Hausa Language Academic Website

Wednesday, 27 September 2017

Gabatar Da KeƂAƂƂun Kalmomin Intanet Na Hausa Da Na Fulfulde

Daga


Farfefesa Ibrahim A. Mukoshy
Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya
Jami’ar Usmanu ďanfodiyo, Sakkwato
Imel: imukoshy@gmail.com Waya: 08096475740


Da


Jamilu Ibrahim Mukoshy
Sashen Tsare-tsaren Karatu
Jami’ar Usmanu ďanfodiyo, Sakkwato
Imel: jmukoshy@gmail.com Waya: 08038353662



ABSTRACT


The use of internet today is a global trend which simultaneously impacts on the
lives of its users. Thus, it is no doubt accepted that language plays an important
role in transferring those impacts unto users. Notwithstanding, English is today the
most widely used language that intermediates between the internet and users of
other diƂerse languages. This paper titled “Gabatar Da KeƂaƂƂun Kalmomin
Intanet Na Hausa Da Na Fulfulde” is a ccomparative attempt at developing internet
terminology in Hausa and Fulfulde languages. In so doing, the paper concentrated
mainly on the syntax of Hausa and Fulfulde with particular reference to word
classes only. The paper found that some of the internet terms could be classified
with limitation to nouns, verbs and adjectives. Relevant examples were used to
illustrate the result of this study. Finally, the paper concludes that further
development of internet and related terms can be possible if scholars contribute
fully in the documentation of the terms, and we pray they do.

2.0 Nazarin KeƂaƂƂun Kalmomin Intanet Na Hausa A Fannin Ginin Jimla


Amfani (2005b) ya ce ana iya rarraba azuzuwan kalmomin Hausa zuwa kashi biyu.
Akwai buďaďďun azuzuwa da kuma rufaffun azuzuwa. Buďaďďun azuzuwan kalmomi na Hausa
su ne azuzuwan kalmomi waďanda ake iya Ƙara wa sababbin kalmomi, kamar ajin suna (noun)
da ajin aikatau (verb). Skinner (1977) ya nuna cewa waďannan azuzuwa su suka fi samun
Ƙaruwa da bunƘasa a dalilin sababbin kalmomin da harshe ke samu a-kai a-kai. Ajin bayanau
(adverbs) da ajin sifa (adjectives) su ma suna samun sababbin kalmomi, amma ba kasafai ba.
Wannan rukuni na azuzuwan kalmomi a kullum yana samun Ƙaruwa da bunƘasa saboda
samuwar sababbin kalmomi ko dai ta hanyar ƘirƘira, ko fassara daga wasu harsuna da sauran
hanyoyin samar da kalmomi a harshe. Su kuwa rufaffun azuzuwan kalmomi sun Ƙunshi ajin
wakilin suna (pronoun) da ajin haruffa (prepositions) da ajin Ƙirgau (Ƙuantifiers). Duk waďannan
an kira su rufaffi domin ba a samun sababbin kalmomi waďanda za su shiga cikinsu.
Bugu da Ƙari, Amfani (2005b), ya Ƙara da cewa Chomsky (1986) ya ce ana iya rarraba
dukkan kalmomin harshe zuwa gida huďu kamar haka:
i. Suna iii. Sifa
ii. Aikatau iƂ. Harafi

Chomsky (1986) ya ci gaba da cewa ana iya bambancewa tsakanin waďannan kalmomi ta
hanyar amfani da wata daraja ta nuna kasancewa suna (+S) ko ta kasancewa aikatau (+A).
Akasin haka shi ne kalma ta kasance ba suna ba (-S) ko ba aikatau ba (-A).
Misali na 1:
i. Suna (S) = [+S, -A] (Nde)
ii. Aikatau (A) = [+A, -S] (Kuugal)
iii. Sifa (Sf) = [+S, +A] (Sifa)
iƂ. Harafi (H) = [–S, -A]

Abin nufi a nan shi ne, suna, shi ne (+S) ba shi da wata alaƘa da aikatau (-A). Aikatau,
shi ne (+A) ba shi da wata alaƘa da suna (-S). Sifa ta shafo suna (+S), ta kuma shafo aikatau
(+A). Harafi bai shafi suna ba (-S) haka kuma bai shafi aikatau ba (-A).
Wannan muƘala ta kalli azuzuwan kalmomi uku waďanda keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet
suka shiga cikinsu. Azuzuwan kalmomin da aka yi nazari a kansu su ne ajin suna da ajin aikatau
da ajin sifa. Bari mu ga yadda keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa suka zo cikin waďannan
azuzuwa ďaya bayan ďaya.

2.1 Ajin Suna (Noun)


Dangane da keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa, akwai kalmomi da dama da suka faďo
a cikin wannan aji na sunaye. Ga jerin wasu kalmomin intanet da aka shigo da su cikin Hausa
domin misali:
Misali na 2: Yahoo imel bulog hafalinki
saba bandawit modem Google

Idan aka kalli waďannan kalmomi, za a ga cewa dukkan su sababbin kalmomi ne da aka
shigo da su cikin Hausa. Haka kuma kowace kalma suna ce mai bayyana wani abu a sha’anin
intanet ko sadarwa a intanet ko kuma sha’anin kwamfuta gaba ďaya. Kodayake mun game
waďannan kalmomi na intanet, mun yi musu bugun ďan kaďanya cewa sunaye ne, duk da haka za
mu rarraba su kamar haka:
Misali na 3:
a. Sunayen na’urorin sadarwar intanet: modem saba
b. Sunayen shafukan intanet: Yahoo Google
c. Sunayen hanyar sadarwa ta intanet: imel bulog
d. Sunayen kalmomin kimiyyar sadarwa: hafalinki bandawit
Bagari (1986) ya ce, ana iya kassafa ajin sunaye a Hausa zuwa suna na zahiri - concrete
noun; da suna na baďini - abstract noun; sunaye waďanda ake iya lisafawa - countable noun; da
sunaye waďanda ba a iya lisafawa - uncountable noun. Bari mu ga yadda keƂaƂƂun kalmomin
intanet na Hausa suka shiga cikin wannan rabo na ajin sunaye.

2.1.1 Sunaye Na Baďini


Rukunin sunaye na baďini su ake kira Abstract Nouns a Ingilishi. Bayani game da irin
waďannan sunaye a Hausa ya fito cikin ayyuka da yawa. Misali, ya fito a ayyukan Parsons
(1955) da Amfani (1984) da Newman (2000) da Jaggar (2001) da Zarruk da wasu (2005) da
Yusuf (2011) da kuma Abubakar (2012). A dukkan waďannan ayyuka an nuna cewa sunaye na
baďini su ne waďanda ba a jin su ko a taƂa su, kuma ba a ganin su, amma kuma akwai su.
Misalan irin waďannan sunaye a Hausa su ne:
Misali na 4: gaskiya imani soyayya lafiya arziki
A jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa akwai wasu kalmomi da suka shiga cikin
kason sunaye na baďini na Hausa. Ga misalin wasu daga cikin kalmomin:
Misali na 5:1
a. damfara - phishing d. yarjejeniya - disclosure
b. laƂewa - lurking e. sanarwa - notice
c. bincike - search

Dukkan waďannan kalmomin sunaye ne baďini. Haka kuma, kowace kalma tana ďaukar
ma’anarta ta asali a cikin harshen Hausa. Alal misali, cikin Sa’id da wasu (2006) Ƙamusun
Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, an bayyana ma’anar kalmar damfara kamar haka: “Yaudara ko zamba
da ake yi wa wani mutum da yake zaton zai sami wata Ƙaruwa.” Wannan ita ce ma’anar kalmar
‘damfara’ a Hausance. An ari wannan kalmar kai tsaye tare da ma’anarta don ta maye gurbin
kalmar phishing ta intanet, kuma ma’anar phishing ba ta sauya ba. Wato ke nan phishing

1 Waďannan keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet ne waďanda mai bincike ya fassara.
(damfara) a intanet tana nufin: “Amfani da yaudara domin samun wani abu daga hannun wani da
yake zaton zai samu wata Ƙaruwa a kan intanet.”
Haka ita ma kalmar yarjejeniya, a cikin Sa’id da wasu (2006) Ƙamusun Hausa na
Jami’ar Bayero, an kawo ma’anarta kamar haka: “Yarda da juna a kan wani sharaďi da aka
Ƙulla.” A jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa, an ari kalmar “yarjejeniya” tare da
ma’anarta don ta fassara “disclosure”. Wato ke nan disclosure a intanet tana nufin: “Amincewa
tsakanin shafin intanet da mai amfani da shi a bisa wani sharaďi.” Saboda haka, ita ma wannan
kalmar ta riƘe ma’anarta ta asali a harshen Hausa. Haka kuma abin yake dangane da sauran
kalmomin da aka kawo a sama. Kowace kalma ta Hausa da aka ara don ta fassara wata keƂaƂƂar
kalmar intanet, tana nan ďauke da ma’anarta ta asali a harshen Hausa. Kuma irin wannnan
ma’ana ko tunani da kalmar take bayyanawa a Hausa, shi ne har wa yau kalmar take bayyanawa
a sha’anin intanet.

2.1.2 Suna Na Zahiri


A ilmin nahawu, akwai rukunin sunaye waďanda ake kira “Sunaye na Zahiri”, wato
Concrete Nouns a Ingilishi. Dangane da ma’anar suna na zahiri, Zarruk da wasu (2005) da
Junaidu da ‘Yar’aduwa (2007) suna kan ra’ayin cewa: “Suna na zahiri kalmomi ne na nahawu
waďanda ake iya gani ko ake iya taƂawa a zahiri”. Ga misali:
Misali na 6: gado kujera jirgi gida dutse
A jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa, akwai sunaye na zahiri. Wato sunayen
abubuwa ne waďanda ana iya ganinsu a zahiri, a kuma taƂa. Ga misali:
Misali na 7: a. sifika (speaker) d. kyamara (camera)
b. kwamfuta (computer) e. ruta (router)
c. firinta (printer) f. akala (mouse)

Idan muka ďauki kalmominmu na misali na 7, sai mu ga cewa sun kasu gida biyu: (i)
waďanda aka ara daga Ingilishi zuwa Hausa (7a-e) da kuma (ii) waďanda ma’anarsu ta Hausa ta
sa aka yi amfani da su kai tsaye (7f). Alal misali, kalmar “akala” a cikin Sa’id da wasu (2006)
Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, tana da ma’anar “Igiyar da ake ďaure haƂar Ƙasa ta raƘumi
don a ja.” Abin lura a nan shi ne, da akala ake jan raƘumi a tafi da shi duk inda ake so. Da yaro
da babba, duk wanda ya ja akalar, raƘumi bin kawai zai yi. A sha’anin kwamfuta, akwai wata
na’ura ‘yar Ƙarama wadda ake sarrafa kwamfuta ta hanyar yawatawa da ita a hannu. Da ita ake
zaƂar abin da ake so a cikin kwamfuta ta hanyar latsa wasu maƂallai na na’urar (click). Duk
wanda ya riƘe wannan na’ura, zai iya sarrafa kwamfuta ko intanet. Shi ya sanya aka kira wannan
na’ura ‘akala’.
Ƙarin Bayani:

A sashe na (2.1.1) da na (2.1.2) an yi magana kan sunaye na baďini da na zahiri. To, a
harkar kwamfuta, akwai wasu kalmomi guda biyu waďanda ya kamata a yi bayaninsu.
Kalmomin su ne (a.) Haduwaya (Hardware) da (b.) Sofwaya (Software). Kalmar hardware
wadda muka ara a Hausa, muka kira ta haduwaya, kalma ce da ta shafi dukkan kayan kwamfuta
ko na’urorinta waďanda ake iya gani kuma ake iya taƂawa a zahiri. Ita kuwa kalmar software
wadda muka ara a Hausa, muka kira ta sofwaya, kalma ce da ta shafi dukkan kayan kwamfuta
waďanda ba a ganinsu kuma ba a iya taƂa su a zahiri. Ga misalan wasu daga cikin kalmomin don
Ƙarin haske.
Misali na 8:
a) Kalmomin kwamfuta na haduwaya:
akala (mouse) sifika (speaker) firinta (printer)
b) Kalmomin kwamfuta na sofwaya:
Intanet Isfulora (Internet Eďplorer)
Manzila Fayafos (Mozilla Firefoď)

2.1.3 Sunaye Ƙirgau


Kalmar ‘Ƙirgau’ ana amfani da ita da ma’anar’Ƙuantifiers’ ta Ingilishi. ‘Suna Ƙirgau’ shi
kuma yana nufin Countable Nouns a Ingilishi. Akwai sunaye a Hausa waďanda ake kira ‘Sunaye
Ƙirgau’. A Hausa, akwai misalan ‘suna Ƙirgau’ kamar haka:
Misali na 9: mutum, mutane; dabba, dabbobi
Suna Ƙirgau shi ne wannan suna wanda an iya Ƙirga shi. Don haka suna Ƙirgau a
kodayaushe yana iya zuwa a tilo ko jam’i. Kalmar ‘dabba’ suna Ƙirgau ce tilo. Kalmar ‘dabbobi’
suna Ƙirgau ce amma jam’i.
A cikin jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa an samu kalmomi na ajin suna Ƙirgau
waďanda ana iya rarrabewa tsakanin tilo da jam’insu. Domin sauƘaƘa fahimta, ga yadda aka
gabatar da jam’inta sunaye Ƙirgau na kwamfuta da intanet.

2.1.3.1 Sunaye Ƙirgau Na Haduwaya (Hardware)


Waďannan sunaye ne na na’urorin da suka haďu suka yi kwamfuta waďanda ana ganin su,
ana iya taƂa su kuma a yi amfani da su wajen aiki da sarrafa kwamfuta. Abin lura a nan shi ne
kwamfuta haďaka ce ta haduwaya-haduwaya da sofwaya-sofwaya daban-daban. Kuma daga
cikin haduwaya-haduwaya da suka haďu suka yi kwamfuta har da haduwaya na sadarwa na
intanet. Ga misalan yadda ake jam’inta sunaye Ƙirgau na intanet.
Misali na 10: Tilo Jam’i
a. ruta (router) ruta-ruta (routers)
b. saba (saƂer) saba-saba (saƂers)
c. modem (modem) modem-modem (modems)
d. sifika (speaker) sifika-sifika (speakers)
e. firinta (printer) firinta-firinta (printers)

2.1.3.2 Sunaye Ƙirgau na Sofwaya (Software)


Kwamfuta tana da na’urori waďanda ake sarrafawa domin amfani da ita. Ana iya ganinsu
amma ba a iya taƂa su a zahiri, sai dai a yi amfani da su ta kwamfuta. Irin waďannan na’urori sun
kasu kashi biyu, akwai waďanda kwamfuta kaďai ke sarrafa su domin amfanin kanta (system
software). Akwai kuma waďanda mai amfani da kwamfuta yake sarrafawa domin amfani da
kwamfutar ko intanet (application software), kuma irin waďannan sofwaya-sofwaya su ne ake
iya Ƙirga adadinsu da ke cikin kwamfuta. Duk da yake hannu ba ya iya taƂa su a zahiri, sai dai a
taƂa su ta amfani da akala (mouse).
Misali na 11: Tilo Jam’i
a. Burauza (browser) Burauza-burauza (browsers)
b. Rigakafi (antiƂirus) Rigakafi-rigakafi (antiƂirus)
Dukkan sofwaya na kwamfuta, musamman na intanet ana iya saka su a cikin kwamfuta
(install). Haka kuma ana iya fitar da su daga kwamfuta (uninstall). Saboda haka, ana iya gane
adadinsu a cikin kwamfuta.
A nan, ba za mu kawo sunayen sofwaya waďanda kwamfuta take amfani da su da kanta
ba, saboda waďannan dalilai. Na farko, mai amfani da kwamfuta ko intanet ba ya ganin
waďannan na’urori, ballantana a yi zancen Ƙirga adadin su. Dalili na biyu shi ne, mai amfani da
kwamfuta ko intanet ba ya da damar fitar da waďannan na’urorin (uninstall), ballantana ya yi
tunanin Ƙara adadinsu.

2.1.4 Sunaye Waďanda Ba A Iya Ƙirgawa


A Hausa akwai sunayen da ba a iya lissafawa, ko dai saboda ƘanƘantarsu Ƙwarai ko
kuma saboda rashin samun Ƙwayoyinsu. Irin waďannan sunaye su ake kira Uncountable Nouns a
Ingilishi. Idan har ana buƘatar misalta adadin irin waďannan sunaye sai an yi amfani da wani
ma’auni. Ga misali:
Misali na 12: madara = Gwangwanin madara
ruwa = Gorar ruwa
gero = Buhun gero
A jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa, akwai sunaye waďanda ba a iya Ƙirga su
sai an yi amfani da wani ma’auni. Ma’aunin da ake amfani da shi, shi ne na filin kwamfuta, wato
bayit (byte).
Misali na 13:
a. Bandawit (bandwidth) Bandawit mai yawan gigabayit huďu.
b. Bidiyo (Ƃideo) Bidiyo mai yawan megabayit hamsin.
c. Bayani (data) Bayani mai yawan kilobayit biyar.
d. Kuki (cookie) Kuki mai yawan bayit uku.

2.2 Ajin Aikatau (verbs)


Wannan ajin na kalmomi nahawun Hausa ya tattara kalmomi ne musamman waďanda
suka danganci yanayi ko halayya ko aiwatar da wani aiki. Ajin kalmomin aikatau a Hausa yana
da muhimmanci domin kalmominsa ne ke nuna abin da ‘aikau’ (subject) yake aiwatarwa.
Misali na 14: tafi, rubuta, kama, dafa, ďaura.
Wani fitaccen rabo da aka yi na aikatan Hausa shi ne na kasa aikatau gida biyu, wato
aikatau so-karƂau da aikatau Ƙi-karƂau. Abin nufi shi ne akwai wasu aikatau masu karƂar
mafa’uli, waďanda ake kira ‘aikatau so-karƂau’ (transitiƂe verbs). Akwai kuma aikatau waďanda
ba su karƂar mafa’uli, waďanda ake kira ‘aikatau Ƙi-karƂau’ (intransitiƂe verbs). Ga misalansu:
Misali na 15a: kama, dafa, ďaura.
Waďannan misalai ne na aikatau so-karƂau. Ga su a cikin jimlolin Hausa:
Misali na 15b: Audu ya kama kaza.
Binta ta dafa nama.
Ali ya ďaura agogo.
Kalmomin kaza da nama da agogo su ne karƂau ďin.
A tsarin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa akwai kalmomin da suka faďa cikin
wannan ajin na aikatau. Ga misalin kalmomin intanet waďanda aikatau ne so-karƂau:
Misali na 16a: Sabunta (update)
Wannan kalma tana buƘatar ‘karƂau’ domin Ƙara fayyace ta. Ga misali a cikin jimla:
Misali na 16b: Binta ta sabunta bulog.
(Binta updated the blog)
A nan, kalmar sabunta a misali na 16a da 16b kalmar aikatau so-karƂau ce. Idan ta zo a
cikin jimla tana buƘatar karƂau. Saboda haka, kalmar bulog da ta zo a misali na 16b ita ce
karƂau ďin.
A Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, na Sa’id da wasu (2006) sun kawo ma’anar
kalmar ‘sabunta’ kamar haka: “Mayar da abu sabo.” A nan, mun ari kalmar ‘sabunta’ tare da
ma’anarta domin fassara kalmar ‘update’ ta Ingilishi. Saboda haka, kalmar ‘sabunta’ a intanet
tana da ma’anar: “Mayar da sofwaya/shafi/bayani sabo.” Ke nan, kalmar sabunta (update) da
kalmar ‘sabunta’ ta Hausa suna da ma’ana iri ďaya.
Akwai kuma kalmomin intanet waďanda suna aiki irin na aikatau Ƙi-karƂau. Ga misali:
Misali na 17a: (i) shiga (ii) fita
Waďannan kalmomi duk ba su buƘatar karƂau. Ga misalansu a cikin jimla:
Misali na 17b: (i) Ali ya shiga (Ali has signed-in)
(ii) Ladi ta fita (Ladi has signed-out)
A waďannan misalai da ke sama, wato misali na 17a da 17b kalmomin shiga da fita su ne
aikatau Ƙi-karƂau.

Ƙarin Bayani:
A Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, na Sa’id da wasu (2006) an bayyana ma’anar
kalmar ‘shiga’ da cewa: “Saka kai ko wani abu a wani wuri.” A jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin
intanet na Hausa, mun ari kalmar ‘shiga’ domin fassara kalmar “sign-in” ta Ingilishi. Saboda
haka, a jerin kalmomin intanet, kalmar “sign-in” tana da ma’anar “Saka suna ko wasu bayanai
domin samun damar shiga wani shafi na intanet.” Ke nan, kalmar ‘shiga’ (sign-in) da kalmar
‘shiga’ ta Hausa suna da ma’ana iri ďaya.
Ita kuma kalmar ‘fita’ an ba da ma’anarta cikin Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, na
Sa’id da wasu (2006), da cewa: “Baro cikin abu zuwa wajensa.” A jerin keƂaƂƂun kalmomin
intanet na Hausa mun ari kalmar ‘fita’ domin fassara kalmar “sign-out” ta Ingilishi. A sha’anin
intanet, kalmar “sign-out” tana da ma’anar “Baro cikin shafi zuwa wajensa.” Ke nan a nan ma,
kalmar ‘fita’ (sign-out) da kalmar ‘fita’ ta Hausa duk suna da ma’ana iri ďaya.

2.3 Ajin Sifa (Adjectives)


Ajin sifa a Hausa wani muhimmin aji ne da ya tattara kalmomi waďanda ake amfani da su
domin fayyace suna ko kuma Ƙarin bayani kan suna.
Ana amfani da sifa domin bayyana sunaye na intanet ko yin Ƙarin bayani a kansu. Sai dai
abin lura a nan shi ne, ba kowace sifa ta Hausa take iya ba da cikakken bayani a kan suna na
intanet ba. Alal misali idan muka ďauki kalmar bandawit, (mun ari wannan suna domin fassara
bandwidth a Ingilishi). Samun isasshen bandawit shi ke ba da damar shiga intanet tare da
yawatawa a shafuka daban-daban cikin sauri. Haka kuma isasshen bandawit ke ba mutane masu
yawa damar shiga intanet ta shafuka daban-daban kuma a lokaci guda. Rashin isasshen bandawit
shi zai rage wa shafi sauri wajen buďewa, musamman idan aka ci karo da cinkoson jama’a.
Lokuta da dama rashin isasshen bandawit yakan gurgunta shiga intanet. Ta la’akari da
muhimmancin bandawit wajen shige da fice na intanet shi ya sa aka zaƂo siffofin High da Low a
Ingilishi domin bayyana yawa ko Ƙarancin bandawit. Ga misali.
Misali na 18: Ingilishi Hausa
a. High bandwidth Bandawit mai yawa
b. Low bandwidth Bandawit maras yawa

A Ingilishi, idan bandawit ya wadata ana sifanta shi da High Bandwidth. Wato akwai
bandawit mai yawa kenan. Haka kuma idan ya Ƙaranta ana sifanta shi da Low Bandawidth.
Bandawit maras yawa kenan. A lura cewa a Ingilishi akwai sifar large wadda tana bayyana yawa
ko girma. Haka kuma akwai sifar small wadda take bayyana Ƙaranci ko ƘanƘanta. Amma ba a yi
amfani da sifofin large da small ba, saboda ma’anoninsu ba su sifanta kalmar bandwidth yadda
ake buƘata ba. Ƙarin bayani a nan shi ne High da Low, ba babba ko Ƙarami suke bayyanawa ba.
Haka kuma ba tall da short ba ne, domin ba dogo ko gajere suke bayyanawa ba. A’a, sifofin
suna bayyana yalwa da taƘaitar bandawit ne. Shi ya sa a Hausa ba zai yiwu a sifanta bandawit da
fassarar sifofin High da Low ba.
A lura, a Hausa ana iya amfani da sifar dogo domin fassara sifar High ta Ingilishi. Ana
kuma iya amfani da sifar gajere domin fassara sifar Low ta Ingilishi. Amma ba mu yi hakan ba,
saboda sifofin dogo da gajere na Hausa ba za su ba da cikakken bayani game da isa ko rashin
isar bandawit ba. Saboda shi bandawit ba da tsawo ko gajarta ake sifanta shi ba. Sai dai a sifanta
shi da yawa ko Ƙaranci. A nan sai muka ari kalmomin yalwatacce da taƘaitacce, muka yi amfani
da su domin sifanta bandawit, kamar yadda ya zo a misali na 29 da ke Ƙasa.
Misali na 19: Hausa Ingilishi
a. Yalwataccen bandawit = High bandwidth
b. TaƘaitaccen bandawit = Low bandwidth
Idan kuma muka ďauki Filash wanda muka ara daga Ingilishi domin fassara USB Flash
DriƂe, za a ga cewa ‘Filash’ na’ura ce da ake haďawa da kwamfuta ta mahaďin USB. Kowane
filash yana da kai irin na USB a matsayin mahaďinsa. Ana iya amfani da Filash domin ďaukar
bayanai (data) kamar hotuna da bidiyo da waƘoƘi ko sautuka da kuma rubutattun bayanai. Mafi
yawanci tsawon Filash shi ne inci uku (3 inches) ko Ƙasa da haka. Nauyinsa kuma bai faye wuce
gram talatin (30 grams) ba. Ana samunsa a launuka daban-daban. Akasari ana bambanta Filashfilash
ta girmansu. Girma a nan ba yana nuni ne ga girma na zahiri ba. A’a girma ne na ci, wato
na haďiyar bayanai. A yau, mafi ƘanƘantar Filash shi ne mai haďiyar bayanai masu yawan
gigabayit ďaya (1 GB)2 Mafi girma kuwa shi ne mai haďiyar gigabayit ďari biyar da goma sha
biyu (512 GB) wanda Kamfanin Kingston ya Ƙera a farkon shekarar 2013. A sha’anin kwamfuta
da intanet ana amfani da sifar Large da Small domin bayyana girma ko ƘanƘantar Filash. Ga
Ƙarin haske a misali na 20 a Ƙasa.
Misali na 20: Ingilishi Hausa
a. Large Flash = Filash mai haďiya. Daga gigabayit 128
(64 GB) zuwa sama.
b. Small Flash = Filash marar haďiya. Daga gigabayit 8
(32 GB) zuwa Ƙasa.
A Ingilishi sifofin Large da Small suna bayyana girma na cin filash ne, ba girma na jiki
ba. Wannan ya nuna ana samun Filash mai Ƙaramin jiki amma kuma mai cin bayanai da yawa.
Ana kuma samun Filash mai babban jiki amma ba ya cin bayanai masu yawa. Ta la’akari da
waďannan bayanai, sai muka zaƂi sifar Ƙasaitacce domin bayyana filash mai haďiyar bayanai
masu yawa (Large Flash). Wato Large Flash shi ne Ƙasaitaccen Filash. Mun zaƂi sifar
Ƙasaitacce saboda dacewa da kuma shaharar ma’anarta. Ba mu ce babba ko Ƙato ba, saboda ko a
Ingilishi ba a yi amfani da sifar big ko huge ba.
Haka kuma, mun ari sifar Mitsitsi domin bayyana filash wanda ba ya haďiyar bayanai
masu yawa (Small Flash). Wato Small Flashi shi ne Mitsitsin Filash. A nan, sifar mitsitsi ta fi
dacewa wajen isar da saƘo na sifar filash marar haďiya sosai. Sifar mitsitsi ba tana nuni ne ga
ƘanƘantar filash a zahiri ba. Tana bayyana Ƙarancinsa ne ta fuskar haďiyar bayanai. Da za a
sifanta Small Flash da ƘanƘantaccen filash, ma’anar ba za ta fito sosai ba. Wani abin lura shi ne
ko a Ingilishi ba a yi amfani da sifofin short ko little ba. Duk da yake su ma suna bayyana
ƘanƘanta ne. Ga bayanin a cikin misali:
Misali na 21: Hausa Ingilishi

Duba wannan:

2 Gigabayit ďaya zai iya ďaukar littafi mai shafi 100 fiye da guda100.
a. Ƙasaitaccen Filash = Large Flash.
b. Mitsitsin Filash = Small Flash.
Bugu da Ƙari, akwai suna Firinta da muka ara daga Printer a Ingilishi domin bayyana
na’urar da take ďab’in rubutu da hotuna a kan takarda daga kwamfuta. Galibi dai firinta-firinta
sun bambanta ne ta saurin aikinsu da kuma irin sinadarin da suke aikin ďab’i da shi. Saboda haka
akwai firinta iri uku kamar haka: (i) Inkjet printer da (ii) Laserjet printer da (iii) Solid ink printer.
Ga Ƙarin bayani a kan kowannensu:

i. Inkjet Printer: Wannan firinta ce da take ďab’i ta amfani da ruwan tawada (ink). Ta fi
sauƘin kuďi, saboda haka jama’a sun fi amfani da ita a gidaje da ofisoshi.

ii. Laserjet Printer: Wannan firinta tana amfani da garin tawada (toner) wajen ďab’i. ďab’in
wannan firinta ya fi inganci domin yana ďaukar lokaci mai tsawo kafin ya sauya ko ya
lalace. An fi amfani da wannan firinta a manyan ofisoshi da kuma shagunan sha’anin
kwamfuta da intanet.

iii. Solid ink Printer: Wannan babbar firinta ce wadda take amfani da kakin tawada3
(solid
ink) wajen aikin ďab’i. Ta fi kowace irin firinta biyan buƘata. Saboda ta fi sauri kuma
ďab’inta ya fi inganci. Sai dai tana da girma tana kuma da nauyi, bugu da Ƙari kuma ga
tsada. Shi ya sa galibi sai manyan kamfanonin ďab’i suke amfani da irin wannan firinta.
A wajen fitar da sifofin waďannan firinta-firinta mun zaƂi ďaya daga cikin sifofinsu na
aiki. Mun lura da nau’ukan tawadar da suke aikin ďab’i da su. A sakamakon haka muka samu
firinta iri uku dangane da ire-iren tawadar da suke ďab’i da ita. Ga misalansu a Ƙasa.
Misali na 22: Hausa Ingilishi
a. Firinta mai tawada = Inkjet printer
b. Firinta mai gari = Laserjet printer
c. Firinta mai kaki = Solid ink printer
A nan, sifofin firinta su ne mai tawada da mai gari da kuma mai kaki. Suna kuwa shi ne
Firinta.

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/08/22/duniyata-kashi-na-farko/

3 Kakin tawada shi ne daskararriyar tawada. Tana zuwa a samfuri irin na kakin zuma.
Wani abin lura game da sifa shi ne bayanin da Galadanci (1976) da Bagari (1986) da
Amfani (1996) da Newman (2000) suka yi kan yadda sifar take zuwa tare da suna. A Hausa
akwai hanya iri biyu da sifa take zuwa tare da suna. Hanya ta farko ita ce suna ya biyo sifa [Sifa -
Suna], kamar yadda muka gani a misalai na 19 da 21. Hanya ta biyu kuwa ita ce sifa ta biyo suna
[Suna - Sifa], kamar yadda ya zo a misali na 20. Wajen yin amfani da keƂaƂƂun kalmomin
intanet na Hausa, akan yin amfani da hanyoyin duka biyu ba tare da ma’ana ta sauya ba. A misali
na 19 da na 21, suna ne ya biyo sifa, kamar haka:
Misali na 23: (a) Yalwataccen + bandawit
Sifa suna
(b) Mitsitsin + Filash
Sifa suna
Da za a yi rawar ‘yan mata a cikin wannan misalin da ke sama, wato sifa ta biyo suna,
kamar yadda ya zo a misali na 24, to, lalle ma’ana ba za ta sauya ba.
Misali na 24: (a) Bandawit + yalwatacce
Suna Sifa
(b) Filash + mitsitsi
Suna Sifa
Wato kenan, misali na 23 da misali na 24, duk ma’anar guda ce. Duk da cewa Hausa tana
yin amfani da waďannan hanyoyin biyu ba tare da sauyawar ma’ana ba, za mu tsare yin amfani
da hanya ta farko kawai inda suna yake biyo sifa, [sifa – suna].
Bugu da Ƙari, muna jawo hankali da cewa akwai kuma inda yin amfani da hanya ta biyu
(wato inda sifa take biyo suna) ba zai ba da ma’ana a Hausa ba. Misali, idan muka ďauki suna
Firinta, za mu ga cewa sifa tana biyo sunan ne kamar yadda ya zo a misali na 22(a-c) [Firinta suna
+ mai tawada sifa]. Dangane da keƂaƂƂun kalmomin intanet na Hausa ba a sifanta suna Firinta ta
amfani da hanya ta farko (wato sifa – suna), domin kuwa ma’ana ba za ta fito ba. Ga misali:
Misali na 25:
* Mai tawada + firinta
Sifa Suna
Daga wannan misali, mun ga cewa lallai in sifa ta gabaci suna, to ma’ana ba za ta fito ba.
Dalilin da za mu bayar a nan shi ne wataƘila harďaďďiyar sifa (compleď adjective) ba ta iya zuwa
kafin suna, sai dai ko sassauƘar sifa (simple adjective). Misali: farar sifa + firinta suna.

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/29/tarbiya-cikin-adabin-hausa-tsokaci-daga-karin-magana/

Rataye


1. Address Adireshi
2. AntiƂirus Rigakafi
3. Bandwidth Bandawit
4. Blog Bulog
5. Blogger Mai bulog
6. Bookmark Kama shafi
7. Browse Yawatawa a intanet
8. Browser Burauza
9. Camera Kyamara
10. Cancel Soke
11. Chat Taďi
12. Click Latsa (Danna maƂallin akala)
13. Computer Kwamfuta
14. Cookie Kuki
15. Data Bayani
16. Desktop computer Kwamfuta-rabe
17. Discloser Yarjejeniya
18. Download Tatsa
19. Email Imel
20. Email address Adireshin imel
21. Flash Filash
22. Go Tafi
23. Google Gugul (Shahararren shafin
imel da bincike)
24. Google Chrome Gugul Kurom (Sunan burauzar
Kamfanin Google)
25. Hardware Haduwaya (Na’urar zahiri ta
kwamfuta)
26. Homepage Shafin farko
27. Hyperlink Hafalinki (Zaren linkin shafi da
shafi)
28. Internet Intanet
29. Internet Eďplorer Intanet Isfulora (Sunan
burauzar Kamfanin Microsoft)
30. Laptop Kwafuta-haďe
31. Lurking LaƂewa
32. Mailboď Akwatin imel
33. Message SaƘo
34. Modem Modem (Ƙaramar na’ura ta
haďa kwamfuta da intanet)
35. Mouse Akala
36. Mozilla Firefoď Manzila Fayafos (Sunan
burauza ta Kamfanin Mozilla)
37. Notice Sanarwa
38. Offline Ba ya kan layi ko rufe layi
39. Online Kan layi
40. Opera Afera (Suna burauza)
41. Password Faswod (Lamba ko kalmar sirri
ko mabuďi)
42. Phishing Damfara (a intanet)
43. Phishing filter Rariyar ‘yan damfara
44. Phishing website Shafukan ‘yan damfara
45. Printer Firinta (Na’urar ďab’i)
46. Router Ruta
47. SaƂe Adanawa ko taskacewa
48. Search Bincike ko Nema
49. Search engine Injin nema ko bincike
50. Send Aika
51. SerƂer Saba (Uwar garke ta intanet)
52. Sign – in Shiga
53. Sign – out Fita
54. Social Network Sites
(SNSs)
Shafukan sadarwa na walwala
55. Software Sofwaya (Na’urar ruhin
kwamfuta)
56. Speaker Sifika (Na’urar sauraren sauti)
57. Stop Tsayarwa
58. Uninstall Fitarwa (daga kwamfuta)
59. Update Sabuntawa
60. Upload Sakawa a intanet
61. User Mai amfani (da kwamfuta ko
intanet)
62. User name Sunan mai amfani (da
kwamfuta kointanet)
63. User profile Bayanin mai amfani (da
kwamfuta ko intanet)
64. Ƃideo Bidiyo
65. Website Shafin intanet
66. Wi-fi Wi-fi (Ƙofar shiga intanet ta
wi-fi)
67. Wikipedia Wikifidiya (Katafaren shafin
bincike)
68. Wireless Wuyales (Ƙofar shiga intanet marar waya)
69. World wide web Duniyar intanet
70. Yahoo Yahoo (Shahararren shafin
imel da bincike)

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