Hausa Language Academic Website

Wednesday, 27 September 2017

Jagora Ga Amfani Da Intanet Don BunƘasa Harshen Hausa

Daga


Jamilu Ibrahim Mukoshy
Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya,
Jami’ar Usmanu ďanfodiyo, Sakkwato.
imel: jmukoshy@gmail.com; waya: 08038353662


Da


Sama’ila Umar
Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya,
Jami’ar Usmanu ďanfodiyo, Sakkwato.
imel: samzariya@gmail.com; waya: 07031948326
MuƘalar da aka gabatar a taron Ƙasa da Ƙasa na farko kan karatun Hausa a Ƙarni na
ashirin da ďaya (Ƙrn. 21) a Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano
a ƘarƘashin Jagorancin Dr. Bukar Usaman, Dlitt, OON a harabar Musa Abdullahi
(Auditorium), BUK, Sabon mazauni, ranar Litinin 10 zuwa Alhamis 13 ga Nuwamba,
2014.




ABSTRACT


In this era of computer age, there are numerous potentials that can be drived
via the use of internet. In the developed countries, particularly countries in
Europe, Asia and very few in the African continent, the use of internet is the
key to success in many sectors relating to day-to-day activities, such as areas
of education, social communication, security, economic and health care
delivery. The aim of this paper is to discuss the educational advantages of
internet use especially in the conduct of studies and research on Hausa. In
order to obtain a good conclusion, the paper studied the various ways internet
can be used to conduct research. However, while making analysis, the paper
sub-classified internet use in this regard into fiƂe classes, i.e. the class of
search engines (injin nema), the class of e-libraries (ďakunan karatu), the
class of e-journals (muƘalu), the class of blogs (bulog-bulog) and the class of
social networks (shafukan sadarwa na walwala). All the classes listed are
particularly specific to the type of information that can be retrieved from each.
Thus, each class contains a number of internet pages and links which are
known in disseminating relevant and updated information regarding studies
and research on Hausa. Finally, the paper concludes that the use of internet is
a key to achieving success in studies and research on Hausa. The paper thus
emphasises on the need for students and researchers to embrace the culture of
using internet in the conduct of their research.


1.0 Gabatarwa


A wannan zamani da muke ciki, amfanin da ke tattare da intanet yana da yawa. A
Ƙasashen da suka ci gaba (kamar Nahiyar Turai da Asiya da wasu Ƙasashe na Afirka), ana
amfani da intanet wajen tafiyar da kasuwanci da siyasa da haƂaka ilimi ta hanyar bincike da
nazari da tattaunawa. Haka kuma ana aiwatar da hira ko musayar ra’ayi, ana kula da kiyon
lafiya da tsaro da dai ayyuka da dama da suka shafi ci gaban rayuwa na yau da kullum. Don
haka har kullum ana ci gaba da inganta hanyoyin amfani da fasahar intanet. Wannan maƘala
ta yi ƘoƘarin lalubo ďaya daga cikin hanyoyin amfanin da intanet (wato hanyar amfani da
intanet wajen bunƘasa ilimi) domin ya zama jigon tattaunawa. Haka kuma, ya zama wani
Ƃangare na ba da Ƙwarin guiwa ga ďalibai da manazarta Hausa na kira gare su su Ƙara himma
ga amfani da intanet.
Ƙididdiga ta shekarar 2011 ta nuna cewa aƘalla kashi 35% na al’ummar duniya ke
amfani da intanet a wancan lokaci. Idan aka kwatanta wannan adadi da kashi 18% da ke
amfani da intanet a shekarar 2006,1
za a ga cewa an samu ci gaba sosai. Wannan ya nuna irin
karƂuwar da intanet take daďa samu a faďin duniya. Haka abin yake ko a Nijeriya, duk da
yake intanet ba ta daďe da samun wajen zama ba, hasashen Ƙididdigar Ayo da wasu (2011) da
aka gudanar a shekarar 2010 ta nuna cewa kimanin mutane miliyan arba’in (40,000,000) ke
amfani da intanet a Nijeriya ta dukkan hanyoyin sadarwa (kwamfuta da wayoyin salula da
tabileti).
A taƘaice dai intanet ita ce babbar hanyar sadarwa ta duniya baki ďaya. Matsayinta ya
zarce a kwatanta shi da duk wata hanya ta sadarwa, musamman ta la’akari da yadda sha’anin
intanet yake daďa samun karƂuwa a duniya. Intanet ta kasance babbar hanyar sadarwa mafi
sauƘi da kuma sauri. Gudanar da wannan sadarwa ya ta’allaƘa ga amfani da harshe. Masana
irin su Crystal (2001) da Rumšiene (2004) da Muhammad (2004) da Amfani (2007) da kuma
Kurbalija (2010) sun tabbatar da cewar harshen da ake amfani da shi wajen sadarwa a intanet
shi ne harshen Ingilishi. Kasancewar intanet ana tafiyar da ita ne da Ingilishi shi ya sa ta
zamo makamin globalization wato (shirin game duniya). A dalilin haka ne intanet take daďa
kutsawa cikin kowane sha’ani na rayuwa ‘yan Adam na yau da kullum.
Kasancewar harshen Hausa ‘Mahadi mai dogon zamani.’ Ko bayan zamansa harshen
sadarwa ga kimanin mutane miliyan talatin da biyar (35,000,000) a Ƙasashen Yammacin
Afirka in ji Newman (2000) da Schuh (2001),2
harshen Hausa ya yi kaka-gida ga al’ummai
da dama a Ƙasashen Afirka. Amfani (2005) ya ce Hausa ita ce harshen farko (mother tongue)

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/list_of_countries_by_number_of_internet_users
2 An tsamo wannan bayani a shafin www.wikipedia.org/populationofhausa. Ranar 22/10/2012.

ga mutane fiye da miliyan 20 a Ƙasar Nijeriya kawai. Haka kuma, Amfani (2012) ya Ƙara da
cewa akwai kimanin mutane miliyan hamsin (50,000,000) Hausawa da waďanda ke jin
Hausa. Duk dai wannan Ƙididdiga tana nuna irin martabar Hausa har ta samu damar
kasancewa ďaya daga cikin manyan harsunan Ƙasa a Nijeriya. Da yake Hausa tana da tsari,
shi ya sa ta samu gatanci har aka gudanar da ayyuka da dama a kanta ko a cikinta. Yahaya
(1988) da Newman da Newman (2012) da Bunza (2014) muƘalar da aka gabatar a wajen
buďe wannan taro duk sun tabbatar da cewa an gudanar da ayyuka daban-daban a matakai
daban-daban da suka taimaka wajen taskace Hausa. Wannan shi ya wa harshen Hausa
kandagarki, ya sa har ya kawo wannan zamani na kwamfuta, kuma ana damawa da shi.

2.0 Mene Ne Intanet?


A Ƙamusun SYBEX; (2000) mai suna Dictionary of Networking, (Ƙamusun Sadarwar
Intanet) cewa aka yi; kalmar internetwork ita ce tushen kalmar internet, an datse kalmar ne
daga sunanta na asali wato internetwork aka mayar da ita internet. Ga yadda bayanin ya zo a
Ƙamusun:
Internetwork - Abbreviated ‘internet’:
Two or more networks using different networking protocols,
connected by means of a router. Users on an internetwork can
Access the resources of all connected networks.
Fassara: Haďuwar hanyoyin sadarwa biyu ko fiye masu amfani da
kafofin sadarwa mabambanta, waďanda aka haďa a gwafar
sadarwa. Masu amfani da wannan hanyar sadarwa suna iya
samun bayanai da ke cikin kowace kafar sadarwa da suke haďe
da ita.
A Ƙamusun Illingworth (1996) mai suna Oxford Dictionary of Computing (Ƙamusun
Kwamfuta). An bayyana ma’anar intanet da cewa:
The global informal network that now links a very substantial
fraction of the world’s computer network.
Fassara: Intanet wata kafar sadarwa ce ta duniya mai zaman kanta
wadda a halin yanzu ita take haďa kaso mai yawa na
kwamfutocin duniya.
Shi kuwa mashahurin Ƙamusun nan na Ingilishi mai suna Webster’s New
Encyclopaedic Dictionary (2002). An kawo kalmar internet a cikin jerin sababbin kalmomi,
kuma an bayyana kalmar da cewa:

An electronic communications network that connects computer
networks and organizational computer facilities around the
world.

Fassara: Intanet kafar sadarwa ce ta na’urorin lantarki wadda take haďa
hanyar sadarwa na kwamfutoci ga manyan taskokin kwamfuta
na duniya.

Kodayake kalmar intanet ba ta daďe ba a fannin nazarin Hausa. Duk da haka, wasu
masana Hausa sun ba da tasu gudummuwarsu kan ma’anar intanet. Alal misali, Muhammad
(2004) da Tsangarwa (2006) da kuma Almajir (2008) sun ba da ra’ayoyinsu kan ma’anar
intanet. Sai dai, abin da aka lura da shi a nan shi ne, dukkan ma’anonin da suka bayar na
intanet suna da alaƘa da junansu kamar haka:
i. Duk ma’anonin sun tafi a kan cewa intanet hanyar sadarwa ce.
ii. Dukkan ma’anonin sun aminta a kan cewa intanet haďaka ce ta hanyoyin sadarwa.
Saboda haka, ta la’akari da waďannan bayanai, wannan maƘala tana da ra’ayin cewa
ana iya bayyana ma’anar intanet kamar haka:
Intanet kafar sadarwa ce ta na’urorin zamani wadda ta game
duk duniya. Tana ba da damar sadar da bayanai kowaďanne iri,
kuma zuwa ko’ina a duniya cikin ďan ƘanƘanin lokaci.

3.0 Tarihin Intanet A TaƘaice


Masana da manazarta irin su Crystal (2001) da GuiƂi (2006) da Albirini (2008) da
Almajir (2008) da Abubakar (2009) da Deitel da Deitel (2009) da Amfani (2010) da kuma
Kurbalija (2010) duk sun ba da gudummuwa ainun dangane da tarihin intanet. Saboda haka a
nan, muƘalar za ta taƘaita sosai wajen kawo tarihin intanet, ta hanyar bin sawun ayyukan
waďannan masana.
Intanet ta samu ne bayan kammala wani taro na Ƙara wa juna sani ƘarƘashin kulawar
The AdƂanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense in the United
States (Hukumar Zurfafa Bincike a ƘarƘashin Sashen Tsaro na Ƙasar Amurka). An shirya
wannan taro a shekarar 1969. Masana da manazarta a fannin kimiyya da fasaha daga jami’o’i
daban-daban suka halarci wannan taro. A sakamakon wannan taro ne hukumar ARPA ta
Ƙaddamar da kafar sadarwa mai suna ARPANET: The AdƂance Research Agency Network.
Wannan hanya ta ba kwamfutoci damar saduwa da wata babbar kwamfuta mai suna UniƂac
1108 – Supercomputer wadda take a Jami’ar Utah. Saduwa da wannan kwamfuta ya ba da
damar samun bayanai waďanda suka shafi lissafi a sha’anin bincike da Ƙere-Ƙere na
kwamfuta. Sai dai wannan kafar sadarwar ta taƘaita kawai ga hukumomi da jami’o’i da kuma
cibiyoyin bincike.
A shekarar 1974, Bolt Beranek da Newman (BBN) suka ƘirƘiro wata hanyar sadarwa
a kamfaninsu mai suna Telenet Inc. An kira wannan kafar da suna TELENET. Wannan ita ce

hanyar sadarwa ta farko da aka samar domin amfanin ďaukacin jama’a na Ƙasar Amurka.
Wani ci gaba da kafar sadarwa ta TELENET a ƘarƘashin ARPANET ta kawo shi ne; jama’a
sun samu damar aika saƘonni tsakanin junansu a lokaci ďaya ta hanyar amfani da layin
sadarwa mai suna TCP, wadda aka samar tun a shekarar 1969.
A shekarar 1983 sojojin Amurka suka Ƃalle daga hanyar sadarwa ta ARPANET.
Kuma a wannan lokaci ne suka ƘirƘiro tasu hanyar sadarwa mai suna Military Network
(MILNET) wato Kafar sadarwa ta Soji. Mafi yawanci hukumomin tsaro ke amfani da kafar
sadarwa ta MILNET. Shi kuwa Gidan Waya na Ingila (British Post Office) tare da haďin
guiwar Western Union da kamfanin TYMNET na Ƙasar Amurka a shekarar 1978 suka samar
da hanyar sadarwa tsakanin Ƙasa da Ƙasa mai suna IPSS. Shekaru uku bayan kafa hanyar
sadarwa ta IPSS, wato a shekarar 1981 ke nan aka haďa Ƙasashen Canada da Hong Kong da
kuma Australia da wannan hanyar sadarwar. Bayan wannan ne manyan ma’aikatu da
hukumomi masu zaman kansu suka samar da nasu hanyoyin sadarwa ta amfani da layin
sadarwa mai suna Internet Protocol (IP). A shekarar 1983 aka Ƙaddamar da wannan layi a
matsayin layin sadarwa na intanet. Kuma har yanzu a kan wannan layin sadarwa intanet take
aiki. Bayan ďan lokaci, ARPA ta haďa waďannan layuka biyu wato TCP da IP aka samar da
babban layin sadarwa na haďaka mai suna TCP/IP.

A shekarar 1989, Tim Berners-Lee na Hukumar Binciken Nukiliya ta Ƙasashen Turai
ya ƘirƘiro wani layin sadarwa wanda ya Ƙara inganta hanyar aikawa da saƘonni a kafar
sadarwa ta intanet. Wannan layin sadarwa shi ne HTML. Haka kuma ya samar da tsarin
tafiyar da sadarwa a kan wannan layin na HTML mai suna HTTP. Shi kuwa Mark Andressen
da abokan aikinsa a shekarar 1993 suka samar da wani sashen sadarwa na computer software
(sofwayar kwamfuta) mai suna mosaic browser domin shiga intanet. Wannan browser
(burauza) ta yi ta samun sauye-sauye da bunƘasa. Ya zuwa yau akwai ire-iren browsers
(burauza-burauza) da ake amfani da su aƘalla iri goma3
. Ana iya amfani da browser
(burauza) a desktop computer (kwamfuta rabe); ko Laptop computer da Notebook (kwamfuta
haďe babba da Ƙarama); ko Palmtop da iPad (kwamfutar hannu); ko Tablet (tabileti); ko
mobile phones (wayoyin salula iri daban-daban) domin shiga intanet. Duk waďannan na’urori
suna amfani da kafar sadarwa ta intanet. Wannan ma ya jagoranci ga haƂakar kafar sadarwa
ta intanet da kuma bunƘasar ta.

Ire-iren browsers (burauza-burauza) sun haďa da: Mosaic Browser da NetscapeNaƂigator da Netscape
Communicator da Internet Eďplorer da Opera da Mozilla NaƂigator da Safari da Mozilla Firefoď da kuma
Google Chrome.

Shigowar intanet a Nijeriya ya fara ne wajajen shekarar 1990. A wannan lokacin ne
University of Ilorin (Jami’ar Ilorin) da ke Jihar Kwara ta samu haďuwa da hanyar aika
saƘonni ta imel a ƘarƘashin tallafin McMaster University, Canada (Jami’ar McMaster,
Kanada). Sai dai sha’anin intanet bai kama gadan-gadan ba a arewacin Nijeriya sai wajajen
shekarar 1998. Daga wannan lokaci gwamnatoci suka fara saka hannun a sha’anin intanet.
Bayan haka kuma ‘yan kasuwa su ma suka fara saka jari a sha’anin intanet ta hanyar kafa
Internet Café (wuraren shiga intanet) inda mutum zai biya kuďinsa a ba shi lokacin da zai
shiga intanet daidai kuďinsa. Daga wannan lokaci zuwa yau intanet ta ci gaba da bunƘasa ba
a Ƙasar Hausa kawai ba, har ma a Nijeriya baki ďaya.

4.0 Amfani Da Intanet Domin Al’amuran Yau Da Kullum


Da yake hanyoyin amfani da intanet suna da yawa. Mafi tasiri daga cikinsu su ne
imel, da hira ko tattaunawa da musayar bayanai da watsa labarai da ilimi da bincike da nazari
da siyasa da tsaro da kiyon lafiya da wasu Ƃangarorin rayuwa. Ana kan gudanar da ayyuka a
matakai daban-daban dangane da amfanin intanet. Alal misali, Abdullahi (2011) da Abubakar
(2009) da Abubakar (2007) da Albirini (2008) da Aliego da Aliogor (2010) da Amfani (2007)
da Ayo da wasu (2011) da Bargh da McKenna (2004) da Becker da wasu (2010) da Boyd da
Ellison (2008) da Comber (1997) da Deore (2012) da Kurbalija (2010) da Morton (2006) da
Panda da Swain (2011) da kuma Ureigho da Oroke da Ekruyota (2006) duk sun tattauna a
kan wasu daga cikin hanyoyin da ake iya cin amfanin intanet. Wasu muhimman hanyoyi da
ake iya cin amfanin intanet su ne:

1. Mai amfani da intanet zai iya yin zaune a gidansa ya yi cinikin duk abin da yake
buƘata, ya biya kuďi, kuma a kawo masa abin da ya saya har Ƙofar gidansa. Haka
kuma, mai amfani da intanet zai iya biyan kuďin haraji na gwamnati; ko biyan
kuďaďen amfani kamar na lantarki (PHCN) da kuďin haya; ko biyan kuďin makaranta
a kan intanet. Haka kuma, mai amfani da intanet zai iya tura kuďi zuwa asusun wani a
kan intanet. Zai iya sayen katin waya a kan intanet, ko sayen tikitin jirgin sama duk a
kan intanet.

2. Mai amfani da intanet zai iya samun labarai a kowane lokaci da ďumiďuminsu. Ana
samun labarai daga kowace kafa ta watsa labarai, kamar jaridu da mujallu da na
radiyo da na talabijin. A nan Nijeriya, gidajen jaridu da dama sun mallaki shafukan
intanet na kansu. Mai amfani da intanet zai iya karanta labarai daga shafukan jaridun
kamar Jaridar Aminiya a shafin www.aminiya.com da Jaridar Rariya a shafin
www.rariyaonline.com da sauransu.

3. Har ila yau, ta amfani da intanet za a iya aika saƘonni da aiwatar da hira da musayar
bayanai. Wannan ya haďa da aika saƘonnin email (imel) da chat on social network
sites (hira a shafukan walwala) da instant messaging (aika saƘonnin kan-ta-Ƙyafta) da
kuma Ƃideo conferencing (aiwatar da hira ta bidiyo). Waďannan kaďan ne daga
ďimbin misalai na hanyoyin amfani da intanet.

Waďannan muhimman hanyoyi da aka gabatar a sama, tun daga lamba ta 1 zuwa 3,
duk gabatarwa ce a taƘaice a kan hanyoyin da ake iya cin amfanin intanet. Sai dai a nan,
wannan muƘala ta yi Ƙudurin gabatar da yadda za a iya amfani da wasu hanyoyi na amfani da
intanet wajen gudanar da nazari da bincike domin bunƘasa ilimi, musamman harshen Hausa.
MuƘalar ta kassafa hanyoyin da ta yi bita zuwa azuzuwa. Kowane aji a nan yana a matsayin
wata hanya ďaya da ake amfani da intanet domin inganta ilimi. Azuzuwan amfani da intanet
waďanda wannan muƘala ta yi bita su ne: Ajin search engines (injin nema) da ajin e-libraries
(ďakunan karatu na intanet) da ajin e-journals (muƘalu na intanet) da ajin educational blogs
(bulog-bulog na Ƙara ilimi) da ajin social networks (shafukan sadarwa na walwala).
Mai amfani da intanet zai iya shiga kowane aji domin amfana da ďaya ko duka daga
cikin waďannan azuzuwa wajen bunƘasa bincike da nazarin harshen Hausa.

5.0 Ziyarar Azuzuwan Intanet Don BunƘasa Ilimi


Wannan muƘalar ta kassafa intanet zuwa azuzuwa shida ta la’akari da bayanan da ake
samu a cikin kowane aji. Wato a kowane aji ana samar da bayanai ne keƂantattu. Bari mu ga
yadda ake iya amfana daga waďannan azuzuwa.


5.1 Ajin search engines (injin nema)


A Ƙamusun SYBEX; (2000) mai suna Dictionary of Netwroking, an bayyana search
engine (injin nema) da cewa:
A special Web site that lets you perform keyword searches to
locate Web pages. The search engine returns a list of matching
Web pages, newsgroups and FTP data files usually ranked in
some way, that contain the eďpression you are looking for,
along with a brief teďt description of the material.
Fassara: Shafi ne na musamman da yake binciko shafuka ta amfani da
muhimman kalmomi. Injin neman zai kawo maka sakamakon
bincike na shafuka da gurbin labaru da fayil-fayil na FTP,
sakamakon yana zuwa a tsare tare da taƘaitaccen bayani kan
kowane sakamakon da aka samu.
Abin nufi a nan shi ne, search engine (injin nema) kamar wata na’ura ce da take aiki
na musamman a kan kwamfuta ko intanet. Aikinta shi ne yawata a cikin kwamfuta ko intanet

ta binciki dukkan ayyukan da aka taskace domin tsamo wa mai bincike ayyukan da yake
nema masu alaƘa da abin da yake bincike a kansa kawai. Galibi an fi samun search engine
(injin nema) a maƘale daga saman browser (burauza) wadda take buďo shafukan intanet.
Alal misali, mai buƘatar bincike zai iya shigar da tambayarsa a kan ďaya daga cikin
waďannan search engines (injin nema) domin samun ayyuka masa alaƘa da tambayarsa. Ga
wasu mashahurai daga cikin su:
1. Search engines (injin nema) masu nemo bayanai daga shafin www.google.com
AOL Search da CompuSerƂe Search da GrooƂle da MySpace Search da Mystery Seeker
da Netscape da kuma Ripple.

2. Search engines (injin nema) masu nemo bayanai daga shafin www.yahoo.com
Ecocho da Everyclick da Forestle da GoodSearch da kuma Rectifi.

3. Search engines (injin nema) masu nemo bayanai daga shafin www.bing.com
A9.com da Aleďa Internet da Ciao! da Facebook da Ms. Dewey da Yahoo! Search da
kuma Egerin.

4. Search engines (injin nema) masu nemo bayanai daga shafin www.ask.com
Hakia da iWon da Lycos da kuma Teoma.

5. Open Access Journals Search engine – OAJSE (injin nema na muƘalu) a shafin
http://oajse.com


5.2 Ajin e-libraries (ďakunan karatu na intanet)


E-libraries (ďakunan karatu na intanet) suna taskace dukkan kayansu a kan kwamfuta
kuma suna ba duk mai buƘata damar amfani da waďannan kayan karatu a kan kwamfuta.
Abin da ya kamata a sani game da ďakunan karatu na intanet shi ne: Da farko, dole mai
buƘatar amfani da ďakin karatu na intanet yana da kyakkyawan sabis na intanet. Na biyu, dole
sai mai buƘata ya yi rijista da irin waďannan ďakunan karatu sannan zai samu damar aiwatar
da bincikensa a cikinsu. Ga misalin wasu daga cikin ďakunan karatu na intanet:
1. National Ƃirtual Library http://www.nln.goƂ.ng/
National UniƂersities Commission
2. Zaccheus Onumba Dibiaezue Memorial Library http://www.zodml.org
3. Google Books http://books.google.com
4. JSTOR http://www.jstor.org
5. World Digital Library http://www.wdl.org


5.3 Ajin e-journals (muƘalu na intanet)


E-journals (muƘalu na intanet) ba wani abu ba ne illa muƘalu da aka taskace a
kwamfuta. Galibi irin waďannan muƘalu ana samunsu a intanet, wasu a kyauta wasu kuwa sai
an biya ‘yan kuďi. Yawancin irin waďannan muƘalu ana karanta su a kan kwanfuta kuma a
adana su a kan kwamfuta. Ga misalin wasu daga cikinsu:
1. Academic Search Complete. http://www.ebscohost.com
2. African Journals Online (AJOL). http://www.ajol.info
3. Arts & Humanities Citation Indeď. http://www.thomsonreuters.com
4. Microsoft Academic Search. http://www.academic.research.microsoft.com
5. Google Scholar. http://www.scholar.google.com
6. Directory of Open Access Journals http://www.doaj.org

5.4 Ajin educational blogs (bulog-bulog na Ƙara ilimi)


A Ƙamusun Oxford Dictionary of Computing na Daitith da Wright (editoci) (2008), an
bayyana ma’anar blog (bulog) kamar haka:
A publicly accessible journal maintained on the web by an
indiƂidual or group. The topics coƂered in a blog are dictated
by the author and so Ƃary widely: some reflect personal
interests and concerns, whereas others comment on aspects of
current affairs or discuss work of public interest that their
author is engaged in.
Fassara: Shafi ne da ake wallafa bayanai don jama’a a samfurin muƘalu,
ƘarƘashin kulawar wani ko wasu ko Ƙungiya, ko hukuma.
Akasari, bayanan blog (bulog) sun ta’allaƘa ga ra’ayin mai
bulog wasu kuma suna tsokaci a kan al’amurran yau da kullum
ko wani abu da ya shafi ra’ayoyin al’umma.
Wannann ita ce ma’anar blog (bulog) da aka bayar a Ƙamusu. Ƙarin bayini a nan shi
ne, kowane shafi na blog (bulog) yana ďauke da taƘaitattun bayanai masu hyperlink (linki)
zuwa wasu shafuka domin Ƙara tattara hujjoji. Haka kuma, ana taskace waďannan bayanai a
jera su daki-daki, sannan a riƘa sabunta su a-kai a-kai gwargwadon halin mamallakin bulog
ďin. Shi kuma mai karatu zai iya ba da gudummawarsa tare da la’akari da take da kuma
bayanin da mai blog (bulog) ya bayar. Ga misalin ďaya daga cikin shafukan blog (bulog) na
Hausa:
www.fasaharintanet.blogspot.com mallakin Malam A. S. Abubakar


5.5 Ajin social networks (shafukan sadarwa na walwala)


A Ƙamusun Oxford Dictionary of Computing na Daitith da Wright (editoci) (2008),
sun bayyana ma’anar social network site (shafin sadarwa na walwala) da cewa:
A website that offers social networking services. Registered
members of the site are able to designate other members as
‘friends’, thus creating social networks based on shared
interests etc. Such sites offer services that allow friends to
communicate easily, for example chat rooms, blogs, instant
messaging, and uploading and sharing images and vedios.

Fassara: Shafi ne da yake ba da damar sadarwa cikin walwala. Masu
rijista da irin waďannan shafuka na iya saka wasu membobi a
matsayin abokai, ta haka sai a gina hanyar sadarwa ta
musamman. Shafukan suna ba abokai damar hulďa tsakaninsu
a sauƘaƘe, kamar ta musayar hotuna da bidiyo a ďakunan hira
ko bulog-bulog ko samfurin saƘonnin kar-ta-kwana.
Wannan bayani ya nuna cewa shafukan sadarwa na walwala suna ba masu amfani da
intanet damar sadar da bayanai tsakaninsu ta hanyar hira da tattunawa da muhawara ko
musayar ra’ayi a kowane lokaci kuma daga ko’ina a bisa faďin duniya. A dalilin haka,
wannan maƘala take ganin cewa mai bincike zai iya amfani da wannan damar ta sadarwa
domin tattaunawa da kuma neman Ƙarin sani tsakaninsa da wani. Ga jerin wasu muhimmai
daga cikinsu: www.twitter.com da www.facebook.com da www.windowslive.com da kuma
www.linkedin.com.

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/09/27/gabatar-da-ke%c6%83a%c6%83%c6%83un-kalmomin-intanet-na-hausa-da-na-fulfulde/

6.0 Sakamakon Bincike


Wannan maƘala ta yi ƘoƘarin gabatar da ďaya daga cikin Ƃangarorin amfani da
intanet ne. MuƘalar ta kalli yadda za a iya bunƘasa ilimi musamman nazarin Hausa ta hanyar
amfani da intanet. Da farko, muƘalar ta gabatar da ma’anar intanet da kuma tarihin intanet
ďin a taƘaice. Bayan wannan, muƘalar ta kawo bayanai kan azuzuwan (hanyoyin) amfani da
intanet waďanda za a iya shiga don bunƘasa nazari. MuƘalar ta kalli azuzuwa biyar kuma ta
fito da shahararrun shafuka na intanet da ke cikin kowane aji. Kowane shafi da aka kawo ya
shahara wajen samar da sahihan bayanai. A taƘaice, wannan muƘala ta ba da gudummuwar
shafuka aƘalla ashirin waďanda mai bincike zai iya ziyarta domin bunƘasa nazarin Hausa.

7.0 Kammalawa


A wannan Ƙarni da muke ciki (Ƙarni na ashirin da ďaya), intanet ta riga ta shiga gaban
kowace hanyar sadarwa ta wannan zamani. A kan haka, wannan muƘala ta kammala da cewa
Hausa tana da haske a sha’anin intanet. Sai dai akwai Ƙalubale ga ďalibai da manazarta
wannan harshe, matuƘar suna son harshen ya ci gaba da haskakawa a duniya, dole ďalibai da

manazarta Hausa su dage wajen koyon amfani da kwamfuta da kuma intanet. Sannan su tashi
tsaye a dama da su a Ƃangaren amfani da intanet. Daga Ƙarshe, muƘalar tana kira ga ďalibai
da manazarta Hausa da su Ƙara ƘoƘari wajen amfani da intanet wajen taskace sahihan
bayanai domin bunƘasa bincike da nazarin harshen Hausa.

8.0 Manazarta


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Ƙasar Sakkwato.” B.A. Project, Department of Nigerian Languages, Usmanu
Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.
Abubakar, A. S. 2007. Dangantakar Intanet Da Harkokin Rayuwa. A cikin Jaridar Aminiya ta
1 ga watan Maris 2007.
Abubakar, A. S. 2009. “Sanya Wa Fasahar Intanet Takunkumi” a shafin
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Albirini, A. 2008. “The Internet in Developing Countries: A Medium of Economic, Cultural
and Political Domination” in International Journal of Education and Development
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Aliego, J. E. da Aliogor, O. (2010). Total Free Browsing and Simple Ways to Make Money
Online. Enugu: De Joe Publication and Communication Limited.
Almajir, T. S. 2008. Hausa da Sadarwar Intanet. Harsunan Nijeriya, Vol. ďďI. CSNL - BUK,
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Amfani, A. H. 2005. “Ƙamusun Hausa Cikin Hausa.” Department of Nigerian Languages,
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Amfani, A. H. 2007. “Globalization and Documentation of Nigerian Languages.” Paper
presented at the 21st Conference of Linguistics Association of Nigeria (LAN),
University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
Amfani, A. H. 2010. “Hausa Internet Terms” A paper presented at School of Oriental and
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Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. March 2010.
Amfani, A. H. 2012. “Hausa da Hausawa: Jiya da Yau da Gobe”. Cikin Champion of Hausa
Cikin Hausa A Festschrift in Honour of ďalhatu Muhammad. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello
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Ayo, C. K., Adewoye. J. O. and Oni, A. A. 2011. “Business – to – Consumer E-Commerce in
Nigeria: Prospects and Challenges.” cikin African Journal of Business Management.
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Boyd, D. M. and Ellison, N. B. 2008. “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and
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Babu Ƙasa Ake Gardamar Kokuwa)” Jagorar Takardar da aka gabatar a taron Ƙasa da
Ƙasa na farko kan karatun Hausa a Ƙarni na ashirin da ďaya (Ƙrn. 21) a Sashen
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14
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5 comments:

  1. Ana Iya samun Baban Kamus Na Hausa Kamar Oxford Na Englishi?

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  2. Ana Iya Samun Kamus Baba Na Hausa Kamar Yada Oxford Na Turanci Yake?

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  3. Malam Ibrahim akwai su. Ya zuwa yau akwai da dama wad'anda aka yi. Daya daga cikinsu shi ne na Jami'ar Bayero (2006). Mun gode.

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