Hausa Language Academic Website

Saturday, 15 July 2017

Nazarin Wasu Sassan Jimlolin Ingilishi Da Na Hausa

Na


Abbas Musa
Abdulbasiď Abdrrahman Muhammad
Ado Magaji Musa


 

Hausa:
(a) Saabon gidaa
(b) gidaa saaboo

Ingilishi;
(a) New house
(b) House new
Daga waďannan misalai, tattauna yanayin zuwan sifa(adjective) kafin suna (noun) ko bayan suna a Hausa da Ingilishi.

GABATARWA


Sifa kamar yadda muka sani cewa tana ďaya daga cikin rukunnan kalmomin da ba a yi matsaya a kan su ba. Wato (controversial category).
Masana sun yi mahawa Ƙwarai a kan ajin kalmomi na sifa a hausa shin akwai ta ko babu ko ya abun yake? Za mu gani. Sannan kuma muhawarar ta kasu gida biyu: akwai ta Malaman farko da kuma ta Malaman zamani.

Muhawarar Malaman farko


1. kraft C H. da kirk Greene, AHM.(1973:129)
Waďannan Malaman Hausa sun bayyana cewa hausa ba ta da ajin kalmomi na sifa kamar yadda aka fahimci sifa a harsunan turawa musamman harshen ingilishi.

2. skinner, N (1977:51)
A littafinsa mai suna nahawun Hausa don 'yan makarantar sakandare da kwaleji skinner ya ce hausa ba ta da ajin sifa sai dai tana da cincirindo waďansu kalmomi da ya kira su sarrafaffun sunaye (controlled nouns), waďanda kuma ya ce ta fuskar aiki, a iya kwatanta su da 'sifa' amma ba sifar ba ne. misalin waďannan kalmomi na ajin sarrafaffun sunaye, in ji skinner, su ne tsoohoo, saaboo,doogoo,gajeeree.

3. Newman, P. da Newman, R.M (1977:ďi)
A littafinsu mai suna Ƙamus na Hausa zawa turanci sun ce Hausa ba ta da ajin kalmomi na sifa sak. Domin mafi yawan kalmomi masu nuna sifa a Hausa suna da tagwan matsayin na sifa da suna. Misali: Gurgu (suna da sifa). 1. (sifa) gurguntaka.

2. (suna)mutum marar Ƙafa.
Wannan shi ne ra'ayin Malaman farko.

Muhawarar Malaman zamani.


1. Tuller, L. (1986:35). Ta ce Hausa ba ta da ajin kalmomi na sifa mai cin gashin kansa, domin wasu kalmomi na sifa a Hausa suna yin aikin suna.
2. Yusuf , M A (1991:169).
Ya ce Hausa na da ajin kalmomi na sifa kuma ta Ƙunshi tushen sifa da manunin yarjejeniya wanda ke nuna jinsi da adadi.
Misali: sifa cikakkiya. Tushe manunin yarjejeniya 1. farii far- -ii (namiji tilo)
2. faraa far- -aa (tamata tilo)
3. faraaree far- -aaree(jam'i)
3. Amfani, A.H. (1996:11)

Ya yarda da matsayin Yusuf sai dai shi ya yi Ƙari da cewa abinda Yusuf ya kira manunin yarjejeniya, abu biyu ne a dunƘule, Ƙarin shi ne manunin bagire. Wanda aikinsa shi ne nuna mazaunin sifa sa'ad da take tare da suna, domin a Hausa sifa na iya zuwa a gaban suna ko bayan suna.
Misali:

Manunin bagire sa'ad da sifa ke gaban suna

Akwai su kamar haka: n,r,n
Fari n dookii
Fara r mootaa
Fararee n gidaajee.

Manunin bagire sa'ad da sifa ke bayan sunna

sifa cikakkiya. Tushe M/bagire M/ yarjejeniya
farii far- -i -i
faraa far- -a -a
faraaree far- -aare -e
Wannan shi ne ra'ayin Malaman zamani.

Sifa a Ingilishi:


Sifa a Harshen Ingilishi tana zuwa ne kawai kamin suna amma ba ta zuwa bayan suna saƂanin ta harshin Hausa. Dalilin kuwa shi Ingilishi yana amfani da(pre nominal adjective).
Misali:
The boy (Det-N)
Boy the * (N-Det)
Small boy (Adj-N)
Boy small * (N-Adj)

Bambancicin sifa tsakanin Harshen Hausa da Ingilishi:


Ingilishi:
1. prenominal adjective.
Misali:
Small Boy
2. Babu post nominal
Boy small*
3. sifa ba ta zuwa a gaba da baya sai dai ta zo a gaba kawai.
Small Boy
Na Hausa:
1. Akwai pre nominal adjective.
Ƙarami n Yaro
2. post nominal adjectiƂe.
Yaroo Ƙarami i
3. sifa tana zuwa gaba da baya, saƂanin Ingilishi da take zuwa a gaba kawai.
Masali:
Ƙarami n Yaro
Yaroo Ƙarami i
Dangane da misalin da aka ba mu kuwa ga shi kamar haka
Hausa:
a. Saaboon Gidaa.
A nan sifa ta zo ne a gaban suna
(Adj-N)
NP
Saabo n gidaa
Adj L/M N
(+s+m) (+s+m)
2. Gidaa saboo.
A nan sifa ta zo bayan suna wato (N-Adj) wato post nominal kenan.

Gidaa saabo o
N (+s+m) Adj (+s+m) L/M
Waďannan misalai guda biyu sun nuna muna cewa Hausa tana da tsari biyu wajen amfani da sifa tare da suna kamar haka:
1. sifa tana iya zuwa kafin suna, wato pre nominal Adjective (Adj-N) kamar Sabon gidaa.
2. sifa tana iya zuwa bayan suna wato post nominal Adjective. (N-Adj) kamar Gidaa saaboo.
Wannan tsarin duk na Hausa ne wanda ta bada damar sifa ta zo kamin suna ko bayan suna.
A Ingilishi kuwa saƂanin haka ne, domin sifa tana zuwa ne kawai kafin suna, wato pre nominal Adjective (Adj-N) misali:
NP
New House
Adj N
*House new
Adj N
Sai dai kamar yadda muka ce a hausa saƂanin ingilishi sifa na iya zuwa kafin da kuma bayan suna.

Kammalawa:


A wannan aiki namu mun bayyana cewa malamai sun kasu kashi biyu game da sha'anin sifa a Hausa, yayin da wasu ke kore samuwar ta wasu kuma suna tabbatarwa. Bayan haka mun fahimci Hausa tana da tsari iri biyu a game da sifa, ko dai sifar ta zo kafin suna ko bayan suna, wanda mannunin bagire shi ke bayyana sifar ta zo kafin suna ko bayan suna.
Sannan mun bayyana cewa a Harshen Ingilishi tsari ďaya
kawai suke da shi na zuwan sifa kafin suna.

MANAZARTA


Amfani, A.H. (2017). Laccar Aji ta ALH 403 Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Najeriya, Jami'ar Usmanu ďanfodiyo, sakkwato.
Amfani, A.H. (2017). Laccar Aji ta ALH 408 Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Najeriya, Jami'ar Usmanu ďanfodiyo, sakkwato.
Galadanci, M.K.M. (1976).An Introduction to Hausa Grammar,Nigeria Longman.

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