Wednesday, 16 August 2017

Gudunmuwar Harshen Hausa Ga Siyasar Canji A Arewacin Nijeriya

DAGA


Nazir Ibrahim Abbas
Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sokoto
Email: ibrahimabbasnazir@gmail.com GSM: 08060431934


Da


Muhammad Mustapha Umar
Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sokoto
Email: mustaphahausa@yahoo.com GSM: 08065466400



Tsakure


Harshe da siyasa muhimman abubuwa biyu ne da ke tafiya tare a cikin rayuwar al’umma. Harshe shi ne hanyar sadarwa da al’umma ke amfani da ita wajen bayyana tunaninsu da ra’ayoyinsu da duk wani abu da ke cikin zukatansu game da duniya. Siyasa kuwa ta danganci ƙarfin iko na jagoranci da shugabancin jama’a da dukiyoyinsu, da tunaninsu da kuma ďabi’unsu. Wannan maƙala za ta kalli tasirin harshen Hausa cikin al’umma da jami’iyyar adawa ta yi amfani da shi a wajen yaƙin neman zaƂe da bayan babban zaƂen shekara ta 2015 a arewacin Nijeriya. Binciken ya gudana ne a kan ra’in nazarin kalami a kimmiyar harshe.

1.0 Gabatarwa


Harshe yana da matuƙar muhimmanci ga al’umma domin kuwa shi ne sadarwa, babu wani al’amari ďaya da ya shafi ďan Adam wanda babu harshe a cikinsa. Da harshe ne ďan Adam ke tunani da sadarwa ta hanyar magana ko ishara, ta harshe ne mutum ke bayyana ra’ayinsa da addininsa da sha’awarsa da fahimtarsa ga duk wani al’amari na duniya. (Ndimele, 2001: 3).
Harshen mutum kuwa shi ke taimaka masa wajen bayyana sababbin tunane-tunane da fahimtar kalmomi da jumloli da kuma samun damar tsara magana da jera tunani da dangantaka kalmomi ko jumloli da ma’anoninsu a zahiri. Harshe mutum shi ke tafiyar da tunaninsa a cikin kowane al’amari da kuma bayyana masa duniyar da yake ciki ko fahimtar duniya. (Yule, 1985: 96).
Wannan zai tabbatar muna cewa babu wani al’amari da mutum zai yi ba tare da amfani da harshensa ba. Siyasa kuwa a ďaya Ƃangare tamkar harshe, saƙe take a cikin al’umma, yanayin zamantakewa cikin al’umma ya sa dole ne a samu jagoranci da shugabanci tsakaninsu, samun shugabanci kuwa koyaushe yana tafiya ne tare gwagwarmaya ta neman mulki da jagorancin wanda da harshe ake yin sa. Wannan neman jagorancin al’umma shi ne siyasa.
Harshen Hausa shi ne harshen hulďa a arewacin Nijeriya tun zamanin turawan mulkin mallaka. Harshen ya daďe da samun gatar kayayyakin karatu da kuma amfani da shi wajen koyarwa a makarantu da gidajen rediyo na ciki da wajen ƙasar nan. Bugu da ƙari an daďe ana gudanar da ayyukan gwamnati a majalisun dokokin jihohi na arewacin ƙasar nan da shi. Wannan ne ya sa ‘yan siyasa da ke neman shugabanci da yaƙin neman zaƂen suke amfani da harshen. Bayan tasirin harshen akwai kuma yawan al’umma masu jefa ƙuri’a kimanin miliyan 36, 614, 031 daga jihohi 19 na arewacin ƙasar nan baya ga Hausawan da suka watsu a kowane saƙo da lungun ƙasar nan. Ko a jihohin da ba Hausawa ba ne gaba ďaya a arewacin Nijeriya, harshen Hausa ya kasance shi ne harshen hulďa a tsakaninsu al’ummomi.
Wannan nazarin ya yi amfani da fagen nazarin kalami na musamman da ba a saba amfani da shi a magana ko rubutu bay au da kullum ba (discourse analysis) wajen nazarin tasirin wasu kalaman Hausa na siyasa wajen tabbatar da siyasar canji a ƙasar nan, domin fito da irin rawar da harshen Hausa ya taka a irin wannan muhallin. Fagen nazarin kalamai (discourse analysis), fage ne da ke nazarin hulďa da harshe tsakanin al’umma da yadda mutane ke tattaunawa a kan siyasa da wasu al’amurra na rayuwa da suka shafe su a maganganunsu na yau da kullum tare da kuma yin muhawara da bayyana ra’ayi ta amfani da harshe. Ra’in kalamin magana, ke nan yana kulawa da hulďar magana ta hanyar wasu bayyanannun abubuwan rayuwar al’umma. (Gee, 2014: 24)
Wannan al’amari kuwa haka yake gudana tsakanin ‘yan siyasa da al’umma a koyaushe, ƙoƙarin amfani da harshe suke yi domin fito da manufarsu da soke ko kushe abokan adawarsu a siyasance ta hanyar amfani da sunaye da nuna ƙwarewa ga harshe ta nuna alamcin adon harshe da makamantansu, daidai da irin muhallin da suke magana a cikinsa yadda zai yi tasiri a zukatan al’umma har ya zama wani abun tattaunawa da sharhi a kai. Kalaman da za mu yi nazari za a ga mafi yawa ‘ya’yan jam’iyyar siyasa da magoya bayansu ne suka ƙirƙiro su domin fitowa da wani abu da zai yi matuƙar tasiri a zukatan al’umma na cimma manufarsu ta samun nasarar zaƂe da kushe abokan adawa.
An tattara bayanai da aka yi amfani da su ta hanyar sauraren zantukan mutane a tattaunawarsu ta yau da kullum da ta shafi siyasa, kafin zaƂe da lokacin zaƂe da bayan kammala zaƂe a wasu jihohin Arewacin ƙasar nan. Haka ma an kalli wasu kalmomin da wasu mawaƙin siyasa Dauda Kahutu Rarara ya yi amfani da su waďanda suka yi tasiri a cikin zantukan al’umma da suka taimaka wajen tabbatar da canji a zaƂen shekara ta 2015.
An yayata waďannan manufofin kuwa suka zama abubuwan batu da amincewa a cikin zukatan al’umma tun daga wancan lokacin har ya zuwa yau, wanda hakan tabbas ya taimaka gaya wajen tunƂuke masu mulki da samun galaba a kansu. Wasu daga cikin kalaman da aka yi amfani da su su ne; sunayen yabo da sunayen suka da kirarin jam’iyyu da ‘yan takara da adon harshe. Duk waďannan abubuwan sun faru a lokuta daban-daban na kafin zaƂe da lokacin yaƙin neman zaƂe da kuma ma har bayan zaƂen.
An kafa jam’iyyar PDP a shekara 1998, shekaru 19 da suka gabata tana da hedikwatarta a Abuja, takenta a Ingilishi shi ne Power to the people, tutar jam’iyyar na ďauke da kalar ďanyen haki da ja da kuma fari. Jam’iyyar ita ce ta yi mulkin Nijeriya tun a 1999 sai a zaƂen shekara ta 2015 inda jam’iyyar APC ta ka da ita zaƂe. Jam’iyyar APC kuwa an kafa ta ne a rana 6 ga watan Fabrairun shekara ta 2013 kafin zaƂen shekara ta 2015. Jam’iyyar haďaka ce ta wasu jam’iyyun adawa na ACN da CPC da ANPP, ita ma tana da hedikwata a Abuja. Taken jam’iyyar a Ingilishi shi ne Change, tutar jam’iyyar tana da kalar ďanyen haki da fari da kuma bula. APC ita ce jam’iyyar da ta kayar da jam’iyyar PDP da ke mulki a matakin ƙasa a zaƂen shekara 2015.

1.4 Gudunmawar Harshen Hausa ga Siyasar Canji a Arewacin Nijeriya


A zaƂen shekaru ta 2015, wanda a tarihin ƙasar nan shi ne irinsa na farko da babbar jam’iyyar adawa mafi girma ta kayar da jam’iyyar da ke kan mulki wanda wannan maƙala tana ganin harshen Hausa ya yi tasiri sosai a wajen yaƙin neman zaƂen a arewacin ƙasar nan. Harshen ya kuma taimakawa jam’iyyar da ďantakakar ta suka yi nasara. Daga cikin dabarun da ‘yan jam’iyyar APC da magoya bayansu suka yi amfani da su akwai; kirari da adon harshe da ƙirƙira sunaye daban-daban na yabo ga ďantakararsu na shugaban ƙasa da sunayen suka ga jam’iyyar dake kan mulki a lokacin da ďantakararta.
An yayata waďannan manufofin kuwa suka zama abubuwan batu da amincewa a cikin zukatan al’umma tun daga wancan lokacin har ya zuwa yau, wanda hakan tabbas ya taimaka gaya wajen tunƂuke masu mulki da samun galaba a kansu. Wasu daga cikin kalaman da aka yi amfani da su su ne; sunayen yabo da sunayen suka da kirarin jam’iyyu da ‘yantakara da adon harshe. Duk waďannan abubuwan sun faru a lokuta daban-daban na kafin zaƂe da lokacin yaƙin neman zaƂe da kuma ma har bayan zaƂen (wannan lokacin da muke ciki).

1.4.1 Ire-iren Kalaman Siyasar Canji a Lokacin ZaƂen 2015


‘Yan jam’iyyar APC da magoya bayansu sun lazimci yin amfani da wasu kalaman canji, musamman a lokacin yaƙin neman zaƂe, don yaďa manufar jam’iyyarsu da ‘yan takararsu, da kuma yin suka da kakkausar murya a kan salon tafiyar jam’iyya mai mulki. A wannan sashe za a nuna yadda waďannan kalamai suka ba da gudunmawa, wajen faďakar da magoya baya da duk wani mai sha’awar canji muradu da aƙidar jam’iyyar adawa ta APC. Ga kaďan daga cikin kalaman da aka kalato ta hanyar tattaunawa ko hira ko ganawa da jama’a, da sauraron magana daga jama’a da kuma amfani da littafan karatu.

1. APC sak ko canji sak: A zaƂi jam’iyyar APC a dukkanin matakan zaƂuƂƂuka (daga shugaban ƙasa har zuwa kansila)
2. A kasa, a tsare, a raka, a jira: Bayanin da mai girma shugaban ƙasa Muhammadu Buhari ya riƙa amfani da shi lokacin yaƙin neman zaƂe, don masu kaďa ƙuri’a su ďauki matakin sa ido, don hanawa ko rage aringizon ƙuri’u da ya zama ruwan dare a zaƂen Nijeriya. (Yakasai, 2013:636)
3. ‘Yan lema: Sunan da aka bai wa magoya bayan ‘yan jam’iyyar PDP, wadda ke da alamar lema.
4. Sai mun share su: Da’awar da ‘yan jam’iyyar APC ke yi na ƙoƙarin canja gwamnati ko karƂe ta. A nan suna amfani da aikin alamar jam’iyyarsu ta tsintsiya wajen bayyana manufarsu.
5. Mai malfa: Sunan da ‘yan jam’iyyar APC suke kiran tsohon Shugaban ƙasa Dr. Goodluck Ebele Jonathan, musamman saboda hular da yake yawan sawa ta yi canjarar da malfar Bahaushe, kuma ga alama sunan na suka ne.
6. Kaduna sai mai rusau: Sunan da ake kiran ďan takarar gwamnan Jahar Kaduna Malam Nasiru El-Rufa’i, musamma saboda ayyukan rushe gine-ginen da aka yi ba bisa ƙa’ida ba, a lokacin da yake matsayin Ministan Birnin Tarayya Abuja.
7. Nijeriya sai mai gaskiya/ Sai mai gaskiya/ sai dogo ďan Daura/ sai baba Buhari: Sunan da aka raďa wa ďan takarar shugaban ƙasa Muhammadu Buhari, saboda a baya an san ya shugabanci ƙasar nan ƙarƙasshin mulki soja, inda ya yi yaƙi da cin hanci da rashawa, tare da yaƙi da rashin ďa’a. Sannan kuma ya yi Ministan man fetur, inda ya kwatanta adalci gwargwado.
8. Buhari fiya-fiya kashe ƙwaro ko maganin ƙwari: Fiya-fiya ruwan magani ne da ake amfani da shi don kashe ƙwari, amma ‘yan siyasa da wasu jama’a na ambaton Muhammadu Buhari da sunan, saboda tabbacinsu na cewa shi ne kaďai zai iya ceto Nijeriya daga halin da take ciki na rashin tsaro, da satar kuďaďen hukuma, da rashin aikin yi da kuma matsalar cin hanci da rashawa.
9. Sai mai tsintsinya/Tsintsiya mai share datti/Tsintsiya maďaurinki ďaya: Tsintsiya ita ce alamar jam’iyyar APC, saboda haka ne magoya bayanta ke nema mata farin jini domin ta ci zaƂe, musamman ganin haďakar jam’iyyu ta maja wadda ta haifar da haďin kan ‘yan adawa, don samun sauƙi wajen tunkarar jam’iyya mai mulki ta PDP.
10. Sai mai sallah: Suna ne da magoya bayan jam’iyyar APC (Musulmai) ke yabon ďan takara Muhammadu Buhari, don nuna bambancin addini tsakaninsa da abokin hamayyarsa. Su ma ‘yan jam’iyyar PDP suna wasa nasu ďan takara da ‘sai mai fitsari tsaye’ ko ‘sai kahiri’ sai ka ji suna cewa ai siyasa ba addini ba ce.

1.4.2 Ire-iren Kalaman Siyasar Canji Bayan Kafa Gwamnatin APC


Bayan jam’iyyar APC ta yi nasarar karƂe madahun ikon shugabancin ƙasa. Kalaman siyasar canji sun ci gaba da bunƙasa da yaďuwa, musamman a tsakanin magoya baya da ‘yan adawa da ma duk ‘yan ƙasa masu sharhi kan al’amurran siyasa. A wannan sashe za a duba irin maganganun da ke bayyana ra’ayoyin jama’a kan tasirin canjin da aka yi, da kuma halin da ƙasa ke ciki bayan kafa gwamnatin APC. Ga kaďan daga cikin kalaman da aka samo ta amfani da hanyoyin tattara bayanai, kamr yadda aka nuna sashe na 1.4.1.
11. Masu gudu su gudu: Wannan gargaďi ne da aka samo daga waƙar ‘Masu gudu su gudu’ ta Dauda Kahutu Rarara kamar haka:

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Masu gudu su gudu Sai baba Buhari
Ku gaya musu masu gudu su gudu
Masu gudu su gudu
In ka san kai sata ka gudu
Masu gudu su gudu
Ku gaya wa Ƃarayin can su matsa
Masu gudu su gudu
Ko way yi sake Janaral ya rutsa
Masu gudu su gudu Sai baba Buhari

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Saboda haka ne ma ya sa ‘yan siyasa da jama’a suka riƙa amfani da waďannan kalamai, wajen nuna goyon baya ko adawa. Sau da yawa za ka ji ‘yan jam’iyyar APC na tsokanar abokan hamayyarsu na PDP da cewa, ‘masu gudu su gudu’ wai in ka san ka yi sata ka gudu. Su ma ‘yan PDP na mayar da martani da cewa ai ‘masu gudu su gudu’ ya shafi kowa har da ‘yan APC, domin manufar Buhari ita ce kawo sauyi da gyara a Nijeriya baki ďaya. Haka kuma, tasirin wannan kalami ya haifar da fim na Hausa, wanda aka raďa wa suna ‘masu gudu su gudu’. A cikin shirin jaruman Hausa na Kannywood sun nuna hoton yanayin da Nijeriya ke ciki kafin zaƂe na bangar siyasa, da yadda ake siyasar kuďi, don a ďare mulki da kuma duk badaƙalar da ta faru lokacin zaƂen 2015, musamman a babban ďakin tattara ƙuri’un zaƂe na ƙasa.
12. Bincike ake: Shi ma wannan kalami ya samo asali ne daga waƙar ‘Bincike muke’ ta Dauda Kahutu Rarara, wadda ta fito bayan Buhari ya cika kwana ďari bisa mulki. Ga kaďan daga cikin baitocin da suka shafi wannan maƙala:
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Wai yau bincike muke yi
Bincike muke
Don a yi maganin Ƃarayi
Bincike muke
Ga Janaral farin masoyi
Bincike muke
A shi kishin ƙasa yake yi
Bincike muke
Baba a bincike su sosai
Bincike muke
Kowa ta rutsa da shi a kwasai
Bincike muke
Don a yi maganin kiyasai
Bincike muke
Tsoho kar ka bar macuta
Bincike muke

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Daga waƙar ko amshinta jama’a suka ďauki hannu, inda suke amfani da ita wajen bayyana cewa, Buhari ya fara bin diddigin abubuwan da suka gudana na rub-da-ciki da dukiyar ƙasa da kuma matsalar cin hanci da rashawa. Wannan kalami ya zama gama gari tsakanin magoya bayan da masu adawa. ‘Yan APC kan tsokani ‘yan PDP da cewa, bincike ake yi, musamman ganin binciken ya fi rutsawa da ‘yan tsohuwar gwamnati. Su kuma ‘yan adawa na dariyar magoya bayan sabuwar gwamnati da cewa, bincike ake yi har yanzu ba a gani a ƙasa ba, kuma ai binciken ƙaiƙayi ne koma kan masheƙiya. Su ma sauran jama’a kan riƙa tunatar da junansu kan cewa, bincike ake yi saboda haka sai a riƙa sara ana duban bakin gatari. Kuma wasu mutane na danganta wannan kalami na ‘bincike ake’ da cewa, komai fa ya tsaya cik sai an gama bincike.
13. Lema ta yage: Wannan kalami an samo shi ne daga sunan waƙar da wasu mawaƙan Hausa suka yi wa jam’iyyar APC da Buhari. Mawaƙan sun haďa da: Adam Zango, da Dauda Rarara, da Nazifi Asnanic, da Abubakar Sani, da Hussaini Danko, da Adamu Nagudu, da Baban Chinedu, da Ibrahim Ibrahim, Nura M. Inuwa, da Umar M. Sharif, da Sadi Sidi, da Ali jita, da Alfazazi da kuma Aminu Afandaj. Lema ta yage na nufin an yi nasarar karƂe mulki daga hannun jam’iyya mai alamar lema, kuma wannan kalami na kai- komo tsakanin jama’a masu nuna goyon bayansu ga canjin da aka samu mai cike da tarihi.
14. Buhariyya ko ‘Yar Buhari: Buhariyya na nufin salon mulkin sabon shugaban ƙasa na tsuke aljihun gwamnati. Da rashin sa’ar da aka yi na hauhawar kayan masarufi sanadiyar faďuwar ďanyen man fetur, wanda ya shafi tattalin arzikin ƙasa. Saboda waďannan dalilai, da wahalar da ƙasa ke ciki na rashin kuďi da yunwar da wasu ke fama da ita, duk sun ingiza mutane riƙa cewa, ana cikin Buhariyya ko ‘yar Buhari, musamman a harkar cinikayya ko a sauran al’amurran al’umma na yau da kullun. Wani sashe na jama’a kan kira Buhariyya da cewa, an ďunke aljihun ragga.
15. Ɗan’azumi: Saboda kwatantawar shugaba Buhari ya sa wasu ke yi masa kirari da Ɗan’azumi, ba ka ci, ba ka bari a ci. Musammam ganin yadda ‘yan Nijeriya suka saba da bushashar ci-mu-ci.
16. Baba go slow ko go slow baba : Wannan laƙabi ne da musamman ‘yan ƙasa da suka ƙosa ba su ga canjin nan take ba, suke kiran shugaba Buhari da shi. Akwai kuma masu ra’ayin cewa, idan aka yi la’akari da yanayin da aka tarar da ƙasa ciki to sai an yi haƙuri, domin idan dambu ya yi yawa ba ya jin mai. Wannan ne ma ya sa suka bayyana Buhari da ‘ruwa mai aiki sannu’, kuma suna ganin wannan salon mulki ne na bin abubuwa daki-daki, domin gano bakin zare don daidaita al’amurra.
17. Da tashin bam gwamma tashin dala: Bayan hawan shugaba Buhari ya gaji matsalar ƙungiyar Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati Wal-Jihad (Boko haram), wadda ta samo asali daga garin Maiduguri ta Jahar Borno. Kuma barazanar kai hare-hare ta ragu sosai. Sai dai an sami karayar tattalin arziki, wanda ya haifar da faďuwar kuďin Nijeriya. Saboda ƙorafin ‘yan adawa da wasu ‘yan ƙasa game da tashin dala daga naira 191/200 zuwa naira 300/400, magoya bayan jam’iyyar APC suka ƙirƙiro kalami mai bayyana cewa, da tashin bam gwamma tashin dala. An samo wannan kalami ne daga kafar sadarwa ta fezbuk, kuma waďannan hanyoyi na sadarwar zamani sun taimaka wajen wayar da kan jama’a da gudunmawar harshen Hausa ga siyasar canji, musamman lokacin yaƙin neman zaƂe.

Duba wata makala:

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/31/reflection-of-harmony-in-aliyu-dandawos-song-of-zarmakwai-abdurrahman/

Kammalawa


Daga bayanan da suka gabata an fahimci cewa, ‘yan siyasa kan tallata jam’iyyarsu ko ďan takara, ta hanyar yabo ko taken kirari waďanda kan yi tasiri a zukatan masu saurare. Wato faďar zaƂaƂƂun kalmomi masu daďi ga gwanayensu, waďanda suka aikata wasu kyawawan abubuwa masu ƙara bayyana darajarsu na matuƙar baƙanta wa ‘yan adawa rai, tare da faranta ran magoya baya da ƙara musu ƙwarin guiwa. A saboda haka, wannan maƙala ta gano yadda harshen Hausa ya ba da gagarumar gudunmawa wajen ilmantarwa da faďakarwa da nishaďantarwa da kuma wayar da kan ‘yan Nijeriya, musamman ta Arewa manufa da aƙidar ‘yan siyasa da jam’iyyunsu. Sannan kafin zaƂe da lokacin zaƂe da kuma bayan canjin gwamnati an ga yadda harshen Hausa ya yi tasiri, tare da taimako wajen yaďa manufofin jam’iyyu da na magoya baya da ‘yan adawa a kan lokacin canji da ake ciki, da kuma yadda suke amfani da kalamai daban-daban wajen ba shi fassara gwargwadon fahimtarsu.

Manazarta


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MUTANEN DA AKA ZANTA DA SU


Lamba Suna Matsayi/Gari Kwanan Wata
1 Mal. Isah Abdullahi Muhammad Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sokoto/Collation officer lokacin zaƂen 2015 a Tureta Local Government, Sokoto. 01/04/2016
2 Muhammad Garba Muhammad Rinin Tawaye Sokoto-North, Sokoto 01/04/2016
3 Dayyabu Ali Jahar Taraba 02/04/2016
4 Nasiru Ibrahim Malumfashi Jahar Katsina 28/05/2016
5 Mal. Abdulƙadir Abubakar Zailani Zaria, Jahar Kaduna 29/05/2016
6 Malam Ɗan’auta Jahar Niger 29/05/2016
7 Ali Minista Jahar Bauchi 16/06/2016
8 Ashiru Usman Gabasawa Jahar Kano 20/06/2016
9 Jibrin Alhassan Argungu, Jahar Kebbi 11/07/2016
10 Alh. Dauda Adamu Kahutu Rarara An zanta da shi a lokacin da ya kai ziyara a Jahar Zamfara 18/05/2017
11 Mal. Dano Balarabe Bunza Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sokoto. 20/05/2017
12 Prof. H.A Birniwa Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sokoto. 23/05/2017

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