Wednesday, 16 August 2017

Ganga Mai Dangantaka A Hausa

DAGA
Muhammad Mustapha Umar
Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya
Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sakkwato



GABATARWA


Kowane harshe na duniya yana da rumbun kalmomi wanda ke ƙunshe da yalwatattun kalmomi, domin amfanin majiya harshe. Rashin isassun kalmomi na kawo giƂi matuƙa ga harshe, wannan ma ya sa batun aro ya zama ƙawa ga rayayyen harshe. Saboda haka, a ilimin ginin jimla ko magana akwai salon da ake amfani da shi na harhaďa kalmomi wuri ďaya domin su ba da wata ma’ana karƂaƂƂiya. A taƙaice, wannan haďaka ita ke haifar da ganga ko ganga mai dangantaka ko kuma cikakkiyar jimla. Wannan jimla tana iya kasancewa mai sauƙi ko mai sarƙaƙiya.
A cikin wannan maƙala, za mu yi taƙaitaccen tsokaci kan ganga, da wakilin suna mai dangantaka da kuma ganga mai dangantaka. Sannan daga bisani za mu kawo bayani a kan daďaďďiya da sabuwar hanyar da ake amfani da ita wajen samar da ganga mai dangantaka a Hausa. Duk waďannan bayanai za su zo ne tare da kawo misalai domin tabbatar da hoƂƂasar da masana suka yi dangane da wannan babban al’amari. Daga ƙarshe akwai jawabin kammalawa.

GANGA


A ra’ayin Sani (1999), ganga wani jerin kalmomi ne na nahawu, wanda bai kai jimla ba. Haka kuma, shi wannan jeri haďe yake da aikatau.
Ganga tana fayyace ma’anar suna, wanda ke zuwa a yankin suna a cikin jimla. Ana iya gane gangar a duk lokacin da aka ci karo da wakilin suna mai dangantaka. Wehmier (2006), ya bayyana ganga a matsayin gungun kalmomin suna da aikatau waďanda ke gina jimla ko wani sashi na jimlar. Murthy (2007), shi a ganinsa ganga ajin kalmomi ne waďanda ke gina sashen jimla, kuma sukan ƙunshi suna da abin da aka faďa game da suna.
A taƙaice, ganga na nufin haďuwar kalmomi waďanda suka ƙunshi fa’ili da kuma abin da aka faďi game da fa’ilin. Sai dai wannan tsari na harshen Hausa ne da wasu harsuna da ke da irin wannan tsari, inda ake samun yankin jimla wanda ke zuwa ba tare da aikatau ba, kamar ‘Musa malami ne’ a Hausa ko ‘John is a business man’ a harshen Ingilishi da sauransu.

WAKILIN SUNA MAI DANGANTAKA


Wakilan suna masu dangantaka da aka fi sani a Ingilishi su ne who/whom, whoever, whose, that da which. Waďannan wakilan suna masu dangantaka suna aikin gabatar da ganga mai dangantaka domin ta sami damar haďa gangar sifa da bayanau dogarau da yankin ganga tsayau. Gangar sifa da bayanau dogarau suna fayyace kalma ko yanki ko kuma wani bayani daga yankin ganga tsayau. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/relative-pronouns), Wakilin suna mai dangantaka na nufin ƙananan gungun kalmomi ne da ke wakiltar suna, waďanda kuma ake amfani da su wajen gabatar da ganga dogarau. (Byrd, Beverly & Heinle, 1992)
Wakilin suna mai dangantaka shi ne ake amfani da shi domin a gabatar da ganga mai dangantaka. Ko kuma domin a gane ta ko domin tantance ta a cikin jimla. Wakilin suna mai dangantaka kan haďa ganguna biyu ne kai tsaye, sannan su koma matsayin ganga ďaya mai cike da sarƙaƙiya. Wakilin suna mai dangantaka na wakiltar suna. Saboda yakan zo ne a bagiren suna yayin da suna ya yi balaguro ko kuma ya sami uzurin rashin halartowa. Wakilin suna mai dangantaka shi ne wakilin suna da ke nuna ganga mai dangantaka a cikin cikakkiyar jimla. Ana kiran sa wakilin suna mai dangantaka saboda dangantakarsa da kalmomin da yake fayyacewa. Ga misalin kalmomin da ake kira wakilan suna masu dangantaka:-
Ingilishi: who, which & that
The woman that sent the letter.
John who visits frequently is ill.
Houses which overlook cost more.

Hausa: wanda, wadda, waďanda da kuma da. Waďannan kalmomin na wakilin suna sukan ďauki tsarin nahawu kamar haka:

Wanda: Mutun na uku, namiji, tilo (3MS)
Wadda: Mutun na uku, mace, tilo (3FS)
Waďanda: Mutum na uku, jam’i (3PL)

Ita kuma kalmar ‘da’ ta haďa dukkanin sigogin waďancan ukun. Abin nufi a nan shi ne, ana iya amfani da kalmar ‘da’ a matsayin tilo ko jam’i da kuma jinsin mace da na namiji.

GANGA MAI DANGANTAKA


Ganga mai dangantaka ganga ce mai fayyace yankin suna da na wakilin suna a cikin jimla. Haka kuma, ganga mai dangantaka na matsayin ganga
dogarau wadda ba ta iya zama ita kaďai a cikin jimla. Babban aikin da take yi shi ne fayyace suna, wato yankin suna a taƙaice. Newman (2000), ya tofa albarkacin bakinsa inda yake cewa; Ganga mai dangantaka kan zo ne kafin yankin suna (suna ko wakilin suna) wanda ganga mai dangantakar ke fayyacewa. Kuma ana amfani da wakilan suna masu dangantaka domin gabatar da ganga mai dangantaka, sai dai dole a sami daidaito ko tarayya ta fuskar adadi da jinsi da fa’ili ko suna a yankin suna. Parkinson (2003), shi kuwa ya kalli ganga mai dangantaka a matsayin ganga dogarau kuma kalmomi ne masu fayyace suna. Misali;- John read the book that Mary loaned to him. Kalmomin da aka ja wa layi su ne ganga mai dangantaka. Kuma sukan zo ne saboda dangantakarsu da ajin suna ‘book’ wanda suke fayyacewa. Ganga mai dangantaka ita ake kira ganga dogarau wadda ke fayyace yankin suna, musamman suna. Misali;- Yankin jimla na “the man who wasn’t there” ya ƙunshi suna “man” wanda yankin ganga mai dangantaka na “who wasn’t there” ke fayyacewa. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/relative-clause)

TSOHON ALƘAWALI


A tsohon alƙawali babu wani takamammen tsari da ake amfani da shi wajen nuna irin yadda ake samar da ganga mai dangantaka, sai dai kawai ana gane ganga mai dangantaka ne ta hanyar ganin wakilin suna mai dangantaka, wanda ke aikin gabatar da ganga mai dangantaka .
Yadda wannan al’amari na nazari ke kasancewa shi ne, a duk lokacin da jimla ta zo da ďaya daga cikin wakilan suna masu dangantaka to, wannan jimla za a ďauke ta a matsayin mai ƙunshe da ganga mai dangantaka.
Saboda haka, idan aka yi la’akari da wannan tsari za a ga ba ya maganar yadda ake samar da jimla mai ganga mai dangantaka sai dai alamunsa da kuma yadda ake gane shi ta hanyar wakilan suna masu dangantaka. A taƙaice, ita wannan hanyar nazari ta tsohon alƙawari ita ce daďaďďiyar hanya, kuma mafi sauƙi domin rashin zurfafawa wajen wasu fannoni masu dangantaka.

SABON ALƘAWALI


A sabon alƙawali da kuma fahimtar zamani akwai ingantacciyar hanyar da ake bi domin samar da ganga mai dangantaka ba kamar inda aka fito ba.
Akwai hanyoyi uku muhimmai da masana suka fito da su, domin amfani da su wajen samar da ganga mai dangantaka. Idan kuma ba a yi amfani da waďannan hanyoyi ba to, wannan aikin ba zai yiwu ba.
Hanya ta farko: Dole a sami tarayya tsakanin yankin suna na jimla da kuma ganga, dole waďannan abubuwa su kasance suna da tsari da aji iri ďaya ba tare da wani bambanci ba. Haka kuma, wannan ganga ita ce ke fayyace yankin suna. Misali:-
‘ Mota (Musa ya a sàyí mota)’
YS J

A magana ta yau da kullum Hausawa ba su faďar haka, amma saboda wannan aiki na samar da ganga mai dangantaka ya yiwu to, dole a sami irin
wannan jimla wadda ke nuna tarayya tsakanin yankin suna da wani yankin suna irin sa cikin gangar.
Hanya ta biyu ita ce, bayan an sami tarayya tsakanin yankin suna da takwararsa na cikin ganga kamar yadda aka gani a misalin da aka kawo, sai a sauya wannan yankin suna na cikin gangar da ta yi tarayya da yankin suna zuwa wakilin suna mai dangantaka. Kafin a yi wannan sauyi dole sai an nemi wakilin suna mai dangantaka da ke da aji da tsari iri ďaya da kalmar da za a sauya da wadda za ta maye gurbinta.
Abin nufi a nan shi ne za a maye gurbin kalmar ‘mota’ da ke cikin gangar ko jimla da kalmar ‘wadda.’ Misali ita kalmar ‘mota’ tana da tsari da aji kamar haka: Tilo, suna da jinsin mace. Saboda haka, za a maye gurbinta ne da wakilin suna mai dangantaka mai irin wannan tsari. Saboda haka, kalmar ‘wadda’ a matsayinta na wakilin suna mai dangantaka ita ce ta dace da tsarin kalmar ‘mota’ da za a maye gurbinta. Saboda haka, misalin jimlar da muka kawo a hanya ta farko na
‘Mota (Musa ya a sàyí mota) zai koma ‘Mota (Musa ya a sàyí wadda)’

A nan za mu iya cewa an sami sauyin kalmar ‘mota’ zuwa kalmar ‘wadda’ domin kawai a aiwatar da wannan aiki da aka fara na samar da ganga mai dangantaka.
Hanya ta uku ita ce ta hanyar gushi. Wato, za a sami gushin kalmar ‘wadda’ mai matsayin wakilin suna mai dangantaka wadda ta maye gurbin kalmar ‘mota’ a hanya ta biyu. Wannan kalma za ta yi gushi ne zuwa farko ko gaban ganga, wanda yin haka zai tabbatar da wannan fahimtar zamani da ake amfani da ita wajen samar da ganga mai dangantaka. Ga yadda misalin zai kasance.
‘Mota (Wadda Musa ya o sàyáá)’
Idan aka yi la’akari da wannan misali na uku kuma na ƙarshe, za a ga an sami wasu sauye-sauye. Wannan ya faru ne saboda a harshen Hausa duk lokacin da aka sami gushi a cikin jimla to, ya zama wajibi lokaci ya sauya. Sannan shi ma giredin fi’ili zai sauya babu ko tababa. Haka kuma, duk lokacin da hakan ta faru wato, aka sami gushin kalma daga wani bagire zuwa wani to, a nan wajibi ne a sami inuwar wannan kalma. Wannan inuwar ana samun ta ne a bagire ko wurin da kalma ta koma bayan gushin. Kamar yadda misali ya nuna giredin fi’ili ya sauya daga – i (ƙs) zuwa – aa (ƙs) ita kuma kalmar ‘sayi’ za a ga tana buƙatar maf’uli amma kalmar fi’ili ta ‘sayaa’ tana zuwa ne a jimlar da babu maf’uli da kuma lokacin da aka sami inuwa da kuma jimlar da ke maganar sanannen maf’uli.
A taƙaice, ga jimlolin da muka kawo a matsayin misali a sama a cikin hanyoyin samar da ganga mai dangantaka.
Mota (Musa ya a sàyí mota)
Mota (Musa ya a sàyí wadda)
Mota (wadda Musa ya o sàyáá )

Waďannan jimloli sun ƙara tabbatar da hanyoyi uku da muka yi bayani, waďanda ake amfani da su wajen samar da ganga mai dangantaka ta fuskar fahimtar zamani. Ga wasu jimloli waďanda wannan tsari zai iya haifarwa. An samar da waďannan ne sakamakon amfani da hanyoyin nan uku da manazarta suka fito da su, waďanda ake amfani da su wajen samar da ganga mai dangantaka.
Gida (Ali ya a gínà gida)
Gida (Ali ya a gínà wanda)
Gida (Wanda Ali ya o gínà)

Mata (Lami ta a màrí mata)
Mata (Lami ta a màrí wadda)
Mata (wadda Lami ta o màráá)

Kuďi (yara su n tsìncí kuďi)
Kuďi (yara su n tsìncí waďanda)
Kuďi (waďanda yara suka tsìntáá)

A cikin Ingilishi ma haka abin yake. Ga misalin yadda ake samun rikiďewar jimloli a ƙarƙashin wannan hanya.

I know the woman (John will marry the woman)
I know the woman (John will marry who)
I know the woman ( who John will marry)

Waďannan jimloli ďan ƙarin haske ne dangane da yadda nazarin ke gudana a harshen Ingilishi, sai dai ba a rasa wasu ‘yan bambance-bambance nan da can da ba su taka kara suka karya ba. Kamar yadda masana ilmin harshe suka bayyana, harsuna kan yi tarayya a wani fanni ko wasu fannoni, amma akan ci karo da ‘yan tsirarun sigogi da kan sallace bisa tsari na harshe da kuma samar da kafar cuďanya. Nazari na ƙwaƙƙwafi shi kaďai ne ke iya tabbatar da ingancin ire-iren waďannan muhimman Ƃangarori.
Ita wannan hanya ta sabon alƙawali tafi zurfafawa a cikin binciken bambance-bambance da ake samu a cikin harshe. Bugu da ƙari, wannan hanyar sabuwa ta nazari kamar ci gaba ne na inda aka tsaya da bincike a tsohon alƙawali. Bisa wannan dalili wannan hanya tana fayyace bambance-bambance a nahawunce.

KAMMALAWA


Kowane harshe yana da dabarun da yake amfani da su wajen samar da muhimman abubuwa musamman irin su ganga mai dangantaka da sauransu.
Haka kuma, mun kalli wannan al’amari tun yadda aka fara shi yana a matsayin tsohon alƙawali har zuwa lokacin da aka sami bayyanar sabon salon nazari. Waďannan hanyoyi da aka samu sakamakon zamani sun taimaka ainun wajen faďaďa nazari da inganta harshe musamman na Hausa da muke magana akai. Saboda haka, yin bincike ya zama wajibi ga musamman mu ďalibai domin ƙoƙarin tono galmar da ta daďe a binne. Wannan shi zai taimaka domin samun sabbin hujjoji da za su zama madogara a al’amarin harshe.

RATAYE


Rataye ya ƙunshi wasu keƂaƂƂun kalmomi na nahawu da aka yi amfani da su a cikin wannan maƙala.
HAUSA INGILISHI
Abin da aka faďi game da suna Predicate
Aikatau Verb
Aji/tsari Grammatical class
Fa’ili Subject
Fahimtar zamani New sight
Ganga Clause
Ganga dogarau Subordinate clause
Ganga mai dangantaka Relative clause
Ganga Tsayayya Independent clause
Giredi Grade
Giredin fi’ili Verbal grade
Gushi Movement
Inuwa Trace
Jam’i Plural
Jinsin mace Feminine
Jinsin namiji Masculine
Lokaci Tense
Maf’uli Object
Mutum na biyu Second person singular
Mutum na ďaya First person singular
Mutum na uku Third person singular
Sanannen maf’uli Understood object
Sarƙaƙƙiya Complex
Suna Noun
Wakilin suna maidangantaka Relative pronoun
Yankin suna Noun phrase

Duba wata mak'ala

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/08/16/bayanau-da-amsa-kama-cikin-wakokin-muhammadu-gambo-fagada/

MANAZARTA
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En.wikipedia.org/wiki/relative-clause
En.wikipedia.org/wiki/relative-pronouns

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