, ta zama ruwan dare game duniya, musamman a wannan lokaci na ‘Dayanta Duniya. Haka kuma, ruk’iyya ta zama wata hanya ta dogaro da kai, saboda an rik’e ta a matsayin sana’a.

 

Shawarwari:


Kasancewar ruk’iyya wani sabon ilimin da ya samu rubuce-rubuce cikin harshen Larabci da Turanci da kuma Hausa, akwai bukatar:

  1. Saka ruk’iyya (ruk’ya) a cikin Manhajar karatun Hausa, tun daga Sakandare.

  2. Masana na hukuma kom masu zaman kansu, su bud’e yanar gizo (intrrnet) a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya, domin sauk’ak’a bincike.

  3. Jami’o’i su samu had’in guiwa da wasu Cibiyoyin bincike don kiran taron k’ara wa juna sani na duniya a kan sha’anin ruk’iyya.

  4. Hukuma ta bud’e ma’aikata ta musamman a kan Magungunan Gargajiya, k’ark’ashin Ma’aikatar Kiyon Lafiya.

  5. Asibitocinmu su bud’e ‘bangaren Ruk’iyya a Sashen kula K’wak’walwa, domin fad’ad’a bincike.


 

 

MANAZARTA


Abul-Mundhir, K.I.A. (2005), The Jinn and Human Sickness: Remedies in the Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah. An English translation of Atturuk’ul Hisaan Fi Ilaji Amraad Al-Jinn. Darussalam, Jiddah.

 

Al’ashk’ar, U.S. (1989), Alimus Sihiri Was Sha’awazah: K’udus: Darun Nafa’is.

 

Al-Jauziyah, I. I. (1999) Healing With the Medicine of the Prophet (SAW). Fassarar Turanci daga Jalal Abual Rub. Riyadh, Saudiyya: Darussalam.

 

Bunza, A.M. (1995), Magungunan Hausa A Rubuce.” Kundin digiri na uku (PhD) Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya. Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

 

Bunza, A.M. (2006), “BORUK’IYYA: Tazarar Bori da Ruk’iyya A idon Manazarta”. Takardar da aka gabatar a taron tattaunawa da qara wa juna sani na musamman da Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya Jami'ar Bayaro, Kano ta shirya kan "Bori" da "Ruk’iyya", ranar 19 ga Maris, 2005, a babban d’akin taro na Jami'ar.

 

Bunza, A.M. (2006) Gadon Fed’e Al’ada : Lagos: IBRASH LTD.

 

C.N.H.N (2006) K’amusun Hausa, Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya. Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

 

Gobir, Y.A (2002) “Iskoki a Idon ’Yan bori da Masu Ruk’iyya”. Kundin digiri na            biyu M.A), Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya. Sakkwato: Jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo.

 

Gobir, Y.A (2010) “Huld’ar Soyayya Tsakanin ‘Dan Adam da Iska”. Cikin         KONJOLLS: Kontagora Journal of Languages and Literatures. Kontagora: FCT.

 

Gobir, Y.A (2012) “Tasirin Iskoki Ga Cutuka da Magungunan Hausawa”. Kundin digiri na uku (PhD), Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya. Sakkwato: Jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo.

 

Greenberg, J. (1946), The influence of Islam Sudanese Religion. Monographs of the American Ethnological society. London : 10, New York Seattle.

 

Ibrahim A. Abdu Alim (1999), "Arraddul Mubin Ala Bidi'il Mu'alijina Wa as'ilatil Ha'irina Fi Majalil Massi Was Sihiri Wa alak’atihi Bid’ d’ibbi Wad din". Misra (Egypt):  Darul Bayan.

 

Ibrahim, S.M. (1982), “Dangantakar Al’ada da Addini: Tasirin Musulunci           Kanm Hausawa”   Kundin Digiri Na Biyu Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya. Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

 

Isma’ila, H.A. (1981), “Islamic Medicine and Its Influence on Traditional            Hausa Practitioners in Northern Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis. Wisconsin: Madison University.

Rodney, M.C. (1970) Sociology of Medicine. McGraw-Hill Book company, New York.

 

Sa’eed, A.M.A. (2005) The Evil Eye. Lagos: Minaeret Books International. Nigeria.

 

Wahid, A.B. (1988), Wik’ãyatul Insãn Minal Jinn Was Shaid’ãn. Misra (Egypt): Darul Bashir.

 

Wall, L. (1988) Hausa Medicine: Illness and Well-Being In a West African Culture. Durhma: NC Duke Univeristy Press.

 

’Yand’aki, A. I. (1990) “A History of the Izala Movement in Northern Nigeria up to 1989”. M.A. Thesis, Department of History. Sokoto: Usmanu Danfodiyo University.

 

Zakariyya, M.N.Z. (1997), Maganin Kowace Irin Cuta. Littafi na d’aya. Kaduna: Kamfanin Alkauthar.

[i] Dubi Calvin Y. Garba (1990) “Kamus na Harshen Hausa” Evans Brothers (Nigeria Published Ltd) shafi        na 75.

[ii] Dubi Alkur’ani sura 2:aya 3.

[iii] Dubi Alkur’ani sura 46:aya29, sura 6:130, sura 55:33, da sauransu.

[iv] Dubi Alkur’ani Sura ta 7 Aya 38 da 179, Sura 72.

[v] Dubi K’amus na Almu'jamul Wasid’, Juz'i na 1, shafi na 367.

[vi] Hira da Malam Iliyasu Muhammad Gummi, mataimakin Shugaban K’ungiyar masu ruk’iyyah Jihar Sakkwato, a gidansa da ke shiyar Low Cost No. 4G. Ranar 29/08/2000.

[vii] Dubi Bunza, A.M (2000) "Muhallin Hankali Da Bagiren Hauka A Hausance", Muk’ala cikin Mujallar Hausa Studies, 2.2: Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeiya, Jami'ar Usmanu ‘Dan Fodiyo, Sakkwato. Shafi na 129.

[viii] Dubi Umar S. Al'ashk’ar (1989) “Alimus sihir was- sha’awazah" Darul Nafas K’udus shafi na 202..

[ix]

[x] Dubi Sura Al- Gafir, Aya ta 70.

[xi] Dubi Sura Al-Bakara, Aya ta 186

[xii] Dubi Sura Al-Isra’I, aya ta 82.

[xiii] Dubi Zakariyya, M.M Zariya (1997) “Maganin kowace irin cuta”. Na Daya. Kamfaminin Alkausar, Kaduna. Shafi na 8.

[xiv] Dubi Usamah M. A’iwadiy (babu shekara) “Alminhajil Kur'ani fi Ilajis sihir Wal massish- shaidan” Darul Kalimatut tayyib. Shafi na 227.

[xv]  Abdullahi Idris Muhammad (babu shekara) “Fitar da aljani daga jikin dan Adam ta hanyar Alkur’ani (rukiyya)” Danfadiyo Islamic Health Centre, Dorayi karama, Kano. Shafi na 13-17

[xvi] Umar Muhammad Bagarawa, "Hira da muka yi da shi a gidansa bayan Emir Yahaya Road, Sakkwato, 12/11/2000.

[xvii] Don Karin bayani, dubi lamba 26, shafi na 231-237.

[xviii] Hira da Malam Iliyasu Muhammad Gummi, mataimakin Shugaban K’ungiyar masu ruk’iyyah Jihar Sakkwato, a gidansa da ke shiyar Low Cost No. 4G. Ranar 29/08/2000.

[xix] Marigayi Shaikh Ja’afar ya fad’a a cikin jawabinsa na alk’alancin muhawarar da aka gabatar, tsakanin Malam Mahmud Kano da Malam Taha Adamu (Baba Impossible),a kan sha’anin Ruk’iyya, d’akin taro na Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriaya, Jami’ar Bayero Kano, ranar 19 Maris, 2005.

[xx] Jaridar Aminiya, Juma’a 9 ga Nuwamba, 2012. Shafi na 4.

[xxi] Sashen Hausa, Rediyon Muryar Amurka, cikin Shirin ‘Ciki da Gaskiya...’ Ranar Litinin 17/06/2013.

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