Hausa Language Academic Website

Wednesday, 27 September 2017

Nahawun KeƂaƂƂun Kalmomin Intanet Na Hausa


Daga


Jamilu Ibrahim Mukoshy
Jami’ar Usmanu ďanfodiyo Sakkwato
Waya: +234 803 8353 662
Imel: jmukoshy@gmail.com


MuƘalar da aka gabatar a taron Ƙasa na farko kan Hausawa da
Harshen Hausa da Tarihinsu wanda Sashen Nazarin Harsunan
Nijeriya da Kimiyyar Harsuna na Jami’ar Jihar Kaduna ya shirya daga
22 – 25 ga watan Maris 2015 a Jami’ar Jihar Kaduna, Kaduna.


 

ABSTRACT


This paper titled “Nahawun KeƂaƂƂun Kalmomin Intanet Na Hausa” (The Syntactic Aspect of
Hausa Internet Terms) is an attempt to developing internet terminology in Hausa language. With
regard to the definition of ‘grammar’ as a systematic study of language, this paper concentrated
mainly on the syntax of Hausa and in particular the word classes. The study found that Hausa
internet terms could be classified into nouns, verbs and adjectives respectively. 25 examples
were used to illustrate the result of the study conducted. Thus, the paper concludes that Hausa,
regarding its geographical area and the population of its speakers, has a bright future on the
internet. The horizon can be expanded by adhering to the following suggestions: Firstly,
scholars should partake in the documentation of computer and internet related terminologies
and other new areas of development. Secondly, Hausa people should participate fully in all the
areas of computer and internet usage. And thirdly, the business community and stakeholders
should invest in the areas of computer and ICT development.

1.0 Ma’ana Da Sharhin Muhimman Kalmomi


Muhimman kalmomi a wannan muƘala su ne ‘Nahawu’ da ‘KeƂaƂƂun Kalmomi’ da
kuma ‘intanet’. Ga ma’anoni da sharhinsu a Ƙasa.

a. Nahawu:

A ƘarƘashin fannin kimiyyar harshe (linguistics), an bayyana ma’anar ‘nahawu’ a
Ingilishi kamar haka:
Grammar is the systematic study of a giƂen language.
Fassara: Nahawu shi ne zuzzurfan nazari kuma tsararre na kowane harshe.
Wannan ita ce ma’anar ‘nahawu’ wadda masana irin su Chomsky (1977) da Radford
(1981) da Amfani (1996) da wasu da dama suka amince da ita. Ƙarin bayani a kan wannan
ma’ana ta nahawu shi ne, dole zuzzurfan nazarin na harshe ya Ƙunshi nazarin fannin tsarin furuci
(phonology); da fannin tasarifi (morphology); da fannin tsarin ginin jimla (syntax) da kuma
fannin ma’ana (semantics). Sai dai a nan, wannan muƘala ta kalli fannin ginin jimla ne kawai
(syntax). Fannin ginin jimla (syntax) a harshe ya ta’allaƘa ne ga rabon kalmomin harshe zuwa
aji-aji da kuma dokokin amfani da waďannan kalmomi domin su tayar da jimla.

b. KeƂaƂƂun Kalmomi:

Newman (1990:274) ta ba da ma’anar keƂaƂƂun kalmomi da cewa; a Ingilishi kalmar ita
ce terminology. Kuma kalmar tana da ma’anar: “A glossary of technical terminology.” A harshen
Hausa kuwa, an fassara ma’anar kalmar ‘terminology’ kamar haka:

Jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomi na fannu.


Wannan ma’ana tana nufin wani rukuni na kalmomi waďanda musamman suka keƂanta
ga wani fanni. Fannin yana iya kasancewa na rayuwa kamar kiyon lafiya ko shari’a ko
kasuwanci da sauransu. Masana irin su Yahaya (1988) da Newman da Newman (2001) da
Amfani (2005a) da Newman (2012) sun kawo jerin sunayen wasu daga cikin mashahuran
ayyukan da aka yi a kan keƂaƂƂun kalmomi a Hausa. A nan, wannan muƘala ta kalli jerin
keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa ne kawai.

c. Intanet:

Masana irin su Muhammad (2004) da Tsangarwa (2006) da Almajir (2008) da Umar
(2012) da Mukoshy (2015) sun ba da ra’ayoyinsu daban-daban kan ma’anar intanet. Wannan
muƘala ta bi sawun ra’ayoyinsu ta taƘaita ma’anar intanet da cewa:
Intanet kafar sadarwa ce ta na’urorin zamani wadda ta game duk
duniya. Tana ba da damar sadar da bayanai kowaďanne iri, kuma
zuwa ko’ina a duniya cikin ďan ƘanƘanin lokaci.
Abin da za a fahimta daga ma’anar intanet shi ne:

i. Intanet kafa ce ko hanyar sadarwa.
ii. Ana iya aika bayanai kowaďanne iri daga ko’ina zuwa ko’ina a faďin duniya a kan
intanet.
iii. Akwai na’urori da dama da suke amfani da wannan kafar ta sadarwa.
iƂ. Intanet hanyar sadarwa ce wadda take taƘaita Ƃata lokaci.

2.0 Nazarin KeƂaƂƂun Kalmomin Intanet Na Hausa A Fannin Ginin Jimla


Amfani (2005b) ya ce ana iya rarraba azuzuwan kalmomin Hausa zuwa kashi biyu.
Akwai buďaďďun azuzuwa da kuma rufaffun azuzuwa. Buďaďďun azuzuwan kalmomi na Hausa
su ne azuzuwan kalmomi waďanda ake iya Ƙara wa sababbin kalmomi, kamar ajin suna (noun)
da ajin aikatau (verb). Skinner (1977) ya nuna cewa waďannan azuzuwa su suka fi samun
Ƙaruwa da bunƘasa a dalilin sababbin kalmomin da harshe ke samu a-kai a-kai. Ajin bayanau
(adverbs) da ajin sifa (adjectives) su ma suna samun sababbin kalmomi, amma ba kasafai ba.
Wannan rukuni na azuzuwan kalmomi a kullum yana samun Ƙaruwa da bunƘasa saboda
samuwar sababbin kalmomi ko dai ta hanyar ƘirƘira, ko fassara daga wasu harsuna da sauran
hanyoyin samar da kalmomi a harshe. Su kuwa rufaffun azuzuwan kalmomi sun Ƙunshi ajin

wakilin suna (pronoun) da ajin haruffa (prepositions) da ajin Ƙirgau (Ƙuantifiers). Duk waďannan
an kira su rufaffi domin ba a samun sababbin kalmomi waďanda za su shiga cikinsu.
Bugu da Ƙari, Amfani (2005b), ya Ƙara da cewa Chomsky (1986) ya ce ana iya rarraba
dukkan kalmomin harshe zuwa gida huďu kamar haka:

i. Suna iii. Sifa
ii. Aikatau iv. Harafi

Chomsky (1986) ya ci gaba da cewa ana iya bambancewa tsakanin waďannan kalmomi ta
hanyar amfani da wata daraja ta nuna kasancewa suna (+S) ko ta kasancewa aikatau (+A).
Akasin haka shi ne kalma ta kasance ba suna ba (-S) ko ba aikatau ba (-A).
Misali na 1:
i. Suna (S) = [+S, -A]
ii. Aikatau (A) = [+A, -S]
iii. Sifa (Sf) = [+S, +A]
iƂ. Harafi (H) = [–S, -A]

Abin nufi a nan shi ne, suna, shi ne (+S) ba shi da wata alaƘa da aikatau (-A). Aikatau,
shi ne (+A) ba shi da wata alaƘa da suna (-S). Sifa ta shafo suna (+S), ta kuma shafo aikatau
(+A). Harafi bai shafi suna ba (-S) haka kuma bai shafi aikatau ba (-A).
Wannan muƘala ta kalli azuzuwan kalmomi uku waďanda keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet
suka shiga cikinsu. Azuzuwan kalmomin da aka yi nazari a kansu su ne ajin suna da ajin aikatau
da ajin sifa. Bari mu ga yadda keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa suka zo cikin waďannan
azuzuwa ďaya bayan ďaya.

2.1 Ajin Suna (Noun)


Dangane da keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa, akwai kalmomi da dama da suka faďo
a cikin wannan aji na sunaye.
Ga wasu misalai na kalmomin intanet waďanda aka shigo da su cikin Hausa, waďanda
kuma sunaye ne.
Misali na 2: intanet imel bulog hafalinki
saba bandawit modem Google
Idan aka kalli waďannan kalmomi, za a ga cewa dukkan su sababbin kalmomi ne da aka
shigo da su cikin Hausa. Haka kuma kowace kalma suna ce mai bayyana wani abu a sha’anin
intanet ko sadarwa a intanet ko kuma sha’anin kwamfuta gaba ďaya. Kodayake mun game

waďannan kalmomi na intanet, mun yi musu bugun ďan kaďanya cewa sunaye ne, duk da haka za
mu rarraba su kamar haka:
Misali na 3:
a. Sunayen na’urorin sadarwar intanet: modemsaba
b. Sunayen shafukan intanet: Yahoo Google
c. Sunayen hanyar sadarwa ta intanet: imel bulog
d. Sunayen kalmomin kimiyyar sadarwa: hafalinki bandawit
Bagari (1986) ya ce, ana iya kassafa ajin sunaye a Hausa zuwa suna na zahiri (concrete
noun); da suna na baďini (abstract noun); sunaye waďanda ake iya lisafawa (countable noun); da
sunaye waďanda ba a iya lisafawa (uncountable noun). Bari mu ga yadda keƂaƂƂun kalmomin
intanet na Hausa suka shiga cikin wannan rabo na ajin sunaye.

2.1.1 Sunaye Na Baďini


Rukunin sunaye na baďini su ake kira Abstract Nouns a Ingilishi. Bayani game da irin
waďannan sunaye a Hausa ya fito cikin ayyuka da yawa. Misali, ya fito a ayyukan Parsons
(1955) da Amfani (1984) da Newman (2000) da Jaggar (2001) da Zarruk da wasu (2005) da
Yusuf (2011) da kuma Abubakar (2012). A dukkan waďannan ayyuka an nuna cewa sunaye na
baďini su ne waďanda ba a jin su ko a taƂa su, kuma ba a ganin su, amma kuma akwai su.
Misalan irin waďannan sunaye a Hausa su ne:
Misali na 4: gaskiya imani soyayya lafiya arziki
A jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa akwai wasu kalmomi da suka shiga cikin
kason sunaye na baďini na Hausa. Ga misalin wasu daga cikin kalmomin:
Misali na 5:

a. damfara (phishing) d. yarjejeniya (disclosure)
b. laƂewa (lurking) e. sanarwa (notice)
c. bincike (search)

Dukkan waďannan kalmomin sunaye ne baďini. Haka kuma, kowace kalma tana ďaukar
ma’anarta ta asali a cikin harshen Hausa. Alal misali, cikin Sa’id da wasu (editoci) (2006)
Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, an bayyana ma’anar kalmar damfara kamar haka: “Yaudara
ko zamba da ake yi wa wani mutum da yake zaton zai sami wata Ƙaruwa.” Wannan ita ce
ma’anar kalmar ‘damfara’ a Hausance. An ari wannan kalmar kai tsaye tare da ma’anarta don ta
maye gurbin kalmar phishing ta intanet, kuma ma’anar phishing ba ta sauya ba. Wato ke nan
phishing (damfara) a intanet tana nufin: “Amfani da yaudara domin samun wani abu daga
hannun wani da yake zaton zai samu wata Ƙaruwa a kan intanet.”

1 Waďannan duk keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet ne waďanda mai bincike ya fassara.

Haka ita ma kalmar yarjejeniya, a cikin Sa’id da wasu (editoci) (2006) Ƙamusun Hausa
na Jami’ar Bayero, an kawo ma’anarta kamar haka: “Yarda da juna a kan wani sharaďi da aka
Ƙulla.” A jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa, an ari kalmar “yarjejeniya” tare da
ma’anarta don ta fassara “disclosure”. Wato ke nan disclosure a intanet tana nufin: “Amincewa
tsakanin shafin intanet da mai amfani da shi a bisa wani sharaďi.” Saboda haka, ita ma wannan
kalmar ta riƘe ma’anarta ta asali a harshen Hausa. Haka kuma abin yake dangane da sauran
kalmomin da aka kawo a sama. Kowace kalma ta Hausa da aka ara don ta fassara wata keƂaƂƂar
kalmar intanet, tana nan ďauke da ma’anarta ta asali a harshen Hausa. Kuma irin wannnan
ma’ana ko tunani da kalmar take bayyanawa a Hausa, shi ne har wa yau kalmar take bayyanawa
a sha’anin intanet.

2.1.2 Suna Na Zahiri (Concrete Nouns)


A ilmin nahawu, akwai rukunin sunaye waďanda ake kira “Sunaye na Zahiri”, wato
Concrete Nouns a Ingilishi. Dangane da ma’anar suna na zahiri, Zarruk da wasu (2005) da
Junaidu da ‘Yar’aduwa (2007) suna kan ra’ayin cewa: “Suna na zahiri kalmomi ne na nahawu
waďanda ake iya gani ko ake iya taƂawa a zahiri”. Ga misali:
Misali na 6: gado kujera jirgi gida dutse
A jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa, akwai sunaye na zahiri. Wato sunayen
abubuwa ne waďanda ana iya ganinsu a zahiri, a kuma taƂa. Ga misali:
Misali na 7: a. sifika (speaker) d. kyamara (camera)
b. kwamfuta (computer) e. ruta (router)
c. firinta (printer) f. akala (mouse)
Idan muka ďauki kalmominmu na misali na 7, sai mu ga cewa sun kasu gida biyu: (i)
waďanda aka ara daga Ingilishi zuwa Hausa (7a-e) da kuma (ii) waďanda ma’anarsu ta Hausa ta
sa aka yi amfani da su kai tsaye (7f). Alal misali, kalmar “akala” a cikin Sa’id da wasu (editoci)
(2006) Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, tana da ma’anar “Igiyar da ake ďaure haƂar Ƙasa ta
raƘumi don a ja.” Abin lura a nan shi ne, da akala ake jan raƘumi a tafi da shi duk inda ake so.
Da yaro da babba, duk wanda ya ja akalar, raƘumi bin kawai zai yi. A sha’anin kwamfuta, akwai
wata na’ura ‘yar Ƙarama wadda ake sarrafa kwamfuta ta hanyar yawatawa da ita a hannu. Da ita
ake zaƂar abin da ake so a cikin kwamfuta ta hanyar latsa wasu maƂallai na na’urar (click). Duk
wanda ya riƘe wannan na’ura, zai iya sarrafa kwamfuta ko intanet. Shi ya sanya aka kira wannan
na’ura ‘akala’.

Ƙarin Bayani:
A sashe na (2.1.1) da na (2.1.2) an yi magana kan sunaye na baďini da na zahiri. To, a
harkar kwamfuta, akwai wasu kalmomi guda biyu waďanda ya kamata a yi bayaninsu.
Kalmomin su ne (a.) Haduwaya (Hardware) da (b.) Sofwaya (Software). Kalmar hardware
wadda muka ara a Hausa, muka kira ta haduwaya, kalma ce da ta shafi dukkan kayan kwamfuta
ko na’urorinta waďanda ake iya gani kuma ake iya taƂawa a zahiri. Ita kuwa kalmar software
wadda muka ara a Hausa, muka kira ta sofwaya, kalma ce da ta shafi dukkan kayan kwamfuta
waďanda ba a ganinsu kuma ba a iya taƂa su a zahiri. Ga misalan wasu daga cikin kalmomin don
Ƙarin haske.
Misali na 8: a) Kalmomin kwamfuta na haduwaya:
akala (mouse)
sifika (speaker)
firinta (printer)
b) Kalmomin kwamfuta na sofwaya:
Farsasar rubutu ta Microsoft (Microsoft Office)
Intanet Isfulora (Internet Eďplorer)
Manzila Fayafos (Mozilla Firefoď)

2.1.3 Sunaye Ƙirgau (Countable Nouns)


Kalmar ‘Ƙirgau’ ana amfani da ita da ma’anar’Ƙuantifiers’ ta Ingilishi. ‘Suna Ƙirgau’ shi
kuma yana nufin Countable Nouns a Ingilishi. Akwai sunaye a Hausa waďanda ake kira ‘Sunaye
Ƙirgau’. A Hausa, akwai misalan ‘suna Ƙirgau’ kamar haka:
Misali na 9: mutum, mutane, dabba, dabbobi
Suna Ƙirgau shi ne wannan suna wanda an iya Ƙirga shi. Don haka suna Ƙirgau a
kodayaushe yana iya zuwa a tilo ko jam’i. Kalmar ‘dabba’ suna Ƙirgau ce tilo. Kalmar ‘dabbobi’
suna Ƙirgau ce amma jam’i.
A cikin jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa an samu kalmomi na ajin suna Ƙirgau
waďanda ana iya rarrabewa tsakanin tilo da jam’insu. Domin sauƘaƘa fahimta, ga yadda aka
gabatar da jam’inta sunaye Ƙirgau na kwamfuta da intanet.
2.1.3.1 Sunaye Ƙirgau Na Haduwaya (Hardware)
Waďannan sunaye ne na na’urorin da suka haďu suka yi kwamfuta waďanda ana ganin su,
ana iya taƂa su kuma a yi amfani da su wajen aiki da sarrafa kwamfuta. Abin lura a nan shi ne
kwamfuta haďaka ce ta haduwaya-haduwaya da sofwaya-sofwaya daban-daban. Kuma daga

cikin haduwaya-haduwaya da suka haďu suka yi kwamfuta har da haduwaya na sadarwa na
intanet. Ga misalan yadda ake jam’inta sunaye Ƙirgau na intanet.
Misali na 10: Tilo Jam’i
a. ruta (router) ruta-ruta (routers)
b. saba (saƂer) saba-saba (saƂers)
c. modem (modem) modem-modem (modems)
d. sifika (speaker) sifika-sifika (speakers)
e. firinta (printer) firinta-firinta (printers)
2.1.3.2 Sunaye Ƙirgau na Sofwaya (Software)
Kwamfuta tana da na’urori waďanda ake sarrafawa domin amfani da ita. Ana iya ganinsu
amma ba a iya taƂa su a zahiri, sai dai a yi amfani da su ta kwamfuta. Irin waďannan na’urori sun
kasu kashi biyu, akwai waďanda kwamfuta kaďai ke sarrafa su domin amfanin kanta (system
software). Akwai kuma waďanda mai amfani da kwamfuta yake sarrafawa domin amfani da
kwamfutar ko intanet (application software), kuma irin waďannan sofwaya-sofwaya su ne ake
iya Ƙirga adadinsu da ke cikin kwamfuta. Duk da yake hannu ba ya iya taƂa su a zahiri, sai dai a
taƂa su ta amfani da akala (mouse).
Misali na 11: Tilo Jam’i
a. Burauza (browser) Burauza-burauza (browsers)
b. Rigakafi (antiƂirus) Rigakafi-rigakafi (antiƂirus)
Dukkan sofwaya na kwamfuta, musamman na intanet ana iya saka su a cikin kwamfuta
(install). Haka kuma ana iya fitar da su daga kwamfuta (uninstall). Saboda haka, ana iya gane
adadinsu a cikin kwamfuta.
A nan, ba za mu kawo sunayen sofwaya waďanda kwamfuta take amfani da su da kanta
ba, saboda waďannan dalilai. Na farko, mai amfani da kwamfuta ko intanet ba ya ganin
waďannan na’urori, ballantana a yi zancen Ƙirga adadin su. Dalili na biyu shi ne, mai amfani da
kwamfuta ko intanet ba ya da damar fitar da waďannan na’urorin (uninstall), ballantana ya yi
tunanin Ƙara adadinsu.

2.1.4 Sunaye Waďanda Ba A Iya Ƙirgawa (Uncountable Nouns)


A Hausa akwai sunayen da ba a iya lissafawa, ko dai saboda ƘanƘantarsu Ƙwarai ko
kuma saboda rashin samun Ƙwayoyinsu. Irin waďannan sunaye su ake kira Uncountable Nouns a
Ingilishi. Idan har ana buƘatar misalta adadin irin waďannan sunaye sai an yi amfani da wani
ma’auni. Ga misali:

Misali na 12: madara Gwangwanin madara
ruwa Gorar ruwa
gero Buhun gero
A jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa, akwai sunaye waďanda ba a iya Ƙirga su
sai an yi amfani da wani ma’auni. Ma’aunin da ake amfani da shi, shi ne na filin kwamfuta, wato
bayit (byte).
Misali na 13: a. Bandawit (bandwidth) Bandawit mai yawan gigabayit huďu.
b. Bidiyo (Ƃideo) Bidiyo mai yawan megabayit hamsin.
c. Bayani (data) Bayani mai yawan kilobayit biyar.
d. Kuki (cookie) Kuki mai yawan bayit uku.

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/09/25/garin-ba%c6%99a%c6%99e/

2.2 Ajin Aikatau (verbs)


Wannan ajin na kalmomi nahawun Hausa ya tattara kalmomi ne musamman waďanda
suka danganci yanayi ko halayya ko aiwatar da wani aiki. Ajin kalmomin aikatau a Hausa yana
da muhimmanci domin kalmominsa ne ke nuna abin da ‘aikau’ (subject) yake aiwatarwa.
Misali na 14: tafi, rubuta, kama, dafa, ďaura.
Wani fitaccen rabo da aka yi na aikatan Hausa shi ne na kasa aikatau gida biyu, wato
aikatau so-karƂau da aikatau Ƙi-karƂau. Abin nufi shi ne akwai wasu aikatau masu karƂar
mafa’uli, waďanda ake kira ‘aikatau so-karƂau’ (transitiƂe verbs). Akwai kuma aikatau waďanda
ba su karƂar mafa’uli, waďanda ake kira ‘aikatau Ƙi-karƂau’ (intransitiƂe verbs). Ga misalansu:
Misali na 15a: kama, dafa, ďaura.
Waďannan misalai ne na aikatau so-karƂau. Ga su a cikin jimlolin Hausa:
Misali na 15b: Audu ya kama kaza.
Binta ta dafa nama.
Ali ya ďaura agogo.
Kalmomin kaza da nama da agogo su ne karƂau ďin.
A tsarin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa akwai kalmomin da suka faďa cikin
wannan ajin na aikatau. Ga misalin kalmomin intanet waďanda aikatau ne so-karƂau:
Misali na 16a: Sabunta (update)
Wannan kalma tana buƘatar ‘karƂau’ domin Ƙara fayyace ta. Ga misali a cikin jimla:
Misali na 16b: Binta ta sabunta bulog.
(Binta updated the blog)

A nan, kalmar sabunta a misali na 16a da 16b kalmar aikatau so-karƂau ce. Idan ta zo a
cikin jimla tana buƘatar karƂau. Saboda haka, kalmar bulog da ta zo a misali na 16b ita ce
karƂau ďin.
A Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, na Sa’id da wasu (editoci) (2006) sun kawo
ma’anar kalmar ‘sabunta’ kamar haka: “Mayar da abu sabo.” A nan, mun ari kalmar ‘sabunta’
tare da ma’anarta domin fassara kalmar ‘update’ ta Ingilishi. Saboda haka, kalmar ‘sabunta’ a
intanet tana da ma’anar: “Mayar da sofwaya/shafi/bayani sabo.” Ke nan, kalmar sabunta
(update) da kalmar ‘sabunta’ ta Hausa suna da ma’ana iri ďaya.
Akwai kuma kalmomin intanet waďanda suna aiki irin na aikatau Ƙi-karƂau. Ga misali:
Misali na 17a: (i) shiga (ii) fita
Waďannan kalmomi duk ba su buƘatar karƂau. Ga misalansu a cikin jimla:
Misali na 17b: (i) Ali ya a shiga (Ali has signed-in)
(ii) Ladi ta a fita (Ladi has signed-out)
A waďannan misalai da ke sama, wato misali na 17a da 17b kalmomin shiga da fita su ne
aikatau Ƙi-karƂau.

Ƙarin Bayani:
A Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, na Sa’id da wasu (editoci) (2006) an bayyana
ma’anar kalmar ‘shiga’ da cewa: “Saka kai ko wani abu a wani wuri.” A jerin keƂaƂƂun
kalmomin intanet na Hausa, mun ari kalmar ‘shiga’ domin fassara kalmar “sign-in” ta Ingilishi.
Saboda haka, a jerin kalmomin intanet, kalmar “sign-in” tana da ma’anar “Saka suna ko wasu
bayanai domin samun damar shiga wani shafi na intanet.” Ke nan, kalmar ‘shiga’ (sign-in) da
kalmar ‘shiga’ ta Hausa suna da ma’ana iri ďaya.
Ita kuma kalmar ‘fita’ an ba da ma’anarta cikin Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, na
Sa’id da wasu (editoci) (2006), da cewa: “Baro cikin abu zuwa wajensa.” A jerin keƂaƂƂun
kalmomin intanet na Hausa mun ari kalmar ‘fita’ domin fassara kalmar “sign-out” ta Ingilishi. A
sha’anin intanet, kalmar “sign-out” tana da ma’anar “Baro cikin shafi zuwa wajensa.” Ke nan a
nan ma, kalmar ‘fita’ (sign-out) da kalmar ‘fita’ ta Hausa duk suna da ma’ana iri ďaya.

2.3 Ajin Sifa (Adjectives)


Ajin sifa a Hausa wani muhimmin aji ne da ya tattara kalmomi waďanda ake amfani da su
domin fayyace suna ko kuma Ƙarin bayani kan suna.

Ana amfani da sifa domin bayyana sunaye na intanet ko yin Ƙarin bayani a kansu. Sai dai
abin lura a nan shi ne, ba kowace sifa ta Hausa take iya ba da cikakken bayani a kan suna na
intanet ba. Alal misali idan muka ďauki kalmar bandawit, (mun ari wannan suna domin fassara
bandwidth a Ingilishi). Samun isasshen bandawit shi ke ba da damar shiga intanet tare da
yawatawa a shafuka daban-daban cikin sauri. Haka kuma isasshen bandawit ke ba mutane masu
yawa damar shiga intanet ta shafuka daban-daban kuma a lokaci guda. Rashin isasshen bandawit
shi zai rage wa shafi sauri wajen buďewa, musamman idan aka ci karo da cinkoson jama’a.
Lokuta da dama rashin isasshen bandawit yakan gurgunta shiga intanet. Ta la’akari da
muhimmancin bandawit wajen shige da fice na intanet shi ya sa aka zaƂo siffofin High da Low a
Ingilishi domin bayyana yawa ko Ƙarancin bandawit. Ga misali a Ƙasa:
Misali na 18: Ingilishi Hausa

a. High bandwidth Bandawit mai yawa
b. Low bandwidth Bandawit maras yawa

A Ingilishi, idan bandawit ya wadata ana sifanta shi da “High Bandwidth”. Wato akwai
bandawit mai yawa kenan. Haka kuma idan ya Ƙaranta ana sifanta shi da “Low Bandawidth”.
Bandawit maras yawa kenan. A lura cewa a Ingilishi akwai sifar large wadda tana bayyana yawa
ko girma. Haka kuma akwai sifar “small” wadda take bayyana Ƙaranci ko ƘanƘanta. Amma ba a
yi amfani da sifofin “large” da “small” ba, saboda ma’anoninsu ba su sifanta kalmar
“bandwidth” yadda ake buƘata ba. Ƙarin bayani a nan shi ne “High” da “Low”, ba babba ko
Ƙarami suke bayyanawa ba. Haka kuma ba “tall” da “short” ba ne, domin ba dogo ko gajere
suke bayyanawa ba. A’a, sifofin suna bayyana yalwa da taƘaitar bandawit ne. Shi ya sa a Hausa
ba zai yiwu a sifanta bandawit da fassarar sifofin “High” da “Low” ba.

A lura, a Hausa ana iya amfani da sifar dogo domin fassara sifar “High” ta Ingilishi. Ana
kuma iya amfani da sifar gajere domin fassara sifar “Low” ta Ingilishi. Amma ba mu yi hakan
ba, saboda sifofin dogo da gajere na Hausa ba za su ba da cikakken bayani game da isa ko rashin
isar bandawit ba. Saboda shi bandawit ba da tsawo ko gajarta ake sifanta shi ba. Sai dai a sifanta
shi da yawa ko Ƙaranci. A nan sai muka ari kalmomin yalwatacce da taƘaitacce, muka yi amfani
da su domin sifanta bandawit, kamar yadda ya zo a misali na 19 da ke Ƙasa:
Misali na 19: Hausa Ingilishi
a. Yalwataccen bandawit = High bandwidth
b. TaƘaitaccen bandawit = Low bandwidth

Idan kuma muka ďauki Filash wanda muka ara daga Ingilishi domin fassara “USB Flash
Drive”, za a ga cewa ‘Filash’ na’ura ce da ake haďawa da kwamfuta ta mahaďin USB. Kowane
filash yana da kai irin na USB a matsayin mahaďinsa. Ana iya amfani da Filash domin ďaukar
bayanai (data) kamar hotuna da bidiyo da waƘoƘi ko sautuka da kuma rubutattun bayanai. Mafi
yawanci tsawon Filash shi ne inci uku (inci 3) ko Ƙasa da haka. Nauyinsa kuma bai faye wuce
gram talatin (gram 30) ba. Ana samunsa a launuka daban-daban. Akasari ana bambanta Filashfilash
ta girmansu. Girma a nan ba yana nuni ne ga girma na zahiri ba. A’a girma ne na ci, wato
na haďiyar bayanai. A yau, mafi ƘanƘantar Filash shi ne mai haďiyar bayanai masu yawan
gigabayit ďaya (1 GB).2 Mafi girma kuwa shi ne mai haďiyar gigabayit ďari biyar da goma sha
biyu (512 GB) wanda Kamfanin Kingston ya Ƙera a farkon shekarar 2013. A sha’anin kwamfuta
da intanet ana amfani da sifar “Large” da “Small” domin bayyana girma ko ƘanƘantar Filash. Ga
misali:
Misali na 20: Ingilishi Hausa
a. Large Flash = Filash mai haďiya. Daga gigabayit 64
(64 GB) zuwa sama.
b. Small Flash = Filash marar haďiya. Daga gigabayit 32
(32 GB) zuwa Ƙasa.
A Ingilishi sifofin Large da Small suna bayyana girma na cin filash ne, ba girma na jiki
ba. Wannan ya nuna ana samun Filash mai Ƙaramin jiki amma kuma mai cin bayanai da yawa.
Ana kuma samun Filash mai babban jiki amma ba ya cin bayanai masu yawa. Ta la’akari da
waďannan bayanai, sai muka zaƂi sifar Ƙasaitacce domin bayyana filash mai haďiyar bayanai
masu yawa (Large Flash). Wato “Large Flash” shi ne Ƙasaitaccen Filash. Mun zaƂi sifar
Ƙasaitacce saboda dacewa da kuma shaharar ma’anarta. Ba mu ce babba ko Ƙato ba, saboda ko a
Ingilishi ba a yi amfani da sifar big ko huge ba.
Haka kuma, mun ari sifar Mitsitsi domin bayyana filash wanda ba ya haďiyar bayanai
masu yawa (Small Flash). Wato “Small Flashi” shi ne Mitsitsin Filash. A nan, sifar mitsitsi ta fi
dacewa wajen isar da saƘo na sifar filash marar haďiya sosai. Sifar mitsitsi ba tana nuni ne ga
ƘanƘantar filash a zahiri ba. Tana bayyana Ƙarancinsa ne ta fuskar haďiyar bayanai. Da za a
sifanta Small Flash da ƘanƘantaccen filash, ma’anar ba za ta fito sosai ba. Wani abin lura shi ne

2 Gigabayit ďaya yana iya ďaukar littafi mai shafi 1,000 aƘalla guda 1,000.

ko a Ingilishi ba a yi amfani da sifofin “short” ko “little” ba. Duk da yake su ma suna bayyana
ƘanƘanta ne. Ga bayanin a cikin misali:
Misali na 21: Hausa Ingilishi
a. Ƙasaitaccen Filash = Large Flash.
b. Mitsitsin Filash = Small Flash.
Bugu da Ƙari, akwai suna Firinta da muka ara daga “Printer” a Ingilishi domin bayyana
na’urar da take ďab’in rubutu da hotuna a kan takarda daga kwamfuta. Galibi dai firinta-firinta
sun bambanta ne ta saurin aikinsu da kuma irin sinadarin da suke aikin ďab’i da shi. Saboda haka
akwai firinta iri uku kamar haka: (i) Inkjet printer da (ii) Laserjet printer da (iii) Solid ink printer.
Ga Ƙarin bayani a kan kowannensu:

i. Inkjet Printer: Wannan firinta ce da take ďab’i ta amfani da ruwan tawada (ink). Ta fi
sauƘin kuďi, saboda haka jama’a sun fi amfani da ita a gidaje da ofisoshi.
ii. Laserjet Printer: Wannan firinta tana amfani da garin tawada (toner) wajen ďab’i. ďab’in
wannan firinta ya fi inganci domin yana ďaukar lokaci mai tsawo kafin ya sauya ko ya
lalace. An fi amfani da wannan firinta a manyan ofisoshi da kuma shagunan sha’anin
kwamfuta da intanet.
iii. Solid ink Printer: Wannan babbar firinta ce wadda take amfani da kakin tawada3
(solid
ink) wajen aikin ďab’i. Ta fi kowace irin firinta biyan buƘata. Saboda ta fi sauri kuma
ďab’inta ya fi inganci. Sai dai tana da girma tana kuma da nauyi, bugu da Ƙari ga tsada.
Shi ya sa galibi sai manyan kamfanonin ďab’i ke amfani da irin wannan firinta.
A wajen fitar da sifofin waďannan firinta-firinta mun zaƂi ďaya daga cikin sifofinsu na
aiki. Mun lura da nau’ukan tawadar da suke aikin ďab’i da su. A sakamakon haka muka samu
firinta iri uku dangane da ire-iren tawadar da suke ďab’i da ita. Ga misalansu a Ƙasa.
Misali na 22: Hausa Ingilishi

a. Firinta mai tawada = Inkjet printer
b. Firinta mai gari = Laserjet printer
c. Firinta mai kaki = Solid ink printer
A nan, sifofin firinta su ne mai tawada da mai gari da kuma mai kaki. Suna kuwa shi ne
Firinta.

3 Kakin tawada shi ne daskararriyar tawada. Tana zuwa a samfuri irin na kakin zuma.

Wani abin lura game da sifa shi ne bayanin da Galadanci (1976) da Bagari (1986) da
Amfani (1996) da Newman (2000) suka yi kan yadda sifar take zuwa tare da suna. A Hausa
akwai hanya iri biyu da sifa take zuwa tare da suna. Hanya ta farko ita ce suna ya biyo sifa [Sifa -
Suna], kamar yadda muka gani a misalai na 19 da 21. Hanya ta biyu kuwa ita ce sifa ta biyo suna
[Suna - Sifa], kamar yadda ya zo a misali na 20. Wajen yin amfani da keƂaƂƂun kalmomin
intanet na Hausa, akan yin amfani da hanyoyin duka biyu ba tare da ma’ana ta sauya ba. A misali
na 19 da na 21, suna ne ya biyo sifa, kamar haka:
Misali na 23: (a) Yalwataccen Sifa + bandawit suna
(b) Mitsitsin Sifa + Filash suna
Da za a yi rawar ‘yan mata a cikin wannan misalin da ke sama, wato sifa ta biyo suna,
kamar yadda ya zo a misali na 24, to, lalle ma’ana ba za ta sauya ba.
Misali na 24: (a) Bandawit suna + yalwatacce Sifa
(b) Filashi suna + mitsitsi Sifa
Wato kenan, misali na 23 da misali na 24, duk ma’anar guda ce. Duk da cewa Hausa tana
yin amfani da waďannan hanyoyin biyu ba tare da sauyawar ma’ana ba, za mu tsare yin amfani
da hanya ta farko kawai inda suna yake biyo sifa, [sifa – suna].
Bugu da Ƙari, muna jawo hankali da cewa akwai kuma inda yin amfani da hanya ta biyu
(wato inda sifa take biyo suna) ba zai ba da ma’ana a Hausa ba. Misali, idan muka ďauki suna
Firinta, za mu ga cewa sifa tana biyo sunan ne kamar yadda ya zo a misali na 22(a-c) [Firinta suna
+ mai tawada sifa]. Dangane da keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa ba a sifanta suna Firinta ta
amfani da hanya ta farko (wato sifa – suna), domin kuwa ma’ana ba za ta fito ba. Ga misali:
Misali na 25:
* Mai tawada Sifa + firinta Suna
Daga wannan misali, mun ga cewa lallai in sifa ta gabaci suna, to ma’ana ba za ta fito ba.
Dalilin da za mu bayar a nan shi ne wataƘila harďaďďiyar sifa (compleď adjective) ba ta iya zuwa
kafin suna, sai dai ko sassauƘar sifa (simple adjective). Misali: farar sifa + firinta suna.

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/08/16/gudunmuwar-harshen-hausa-ga-siyasar-canji-a-arewacin-nijeriya/

3.0 Kammalawa


A wannan muƘala an gabatar da nazari ne kan keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa a
ƘarƘashin fannin nahawu. Amma an keƂanta ga fannin ginin jimla kawai. An dubi keƂaƂƂun

kalmomin intanet na Hausa inda suka fito a matsayin kalmomi ƘarƘashin fannin ginin jimla
(Syntax) tare da bitar ma’anonin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin da aka nazarta daga Ƙamusun Hausa.

4.0 Manazarta


Abubakar, N. 2012. “Sunaye Na Baďini Masu Motsa Rai Na Hausa.” M.A. Dissertation,
Department of Nigerian Languages, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.
Almajir, T. S. 2008. Hausa da Sadarwar Intanet. Harsunan Nijeriya, Vol. ďďI. CSNL - BUK,
Kano, Nigeria. Ames, D. W. and King, A. Ƃ. 1972. Glossary of Hausa Music and its
Social Conteďts. EƂanston: Northwestern University Press.
Amfani, A. H. 1984. “Abstract Nouns of Games in Hausa”. M.A. Dissertation, School of
Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
Amfani, A. H. 1996. “Aspects of Agreement Relations in Hausa Clause Structure”. PhD Thesis,
University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Amfani, A. H. 2005a. “Ƙamusun Hausa Cikin Hausa.” Department of Nigerian Languages,
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto - Seminar Series.
Amfani, A. H. 2005b. “Waiwaye Adon Tafiya Bitar Rabe-raben Azuzuwan Kalmomin Hausa”.
ďunďaye Journal of Hausa Studies. 2 : 1-18.
Bagari, D. M. 1986. Bayanin Hausa: Jagora ga mai Koyon Ilimin Bayanin Harshe. Rabat –
Moroc: Imprimerie El-Maarif Al-Jadida.
Chomsky, N. 1977. On wh-moƂement. In Peter, C., Thomas, W. and Adrian, A. (eds.) Formal
Syntax. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 71 – 132.
Chomsky, N. 1986. Barriers. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press.
Galadanci, M. K. M. 1976. An Introduction to Hausa Grammar. Ikeja: Longman Nigeria Ltd.
Jaggar, P. J. 2001. Hausa. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
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Makarantun Sakandare. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd.
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Dissertation, Department of Nigerian Languages, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.
Newman, P. 2000. The Hausa Language: An Encyclopedic Reference Grammar. New HeaƂen:
Yale University Press.
Newman, R. M. 1990. An English Hausa Dictionary. New HaƂen: Yale University Press.
Newman, R. M. da Newman, P. 2001. The Hausa Leďicographic Tradition.” in Leďikos 11
(AFRILEď – reeks/series 11: 2001): 263 – 286.
Parsons, F. W. 1955. “Abstract Nouns of Sensory quality”. Personal Pages. A shafin
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Theory. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press
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16
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Northern Nigerian Publishing Company.
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Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.
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