Wednesday, 16 August 2017

Ganga Dogarau A Hausa da Ingilishi: Alaƙa Da Bambanci

Daga


Muhammad Mustapha Umar


&


Musa Shehu


Department of Nigerian Languages Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto


 

Gabatarwa


Harsuna na duniya daban-daban kan yi tarayya da juna a wasu fannoni, ko ma su bambanta tsakani a wasu Ƃangarori, waďanda bincike na ƙwaƙkwafi ke zaƙulowa har a sami damar iya tantance alaƙa da jituwar harsuna. Musamman a bisa sabuwar fasahar zurfafa bincike a kan bambance-bambancen da ake samu tsakanin harsuna. Babban maƙasudin gina wannan maƙala shi ne yin ƙoƙarin gano farƙi da jituwar harshen Hausa da Ingilishi ta fuskar ganga dogarau. Da yake gani ya kori ji, maƙalar ta yi hoƂƂasar kafa hujjoji daga harsunan guda biyu da aka kwatanta. Saboda haka, wannan nazari ya shafi ganga mai matsayin jerin kalmomi waďanda suka ƙumshi aikatau, kuma duk jimlolin da ke ďauke da ganga ďaya ko fiye su ake kira; ganga tsayayya da kuma ganga dogarau. A cikin wannan maƙala, an yi amfani da salon ƙara duhu ga kalmomin wakilin suna mai dangantaka, da kuma jan layi ƙarƙashin yankin ganga dogarau a cikin jimla, masu matsayin misalai da za su yi ƙarin haske yadda lamurran ke gudana a cikin harsunan da za a kwatanta.

Ganga dogarau a Hausa


Ganga dogarau tana nufin kishiyar ganga tsayayya (independent clause) A ra’ayin (Sani, 1999:88) Ganga dogarau nau’i ne na ganga wadda ba ta iya zama ita kaďai a jimla. Maimakon haka lalle ne ta dogara da wani abin na daban. A taƙaice, ita wannan gangar ba ta zama da kanta sai ta dangana ga wasu jerin kalmomin nahawu da ke zuwa a cikin yankin jimla ko jimla ita kanta. A Hausa akwai wakilan suna masu dangantaka kamar haka: wanda, da wadda da waďanda.

Ganga dogarau a Ingilishi


Ganga dogarau tana da dangantakar fayyace suna ko wani abu, tare da bayani a kansu. Ganga dogarau kan zo bayan suna ko wakilin suna. Su kuma wakilan suna masu dangantaka irinsu: ‘who’ da ‘which’ da kuma ‘that’ suna gabatar da ganga dogarau. Ita wannan ganga takan ko da yaushe rataye ga wani abu; misali ganga dogarau ta dogara da wasu kalmomin cikin jimla kafin ma’ana ta kammala. Misali jimla mai sarƙaƙiya kan ƙumshi ganga dogarau mai matsayin yanki dogarau na jimlar mai sarƙaƙiya.
Alaƙar Hausa da Ingilishi ta fuskar ganga dogarau
A wannan Ƃangare za a yi ƙoƙarin fito da wasu lamurran ganga dogarau inda harsunan guda biyu suka yi canjarar ko kama da juna. Dubi misalan ganga dogarau kamar yadda take fitowa a cikin jimlolin harsunan.
I. Hausa da Ingilishi sun yi tarayya ta fuskar amfani da wakilin suna mai dangantaka, wajen gabatar da ganga dogarau a cikin yanki ko jimla.
1 Musa wanda ke ziyararmu ko da yaushe ba ya da lafiya
Ai na san Ladi wadda Ɗanjumma zai aura
Makarantun gwamnati waďanda shugaban ma’aikata ya ziyarta
2 Everyone knows that honesty is the best policy
The man who invited you to dinner is my uncle
The story which you wrote a year ago is a nice one

II. Hausa da Ingilishi suna amfani hanyoyi uku fitattu na zamani wajen samar da ganga dogarau. (Umar, 2012:93-94)
3 Ɓarayi (‘yan sanda sun káamà Ƃarayi)
Ɓarayi (‘yan sanda sun káamà waďanda)
Ɓarayi (waďanda ‘yan sanda suka káamàa)
4 I know the story (press will broadcast the story)
I know the story (press will broadcast which)
I know the story (which press will broadcast)
III. A Hausa da kuma a Ingilishi ganga dogarau kan zo cikin jimla saboda kawai dangantakarta da ajin suna. Dubi yadda alaƙar take a waďannan misalai.
5 Gwamnati ta rushe gine-gine waďanda aka gina ba bisa ƙa’ida ba
Ko ka ga kyanwa wadda ke saman rufin kwano
6 I like the woman who lives next door
I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen
IV. A harsunan guda biyu ganga dogarau ba ta iya zuwa ita kaďai a cikin jimla har sai ta dogara ga yankin suna. Yankin jimla wanda aka ja wa layi ba ya ba da cikakkiyar ma’ana, idan ya zo ba tare da yankin tsayau ba.
7 Ali ya karanta littafi wanda Lami ta ara masa
8 John met a woman who I had been to school with
V. A harsunan guda biyu wakilin suna mai dangantaka yana wakiltar suna, kuma ya zauna a muhallin suna a cikin jimla.
9 Yarinya wadda ta shigo a makare ‘yan’uwata ce
Sabon littafi wanda ka ba ni ya salwanta
Malamai waďanda suka tafi da safe sun dawo
10 Peter knows a woman who has two children
The cat was allowed on the bed which annoyed the dog
Tim thought that kate believed the story
VI. A Hausa da kuma a Ingilishi duk ana samun daidaito tsarin nahawu. (Jinsi da adadi) tsakanin wakilan suna masu dangantaka da fa’ili ko suna a yanki suna.
11 Na san alƙali wanda aka yi wa fashi
Audu ya kwashe kayan marmari waďanda ke cikin firiza
Sarauniyar Hausawa wadda ta yi murabus ta kammala karatu
12 The bike which I loved was stolen
We went to the village that Lucy recommended
The people that live on the Island are very friendly
The woman who had a thick French accent was very pretty
Bambamcin Hausa da Ingilishi ta fuskar ganga dogarau
A wannan fasali za a duba bambancin nau’in ganga dogarau a cikin harsunan Hausa da Ingilishi. Za a yi wannan ne ta hanyar kawo jimloli masu ďauke da kalmomin ganga dogarau daga harsunan guda biyu.
VII. (a) A Hausa ganga dogarau tana zuwa ne a yanki abin da a ka faďa game da suna. Shi kuma yankin iri biyu ne a Hausa. Wato yanki mai aikatau da maras aikatau.

13 Laraba malama ce wadda ke da kadarori masu yawa
Fa’ili Abin da aka faďi game da suna

Gwamnati ta riƙe albashin ma’aikata waďanda suka yi yajin aiki
Fa’ili Abin da aka faďi game da suna
(b) A Ingilishi ganga dogarau tana zuwa ne a yanki aikatau.
14 The child who threw your book away was only three years old
The University that he lives is famous
VIII. (a) A Hausa kalmomin wakilin suna mai dangantaka suna ďaukar tsarin nahawu kamar haka:
Wanda: mutum na uku, namiji , tilo, mutane da abubuwa.
Wadda: mutum na uku, mace, tilo, mutane da abubuwa.
Waďanda: mutum na uku, jam’i mutane da abubuwa.
15 Ina neman sakatare wanda ya naƙalci kwamfuta sosai
Motata wadda na fi so ta yi haďari jiya da yamma
Ɗalibai waďanda suka firgita da nahawu sun rubuta jarabawa.
(b) A Ingilishi kalmomin wakilin suna mai dangantaka suna da tsarin nahawu kamar haka:
Who: mutum na uku, da namiji/mace da jam’i; mutane.
Which: mutum na uku, da namiji/mace da jam’i; abubuwa.
That: mutum na uku, da namiji/mace da jam’i; mutane/abubuwa.
16 She has a son who is a doctor
She lives in New York which she likes
The man that phoned is my brother
I brought a new car that is very fast
IX. (a) A Hausa gushi da ya faru a hanya ta uku yayin samar da ganga dogarau ya haifar da sauyin lokaci da giredin fi’ili da inuwar kalmar da ta gusa daga wani bagire zuwa wani (inda kalma ta koma bayan gushi; a nan ne ake samun inuwa) wato kalmar tana zuwa ne a jimla da ba a buƙatar maf’uli ko sanannen maf’uli. (Umar, 2012:93-94)
17 Mata (musa ya a àurí mata)
Mata (musa ya a àurí wadda)
Mata (wadda musa ya o àuráa)
(b) A Ingilishi kowane aji na kalma a cikin jimlar Ingilishi kan kasance cikin sigarsa ta asali a kowane mataki, ba tare da fuskantar wani sauyi ba, musamman a hanya ta uku yayin samar da ganga dogarau.
18 Do you see the cat (is lying on the roof the cat)
Do you see the cat (is lying on the roof which)
Do you see the cat (which is lying on the roof.)

 

karanta wani:

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/26/kamanci-da-bambancin-yadda-galadanci-da-zarruk-suke-fede-jumla/

Kammalawa


Wannan maƙala ta tsakuro wani sashe ne na kamanci harsuna (Hausa da Ingilishi) ta fuskar ginin jimla, musamman abin da ya shafi ganga dogarau. Daga bayanan da suka gabata an gano cewa harsunan guda biyu suna da kama da juna ta wasu fuskoki, tare da yin taƙin-saƙa a wasu Ƃangarori kamar dai yadda bincike ya nuna. Haka kuma, ana fatar wannan aiki ya kasance ja gora ga nazarce-nazarcen da za su biyo, domin zurfafa binciken farƙi da jituwar harsuna ta fuskar: nazarin asalin ganga dogarau da zumuntarta da wasu ajujuwan kalmomi da kuma nazarin cikakkiyar ma’anarta.

Manazarta


Aarts, B. 1997. English Syntax and Argumentation. New York: Palgrave Macmilan
Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya. 2006. Ƙamusun Hausa. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press Limited.
Murthy, J.D. (2007) Contemporary English Grammar. Lagos: Bookmaster.
Newman, P. 2000. The Hausa Language: An Encyclopedic Reference Grammar, United States of America: Yale University Press.
Sani, M.A.Z. 1999. Tsarin Sauti da Nahawun Hausa. Ibadan: University Press.
Umar, M.M. 2012. Ganga Mai Dangantaka a Hausa. Bagushiya Journal of Hausa Studies. In Soba, S.A (ed.). Gusau: Nasara Press.

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