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Tsafi Gaskiyar Mai Shi: Jirwayen Tsafi A Wasu Waƙoƙin Musa Ɗanƙwairo

Takardar Da Aka Gabatar A Taron Ƙara Wa Juna Sani Kan Gudunmawar Musa Ɗanƙwairo Maradun Wajen Bunƙasa Waƙoƙin Baka Na Hausa A Jami’ar Bayero, Kano A Ranakun Litinin 13  Zuwa Laraba 15 Ga Watan Satumba, 2021 A Harabar Jami’ar.

Musa Dankwairo

Tsafi Gaskiyar Mai Shi: Jirwayen Tsafi A Wasu Waƙoƙin Musa Ɗanƙwairo

Ibrahim Ɗalha
Government Day Senior Secondary School Birnin Kudu,
Ministry of Education Science And Tecnology, Dutse,
Jigawa state
Ƙibɗau: Ibrahimdalha1@gmail.com
Lambar Waya: 08060574254 

Da
Muhammad Tukur Tanko
Niger State College of Education, Minna
Ƙibɗau: Tukur255@gmail.com
Lambar Waya: 07065915934

Da
Anas Umar
Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya
Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto
Ƙibɗau: anascafu66@gmail.com
Lambar Waya: 08060079335 

Tsakure

Wannan bincike mai taken “Tsafi gaskiyar  Mai Shi: Jirwayen Tsafi A Waƙoƙin Musa Ɗanƙwairo.” An  gudanar da shi ne da manufar lalubo tunanin Bahaushe game da tsafi a cikin waƙoƙin baka, inda aka yi turke da waƙoƙin Makaɗa Musa Ɗanƙwairo Maradun. An ɗora binciken kan ra’in “Buƙatuwar ɗan Adam (Theory of Human Needs)” wanda Abraham Maslow ya gano a 1943; daga baya Burtun ya ƙara faɗaɗa ra’in a wata maƙalarsa a 1979. Haka kuma, binciken kan iya hawa Bahaushen ra’i da ke cewa: “Tsafi Gaskiyar Mai Shi.” Kasancewar zomo ba shi kamuwa daga zaune, an bi wasu hanyoyin tattara bayanai da suka haɗa da tuntuɓar waɗanda ake ga suna da wata masaniya kan binciken da ake gudanarwa da rangadi ɗakunan adana bayanan ilimi (libraries) da kuma sauraren waƙoƙinsa daga bakinsa ta hanyar sauraren faifan memori, sai kuma wasu hirarraki masu alaƙa da binciken. An yi garkuwa da wasu ɗiyan waƙoƙi  guda goma (10) waɗanda aka ciro su daga nau’o’in waƙoƙinsa guda huɗu(4). Nau’o’in waƙokin su ne: Waƙoƙin Manoma da na Sarakuna da na Hakimai(Iyayen ƙasa) da kuma na masu riƙe da muƙaman sarauta.Domin yin susa a gurbin da yake ƙaiƙayi, an lissafo tambayoyin bincike guda biyar waɗanda ake da yaƙinin samun amsa su shi ne isar da saƙon muƙalar. Binciken ya kalli ma’anar tsafi daga wurin masana daban-daban. A ɓangaren  rabe-raben tsafi kuwa, binciken ya dogara da rabe-raben da Bunza, (2006:39) ya bayar a littafinsa. A ƙarshe, binciken ya sami zarafin fito da sakamakon bincike guda biyar (5) da shawarwari guda biyar. Daga cikin abubuwan da binciken ya gano sun ƙushi yadda Ɗanƙwairo ya fito da tsohuwar al’adar Hausawa da kuma yadda yake hannunka-mai-sanda kan wasu munannan al’adu da suka kauce wa koyarwar Addinn Musulunci.

1.0 Shimfiɗa   

            Ga al’ada,  tunanin ɗan Adam ba ya wuce al’adarsa da ya gada iyaye da kakanni. Wannan ya sanya  a duk wurin da Bahaushe yake, fasahohin sana’o’insa  da hikimominsa da ke ƙunshe a cikin  salailan maganarsa da waƙokinsa suna ƙara fashin baƙin al’adarsa ne. Wannan dalili ya sanya  ake iya ƙyallaro  al’adun Hausawa ta hanyar nazarin fasahohin da ke ƙunshe a cikin waƙoƙin na  baka. Irin wannan tunani shi ya haifar da zamowar mawaƙan baka  tamkar wata ma’adanar al’adu  da ke taskance al’adunmu. Hakan ya taimaka ƙwarai wajen yi wa  masana da manazarta ƙaimi inda suke bankaɗo kyawawan al’adun Hausawa da suka yi ɓatan dabo tare da ci gaba da  maƙure  al’adun da ke taƙin saƙa da addinin Bahaushe (Addinin Musulunci) a cikin waƙoƙin na baka. Irin wannan  yunƙuri shi ya haifar da ayyukan  Balbasatu (2000) da Dunfawa (2003) da Sanyinawal (2009) da Satatima (2009) da Bunza (2012) da Ibrahim (2013) da Rabi’u (2019) da kuma Sifawa (2019). Kasancewar binciken yana da manufar fito da irin rawar da Makaɗa Musa Ɗanƙwairo ya taka kan gargaɗin waɗanda ke neman mayar da hannun agogo baya ta fuskar rayar da al’adar da tuni hasken addinin Musulunci ya bishe su, binciken  yana da tunanin  fito da tunanin Bahaushe kan tsafi a taƙaice, sai kuma daga baya a alaƙanta irin yadda tsafin ya yi katutu a rayuwar Hausawa da kuma dabarun da Ɗanƙwairo ya bi wajen ankarar da al’umma yadda za su hana tsafin masauƙi a farfajiyar al’adarsu.

1.1  Fashin Baƙin Matashiya

Buƙatar daidaita akalar kalmomin matashiyar binciken, ita ta sanya a wannan muhallin za a bayyana ma’anar kalmomin jirwaye da tsafi da kuma waƙa.

1.1.1        Jirwaye

 Ƙamusun Hausa CNHN, (2006:219) ya fassara kalmar jirwaye da: “Dabbare-dabbaren da ruwan da ya zubo ko ya ɗigo kan yi wa jikin mutum.”

          A wannan bincike, an ɗauki ma’anar jirwaye da irin dabbare-dabbaren da al’adun tsafi suka yi a  ɗiyan waƙokin Musa Ɗanƙwairo ta yadda mugunyar tsafin  kan yi tasiri a zuciyar mai gudanar da shi wanda har yakan hana masa yarda da sakamakon Mahalicci  a dalilin wasu buƙatun zuciya da suka sha gaban ransa.

1.1.2 Tsafi

 A wannan bincike, an kalli kalmar tsafi da ayyukan da Hausawa kan aikata da nufin neman ɗaukaka ko wata buwaya ko kariya ko kuma kare martabar gado wanda aikata waɗannan abubuwan sun ci karo da koyarwar nagartaccen tauhidin (sanin ilimin kaɗaita Allah) da Musulunci ya zo da shi.

1.2.3        Waƙa

A Ƙamusun Hausa CNHN,(2006:446) an bayyana ma’anar waƙa da: “Wata tsararriyar magana da ake rerawa a kan kari ko rauji.” Waƙe kuma shi ne yi wa wani mutum ko wani abu waƙa.” Gusau, (2003:111) yana ganin a ma’anar waƙa a matsayin: “Wani zance ne shiryayye cikin hikima da azanci da yake zuwa gaɓa-gaɓa bisa ƙa’idojin tsari da daidaitawa, a rere cikin sautin murya da amsa-amo na kari da kiɗa, sau da yawa kuma a tare da armashi.”

Ƙarƙashin wannan ma’ana da aka bayar, an fahimci waƙa a matsayin sarrafaffen zance da aka ƙuƙƙulla shi cikin hikima, ake kuma rerawa da rauji mai armashi ta hanyar hawa da sauƙa na muryar.

1.3    Manufar Bincike

 A tsari na bincike, ba a son a gudanar da shi kara-zube ba tare da bayyana manufar da ta ja hankalin mai bincike ya quduri aniyar gabatar da binciken ba. Manufar wannan bincike ita ce,  zaqulo gudunmawar Musa Ɗanƙwairo Maradun ta fuskar fito da wasu al’adun Hausawa tare da yayata yadda suke a cikin ɗiyan waƙoƙinsa domin hannunka mai-sanda ga al’umma kan aikata  wasu miyagun ala’adu.

 

1.3 Maƙasudan Bincike

 Daga cikin maƙasudan wannan bincike sun haɗa da:

1.        Fito da yadda Musa Ɗanƙwairo yake  kawo jirwayen tsafi a cikin waƙoƙinsa.

2.        Lalubo hanyoyin da yake amfani da su wajen nuna wa al’umma illar da ke tattare da tsafi.

3.        Zaƙulo irin tasirin da jirwayen tsafi ya haifar ga masu sauraron waƙokinsa.

4.        Fito da saƙonnin da ɗiyan waƙoƙin Musa Ɗanƙwairo masu ɗauke da jirwayen tsafi ke isarwa ga al’umma.

5.        Ƙalailaice dangantakar da ke tsakanin tsafin  da waɗanda ake dangantawa da tsafin  a cikin waƙoƙin.


1.4    Tambayoyin Bincike

Wasu daga cikin tambayoyin da binciken zai sanya a gaba da nufin amsawa sun haɗa da:

1.      Ta yaya Musa Ɗanƙwairo yake fito da jirwayen tsafi a waƙoƙinsa?

2.      Waɗanne hanyoyi  Musa Ɗankwairo yake amfani da su wajen nuna wa al’umma illar da ke tattare da tsafi?

3.      Wane tasiri jirwayen tsafi ya haifar ga masu sauraren waƙoƙin Musa Ɗanƙwairo?

4.      Waɗanne irin saƙonni ɗiyan waƙoƙin Musa Ɗanƙwairo ke isarwa ga al’umma kan jirwayen tsafi?

5.      Ta wacce hanya aka sami dangantaka tsakanin  tsafin da waɗanda ake dangantawa da tsafin a cikin waƙoƙin Musa Ɗanƙwairo?

Matuƙar amsar waɗannan tambayoyi suka fito a cikin wannan bincike, ana iya cewa layar binciken ta yi kyawun rufi[1].

 

 

1.5    Hanyoyin  Bincike

 Gaskiyar Hausawa da sukan ce: “Idan raƙuminka ya ɓata kana iya regawa har cikin ramin gyare. A ƙoƙarin gudanar da wannan bincike, an ɗan yi kazar-kazar irin na ƙananan ɗalibai ta yadda aka ziyarci  ɗakunan adana bayanan ilimi (Libraries) inda aka sami zarafin leƙa wasu ayyuka masu alaƙa da binciken da ake gudanarwa. Tuntuɓar wasu ɗaiɗaikun mutane da ke da alaƙa da wasu fadojin da Musa Ɗanƙwairo ya yi wa waƙa ya taimaka ainun. An sami damar duba littafin Diwanin Waƙoƙin Musa Ɗanƙwairo da Gusau,(2019) ya rubuta. Saboda maganar Hausawa da ke cewa: “Waƙa a bakin mai ita ta fi daɗi.” An saurari wasu waƙoƙin da aka nazarta ta hanyar faifan memori. Bugu da ƙari, shirin kundin mawaƙan Hausa da rediyon Tarayya  na Kaduna (FRCN) yake gabatarwa, wanda suka tattauna da Alhaji Ibrahim Muhammad (Ɗanmadamin Birnin Magaji) ya zamo tamkar tsintuwar guru ne a cikin suɗi ga wannan bincike.


1.6    Ra’in Bincike

Nazarin tsaro ta ɓangarori guda biyu da suka haɗa da , tsaro na jiki da kuma tsaro na gari[2], shi ya buɗe tunanin wannan takarda ta kallon tsafi a matsayin wata hanya da Hausawa kan bi a gargajiyance da nufin tabbatar da buƙatarsu ta tsaron kai da kaya. Kasancewar tsaron kai da kaya a matsayin buƙatun ɗan Adam  musamman ta fuskar zamantakewa, shi ya  ba da haske a ɗora wannan bincike a kan ra’in buƙatun ɗan Adam (Theory of Human Needs). Wannan ra’i dai Abraham Maslow  ne ya ƙirƙiro shi a 1943 a cikin zanen da ya yi mai hawa-hawa irin na  dalar gyaɗa. Maslow ya kawo tsaro a matsayi na biyu na buƙatun ɗan Adam. Bayansa kuma, an sami wani masani  mai suna Burton da ya yi  amfani da ra’in a wata takarda da ya gabatar a 1979. Ado, (2019:112)[3]. Daga cikin abin da Burton ya gano, ɗan Adam yana da buƙatar tsaro da walwala da tarayya da wasu (ba ya son kaɗaici) da son ƙauna da burin a gan shi a wani matsayi da zai iya wani abu na ƙwarewa kan aikinsa da kuma buƙatun samun wani matsayi na rayuwa. Don haka wannan bincike yake hasashen, buƙatar cimma waɗannan burace-burace shi yakan kai shi ga kauce wa hanyar da ya kamata a bi domin a same su. Baya ga haka, wannan bincike kan iya hawa tunanin Bahaushe da ke cewa: “Tsafi gaskiyar mai shi.”

2.0 Wane Ne Musa Ɗanƙwairo ?

Musa Ɗanƙwairo Maradun, wani shahararren Mawaƙi ne  da aka yi a ƙasar  Hausa. Tushensa daga ƙasar Zamfara ya fito. Ayyukan Gusau, (1987) da Gusau, (2019) da Rabi’u, (2019) sun fito da abubuwan da ya kamata a fito da su a rayuwarsa. Amma duk da haka, sunansa na yanka shi ne Musa, sunan mahaifinsa Usmanu Ɗankwanagga, mahaifiyarsa kuma ana kiranta da ‘Yarnunu. Ya gaji kiɗa da waƙa daga wurin mahaifinsa. An haife shi a shekarar 1909 a garin Ɗankadu cikin Ƙaramar Hukumar Mulkin Talatar Mafara[4], Jihar Zamfara. Ya koyi kiɗa da waƙa a wurin yayansa mai suna Abdu Kurna (Sarkin Makaɗan Maradun). Babban Ubangidansa shi ne, Uban ƙasar Tsafe Alhaji Aliyu II . Ya fara waƙa da waƙoƙin noma, daga nan kuma sai ya shiga waƙoƙin fada. Daga bisani, ya ɗan taɓa waƙoƙin jama’a. Alhaji Musa Ɗanƙwairo ya rasu yana da shekara 82 (1909-1991).  Ya rasu ya bar  matan aure da ‘ya’ya goma sha bakwai[5] da  jikoki da dama. Kuma wani abin sha’awa, har yanzu gidan Ɗanƙwairo bai mutu ba, a yanzu haka (2021) jikansa[6] ne ke riƙe da muƙamin Sarkin Makaɗan Maradun (garinsu Musa Ɗanƙwairo) kuma yana tare da zuriyar Ɗanƙwairo suna ci gaba da tafiyar da sana’arsu ta kiɗa da waƙa. Ba iya kiɗa da waƙa Ɗanƙwairo ya tsaya ba a lokacin da yake raye, yakan taɓa  sana’o’in noma a lokacin  damina da kuma kiwo.

2.1 Asalin Tsafi

Dangane da asalin samuwar Tsafi a wurin Bahaushe, Bunza(2006:35) ya kalli asalin samuwar tsafi ne ta tushen kalmar a farko, inda ya tabbatar da cewa:

“Kalmar  “Tsafi” asalinta daga Bahaushe take kuma ba hatsin bara ba ce.”

 

Sarkin Gulbi, (2013:746) ya tabbatar da cewa:

 

                   “Samuwar tsafi cikin al’umma wani Mahadi ne mai dogon zamani, domin babu wanda zai bugi ƙirji ya ce ga lokaci,  ko wata al’umma da suka fara aiwatar da tsafi. Hasali ma abu ne da ake iya samu a kowace al’umma da ke a doron ƙasa tun a zamani mai nisa. Sannan kowace al’umma da tsafin da take bugun gaba da shi wajen bautarsu da biyan buƙatun rayuwarsu.”

 

 Ƙarƙashin waɗannan bayanai da aka samu daga wurin masana, a na  iya cewa, “Tsafi” yana daga cikin al’adun Hausawa masu nisan zangon da ba za a iya tantance takamaiman wanda ya fara gudanar da shi ba.

2.2 Ma’anar Tsafi

Ƙamusun Hausa  CNHN, (2006:449) ya fassara kalmar tsafi da:

              “Hanyar ba da gaskiya da wani abu daban

                ba Allah ba.” 

 

Ibrahim,(1982:30) ya nuna tsafi a matsayin:

 

              Ɗaya daga cikin addinin gargajiya na Hausa, sai dai irin wannan bauta ba wani gunki ake sassaƙawa ana bauta masa ba.............”

 

Bunza, (1990:42) ya bayyana tsafi da:       

 “ Abin da ake nufi da tsafi ko sihiri shi ne duk abin   da fahimtar haƙiƙaninsa ya yi zurfi ko ya ƙayatar tare da gigitar da hankulan masu gani ko kuma saurare, kuma ya kasance masu zurfin hankali da tunani ne. A taƙaice dai ta bin hanyoyi da hulɗa da aljannu da shaiɗanu da kuma gabatar da  nau’o’in sadaka, da yanke-yanke tare da tattara himma waje guda da kuma janye-janyen sunaye da faɗin waɗansu maganganu barkatai, mai tsafi yake iya gudanar da tsafinsa.”

 

Bugu da qari, Bunza, (2006:35) ya sake fito da ma’anar tsafi da cewa:

                “ Wasu hanyoyi na gargajiya musamman yi wa iskoki hidima da yanka da bauta domin biyan wata buƙata ko kuma ko samun wani amfani ko tunkuxe wata cuta.”

 

Adamu,( 2012:43). Yana ganin tsafi a matsayin:

                “Samun tasirin gudanar da wasu abubuwa da suka fi ƙarfin Ɗan’adam, ta hanyar tattara himma waje guda da nufin jawo ƙarfin aljannu da sheɗanu da faƙi da taurari don samun taimakonsu wajen gudanar da abubuwan mamaki da razanarwa.”

 

Sarkin Gulbi, (2014:33) ya fito da ma’anar tsafi da:

                “Hanya ce da ta jagorancin imanin Bahaushe da sauran al’ummar da ke doron ƙasa dangane da haka, idan ana magana a kan Tsafi ba komai ake magana ba, illa wata hanya ta bauta da al’umma suka aminta da ita, wajen biyan buƙatunsu na yau da kullum da ake danganta da umurnin iskoki da hidimarsu.”

 

Har wa yau, Muhammad, (2015:62) ya kalli tsafi a mahanga ta Addinin Musulunci inda yake cewa:

 “Yin hidima ga wani abu wanda ba Allah ne ba, ko yin wasu ayyuka  na musamman don neman biyan buƙata daga wanin Mahalicci, ko yin wasu ayyuka na musamman don neman biyan buƙata daga wanin Mahalicci ko neman taimakon waninsa kan al’amuran yau da kullum yana yiwuwa wani abin da ake yi wa hidima ko neman taimakonsa ya kasance iskoki ko duwarwatsu ko wasu halittu saɓanin Allah Mahalicci.

            

Bisa ma’anonin da aka zayyano, an fahimci cewa, Tsafi wata tsohuwar hanyar bauta ce ta gargajiya, wadda ake amfani da ita da nufin neman wata kariya daga cuta ko kuma neman wata ɗaukaka. A tsarin Mawaƙan baka na fada, sukan ɗauki waɗanda suka yi takarar neman muƙamin sarauta da iyayen gidansu a matsayin abokan adawarsu, wannan ya sanya sukan ɗauko duk wasu miyagun halaye da ɗabi’u su ɗora su a kansu da sunan zambo.[7]

2.3 Tsafi A Tunanin Bahaushe

 A ganin Bunza, (2006:39) duk wani magani da ya ƙunshi sassan jikin ɗan Adam ko bayar da wata rayuwa ko bayar da jini ko kiraye-kirayen iskoki ko aikata wani aikin assha[8] Bahaushe yana kallon wannan abin a matsayin tsafi.

2.4 Ire-iren Tsafi

 Bunza, (2006:39) ya karkasa  rabe-raben tsafi kamar haka:

1.      Tsafin bauta.

2.      Tsafin buwaya.

3.      Tsafi na kare martabar gado.

4.      Tsafi na magani

2.4.1 Tsafin Bauta

Tsoron ɗan Adam na cutuwa daga wani abu da bai sani ba, tare da kwaɗayin sakamakon wani aiki da yakan aikata, shi ne ya kawo masa tunanin bauta. A wannan haujin Bahaushe kan yi wa iskoki hidima da nufin neman wasu kariya daga gare su . Bunza, (2006:40) ya tabbatar da cewa: “Yi wa iskoki ɗa’a ga umarnin da sukan sanya mutum na hani da horo, shi ne bautar.” Makaɗa Ɗanƙwairo ya fito da wannan saƙon lokacin da yake wa wani ɗan sarki  zambo inda yake cewa:

     Jagora:  “Ga wani ɗan sarkin Keffi,

               :    Can nig ganai cikin daji,

               :    Inda tsamiya, yana ta rawa,

               :    Yana baya-baya ba ta gani,

     Yara  :    Da ɗan ƙulƙi nai gun Magiro.[9]

 

Gindi: Muhammadu Cindo bi da maza,

           Mamman ɗan Mamman bajimi.

 

(Waƙar sarkin Keffi, Alhaji Muhammadu Cindo Yamusa).

 

A wannan waƙa Ɗanƙwairo ya fito da  hoton yadda ake wani tsafi na bauta a garin Kwatarkwashi (a can baya, kafin wannan lokaci), domin ya nuna irin yadda wani ɗan sarki ya manta da Allah ne ke bayar da mulki ya koma tsafe-tsafen bauta da nufin neman mulki.

Har wa yau, a lokacin da Ɗanƙwairo ke wa sarkin Gwambe waƙa, ya yi wa wani ɗan sarki zambo, inda ya danganta shi da gudanar da tsafin bauta. Ga yadda yake cewa:

      Jagora: Ai ga wani ɗan sarkin Gombe,

                :  Bai biɗa ga Allah ba,

                :  Ya sai babbaƙun tumaki,

                :  Ya sai babbaƙun shanu,

                :  Sai yak kirayi ‘Yanbori,

                :  Kullum ana yi mai goge, wawa,

‘Y/Amshi:  Bokaye sun canye kuɗinka,

Jagora:        Bokaye

‘Y/Amshi:   Sun cinye kuɗinka,

Jagora     :   Ba shi ga Allah ba shi ga Annabi,

                    Ba shi ga tsuntsu,

‘Y/Amshi:   Ba shi ga tarko,

Jagora     :    Babu kuɗin kuma,

‘Y/Amshi:   Babu sarauta.

 

Gindi       :   Gagari gaba gwauran giwa,

                :    Sarkin Gombe Shehu Na Abba.

(Waƙar Sarkin Gwambe, Alhaji Shehu Na Abba).

 

2.4.2 Tsafin Buwaya

Ga al’adar ɗan Adam bai cika son ƙasƙanci ba, wannan dalilin ne yakan sa ya yi duk abin da ka iya yiwuwa da nufin samar wa abin da zuciyarsa take so (idan ba a yi katari da wanda yake bin addini da gaskiya ba). Wanna ta sanya Makaɗa Ɗanƙwairo ya fito da wannan nau’i na tsafi a cikin waƙarsa, saboda ya nuna wa masu saurarensa yadda wasu sukan yi wasu ayyuka na kauce hanyar tauhidi da nufin neman ɗaukaka. Misali, lokacin da Makaɗa Ɗanƙwairo yake cewa:

         Jagora: Ga wani ɗan sarkin ƙasar Tcahe,

                   : Yai baƙar tagguwa yai baƙar riga.

            Yara: Yai baƙin wando ga baƙin rawani ga kai nai,

                    :  In yai baƙi ƙirin ba  ka gane shi,

                    :  Sai nic ce wagga sabga ta tsahi ce.

 

           Gindi:  Shirya  kayan faɗa mai gida Tsahe,

                       Ali ɗan Iro bai ɗauki raini ba.

 

(Waƙar ‘Yandoto Tsafe, Aliyu II).

A tsarin Bahaushe, idan ya yi nisa a tsarin bautar iskoki (bori) da camfi yakan riƙi wasu ɗabi’u su zame masa tada a gare shi, da nufin neman ɗaukaka ko kuma wata kariya daga abubuwa masu cutarwa. Irin wannan  tunanin Makaɗa yake so ya fito da shi domin ya nuna yadda wani ɗan sarki ya shiga tsafi da nufin neman ɗaukaka.

2.4.3 Tsafi  Na Kare Martabar Gado

Bunza, (2006:45) ya nuna idan  Bahaushe ya gaji wata sana’a daga gidansu akwai wasu asirrai da babu wanda zai san da su sai ɗangado. A sirran kuwa na ‘yan Tsafe-tsafen da aka saba ne, domin maganin mai son ya wulaƙanta sana’ar. Makaɗa Ɗanƙwairo ya bayyana wannan nau’i na tsafi a lokacin da yake yabon wani mai sana’ar noma da wanzanci a waƙoƙonsa na kiɗan noma. Ga bain da yake cewa:

      Jagora:    Wanzamai tsoronka sukai,

   ‘Y/Amshi:  In dai an ka zana suna,

                       Kai ɗai aka jira,

                       Jariri ba shi askuwa sai ka zo.

 

      Gindi:       Ya riga su gona,

                       Mai kalmen wuce maza ɗan Musa.

(Waƙar Giye Ɗanmusa)[10]

 

   A wannan ɗan waƙa Makaɗa ya fito da irin bajintar Giye Ɗanmusa ta mallakar magungunan tsafe-tsafe na kare martabar gadon gidansu. Gaskiya ne, gadon gida alala ga raggo. Kuma kowa ya tsare gadon gidansu bai karambani ba, in ji masu magana.    

2.4.4 Tsafi Na Magani      

“A tsarin zamantakewa, cututtukan zuciya na neman biyan buƙatar soyayya da farin jini da ɗaukaka waɗanda ake ganin idan ba a biya su ba zuciya ta tawaya.” Ibrahim, (2002:366). Irin wannan yanayi, shi ne ya sa Bunza, (2006:47) ya gano cewa: “Tsafin magunguna nau’in tsafi ne da Bahaushe ke yi kawai bisa ga abin da rai ke so yadda yake son abin.” Makaɗa Musa Ɗanƙwairo Maradun ya fito da irin wannan nau’i na tsafi a lokacin da yake ƙulla turken zambo ga  wasu ‘ya’yan sarakuna na Birnin Gobir da na Tsafe. Ga abin da yake cewa:

       Jagora:    Wani ɗan sarkin Sabon Birni,

                        Bai samu sarauta ba na ganai,

                        Ƙaura nig gamu da shi,

                        Ga wuƙa tai a hannu nai.

         Amshi:    Irin gidan Bawa Jangwarzo,

                        Na Sanda ya ci garin arna.

          Jagora:   Ya ce tunda ban yi sarauta ba,

                         Ba ri yanzu in ta batun tauri.

         Gindi:      Irin gidan Bawa Jangwarzo,

                   :     Na Sanda ya ci garin arna.

 

 (Waƙar Sarkin Gobir, Alhaji Ibrahim).

Kasancewar  Shehu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo cikin Bunza, (2006:51) ya nuna tauri tsafi ne, wannan ta sanya makaɗa ya nuna yadda wani ɗan sarki ya koma tsafi saboda bai sami sarauta ba. Ya ci gaba da kawo wannan turke a ɗan waƙarsa, a lokacin da yake yabon sarkin Tsafe Ahaji Aliyu ‘Yandoto II inda yake cewa:

        Jagora:    Ga wani na jayayya da Ali,

                   :    Har yau bai fasa ba,

                   :    Ya zo gun boka nai,

                   :    Wai a yo mai dibi,

                   :    Da boka yad diba mai,

                   :    Yac ce ba ka sarauta,

                   :    Sai in ka ci tauri,

                   :    A she magana mai sauƙi,

                   :    Ya ci maganin icce,

                   :      Kuma ya ci maganin ƙarhe,

                   :      Bai sami sarautar Tcahe ba,

                   :      Sai tciga tat taso mai,

                   :     A gaida baran ɗan kurjal.

          Yara :      Ƙi-gama ka bi jiki ka goge.

 

          Gindi:     Na Amadu baƙon dole,

                   :      Shi yak kashe wargi Ali,

                   :    ‘Yandoto ana saunarka.

(Waƙar Sarkin Tsafe Alhaji AliyuII).

A wannan ɗan waƙa makaɗa ya fito da yadda wani ɗan sarki ya riƙa cin maganin tauri domin ya zama sarki. A wannan wuri makaɗa ya yi haka ne domin ya fito da turken nau’in tsafin magani da Hausawa suke amfani da shi.

3.0 Tafiya da Waiwaye Mai Daɗi

 Kasancewar Musa Ɗanƙwairo dattijo ne da ya ratso sauye-sauyen zamani, yakan fito da turken wani abu daga cikin ɗabi’un sarakunan wancan lokaci na bin dokokin addinin Musulunci sau da ƙafa. Wannan dalili ya sanya da gaba ta koma baya ga wasu masu neman mulki (inda wasu suka koma tsafe-tsafe). Hakan ta sanya da yake yabon sarkin Suleja Alhaji Ibrahim inda ya fito da turken tauhidi domin ya nuna irin yadda sarkin yake kwatanta biyayya ga addininsa na Musulunci sau da ƙafa. Ga abin da yake cewa:

 Jagora: Ba shi yab ban mamaki ba, wajen,

             Sarki Ibrahim dubi irin addu’a,

             Da Sarki yai man,

             Ƙwairo da munka zo bankwana.

-------------------------------------------

Jagora: Bayan salatin Manzon Allah,

             Ya ja La’ilahi sau goma,

             Ya ja mani,

‘Y/Amshi: Rabbana Ataina[11] had da,

                  Inna Fatahana[12] yaj ja man.

         -----------------------------------

Jagora: Ya ja mani Rabbana Ataina,

‘Y/Amshi: Had da Ƙul lan Yusibana[13] yaj ja man.

 

Gindi: Mai ƙasas Suleja ɗan Musa,

            Ba a kai maka wargin banza,

            Iro mai sulken hwaɗa na Habu sarki.

 

(Waƙar Sarkin Suleja, Alhaji Ibrahim).

 A cikin wannan ɗan waƙa, Makaɗa Ɗanƙwairo ya fito ƙarara ya nuna sarkin malami ne mai aiki da koyarwar Addinin Musulunci kwatankwacin yadda magabatan baya su ka yi. Wannan ta sanya yake nuna ta’ajibinsa gare shi ba don saboda kyautar da ya yi masa ba. Don haka yake yayata shi da nufin zamowa abin koyi ga sauran al’umma baki ɗaya.

3.1  Sakamakon Bincike

 Daga cikin sakamakon da wannan bincike ya gano akwai:

1.      Makaɗa  da Mawaƙan baka suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a waƙoƙinsu ta wajen fito da wasu tsofaffin al’adu da nufin hannunka-mai-sanda ga jama’a.

2.      Takardar ta gano yadda makaɗa Musa Ɗanƙwairo ya shigo da kashe-kashen tsafin Bahaushe a waƙoƙinsa.

3.    Maƙalar ta gano yadda gudanar da tsafe-tsafe kan yi tasiri ga masu neman buwaya da ɗaukaka musamman ta fusakar neman mulki.

4.    Maƙalar ta gano yadda  Mawaƙa suke yayata wata ɗabi’a da nufin ankararwa ba wai da nufin fito da ita domin a mayar da hannun agogo baya ba.Wannan ta sanya a duk wurin da Musa Ɗanƙwairo ya ambaci wani nau’in tsafi, cikin gaggawa yake komawa ya ambato turken tauhidi (kaɗaita Allah). Wani lokacin ma yakan fara da ambato turken Tauhidi a matsayin shimfiɗa, kafin ya shigo na tsafi.

4        Binciken ya gano yadda al’adun al’umma suke da alaƙa da ayyukansu da tunaninsu na gudanar da harkokin rayuwarsu.

3.2  Shawarwari

 Daga cikin shawarwarin da wannan bincike zai iya bayarwa sun haɗa da:

1.      A kwai buƙatar Malamanmu na Addinin Musulunci su ƙara ruɓanya ƙoƙarinsu wajen fito da hanyoyin karantarwa mafi sauƙi kan ilimin kaɗaita Allah (Tauhidi) a tsakanin mutane. Wannan zai taimaka wajen ƙara bishe hasken fitilar tsafi da take neman kunnuwa a yanzu musamman a sha’anin neman mulki.

2.      Ya kamata ga masu zaɓen waɗanda za a naɗa sarakuna ko kuma al’umma masu zaɓen shugabanni na siyasa, su ƙaurace wa duk wanda aka sami tabbataccen labari yana hulɗa irin ta tsafi.

3.      Yana da kyau matuƙa ga malamanmu da su ƙara fito mana da al’adun Hausawa a cikin waƙoƙin mawaƙan baka da muke saurara.

4.      Ci gaba da bitar saƙonnin Mawaƙan baka a makarantu wata dama ce ta ƙara fito da al’adun Hausawa cikin sauƙi.

5.      Ci gaba da haɗa irin waɗannan taruka tare da ƙara wa masu shirya tarukan ƙarfin guiwa wata hanya ce ta ƙara tallata falsafar Bahaushe.

3.3 Naɗewa

            A ƙarshe, ko ba a ce komai ba, taron yau ya ƙara gwada mana akwai ruwa a ƙasa sai dai in ba a tona ba. Da a ce, wasu ‘yan mu muka iya ne suke da waɗannan Mawaƙa masu basira da hikima, da an ji bugun gaba irin na ƙarin lamba. Don haka, Makaɗanmu da Mawaƙanmu sun bayar da tasu gudunmawa wajen fito da saƙonnin da ke ƙunshe a al’adun Bahaushe da suka ƙunshi tarbiyya da haɗin kan ƙasa da tattalin arzikin ƙasa da kuma faɗakarwa kan munanan ɗabi’u. Fito da al’adun tsafi  da Ɗanƙwairo ya yi a waƙoƙinsa, wata hanya ce ta faɗakarwa ba don yana kira ga a yi tsafin ba. Wannan ke daɗa tabbatar da  cewa, Ɗanƙwairo Mawaƙi ne da ya yi amfani da basirarsa wajen isar da saƙon addininsa na Musulunci a waƙoƙinsa. Hakan ta sanya yakan kawo maganar tsafi  da sigar gargaɗi ga ‘ya’yan sarakuna masu neman mulki ko ta wacce hanya. Binciken ya gano, a duk lokacin da Ɗanƙwairo ya ambaci wata ɗabi’a ta tsafi a cikin waƙoƙinsa, yakan yi gaggawar fito da turken Tauhidi kafin ya faɗi ko kuma bayan ya faɗi nau’in na tsafin. Wannan ta gwada mana Musa Ɗanƙwairo Mawaƙi ne mai tafiya da koyarwar Addininsa. Hakan ta sanya bai kauce wa dokokin addininsa kuma bai ba wa tsafi mafaka ba. Madalla da abin da Malam Mudi Sipikin yake cewa game da tsafi:

         Camfi da ƙage rashin ilimi ne,

         Tsafi su bori rashin hankali ne,

          Aminci da su kau haƙiƙar ɓata ne,

          Da wauta da shirme da sharholiya.

                         (Mudi Sipikin: Waƙar Gadar zare)

 

 Allah Ya ji ƙan Musa Ɗanƙwairo Ya gafarta masa kura-kurensa. Amin!

 

 



[1] Salon magana ne da ke nuna aikin binciken ya yi kyawu.

[2]Sarkin Gulbi, (2016:372), ya kalli tsaro ta fuskar rabe-rabensa zuwa kaso biyu, wato tsaro na jiki da kuma na gari.  Ya ci gaba da cewa, tsaro na jiki shi ne ya shafi dabarun kariyar kai daga cuta. Misali, magungunan tsari irin su: Baduhu da layar zana da sagau da shashatau da sauransu. Tsaro na gari kuma, ana yin sa ne domin samar da kariya ga gida da dukiya da gari da  kuma yanki.

[3] Taken takardar da ya gabatar ita ce: “Daviance, Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and  Political Problems.”

[4] Yanzu tana ƙarƙashin Ƙaramar Hukumar Mulki ta Bakura, Jihar Zamfara.

[5] Cikin ‘ya’ya goma sha bakwai (17), goma maza ne bakwai kuma mata.

[6] Sunansa Alhaji Muhammadu Ɗanjuma ana yi masa laƙabi da Jakkan kiɗi.  Rabi’u, (2019:49).

[7] A siyasar zamantakewar rayuwa, Bahaushe ya aminta da mai gaba da abokin gabarsa amininsa ne. Wanna ta sanya, idan aka yi takarar sarauta, mawaƙa kan riƙa mayar da martani ga abokan adawar wanda ya ci sarautar ta hanyar zambo da habaici da sauransu. Wannan al’ada ita ta yi nisan da abokan adawar sarki na cikin gida wato waɗanda suka yi takara da shi, sukan zama kamar abokan wasan makaɗa idan aka duba yadda suke shigo da su cikin waƙoƙinsu tare da fito da kalmomin zambo da ba’a da habaici  a kansu.

[8] A wannan haujin shi ne akan ga mutum yana aikata munanan ayyuka irin na Luwaɗi da dangoginsu. makaɗa ya nuna takaicinsa da mamaki ga wani mai adawa da wani mutuminsa da yake wa waƙa, inda ya yi masa zambo da: Jagora: Kai ni hwa abin ga ya ba ni mamaki,

                                              : Ga mai geme yana rawab bori,

                                              : Al’amarin ga ya zamo shiririta.

                                     Gindi:  Kak ka sake ‘yan maza,

                                              :  Su hwaɗa ma,

                                               :Ɗan Umaru  Sa’idu Garkuwan Gwambe.

(Waƙar Garkuwan Gwambe, Alhaji Sa’idu Umar Kumo)

 

[9]An yi ayyuka kan tsafin Magiro waɗanda suka ƙunshi:

Mainasa, S. (2001). “ Bautar Magiro A Ƙasar Zamfara.” Kundin Digirin B.A. Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sakkwato.

 

Alhaji, R. (2014). “Tsafin Magani: Taƙaitaccen Nazarin Kangida Da Nau’o’insa A Ƙasar           Kwatarkwashi.” Kundin Digirin B.A. Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu   Ɗanfodiyo, Sakkwato.

 

Muhammad, U. (2015). “ Zumuntar Tsafe-tsafen Hausawa da akarkari.” Kundin Digirin M.A. Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sakkwato.

 

A cikin waɗannan ayyuka, an nuna tsafin Magiro da cewa, Tsafi ne na bauta da aka yi shi a Kwatarkwashi ( a shekarun baya masu nisa). A na gudanar da shi a shekara-shekara. Tsafin yana da shugaba (Magajin Tsafi), a duk lokacin da za a yi shi, akan ɗunguma da mutane da dabbobi a tafi wurin gudanar da tsafin. Idan masu Bautar Magiro suka je a matsayin neman biyan wata buƙata sukan sayi turare da zakara da sauran abubuwa, sai su je gindin iccen da ake zaton nan ne Mazaunin Magiro tare da Magajin tsafi. Magajin tsafi zai fara ɗaga kansa sama yana kiari yana cewa:

                                Gajiyere ba dawa ba sare,

                                Gajiyere ba dawa ɗan Inna,

                                Da kai aka zuwa da kai aka dawowa,

                                In ka yarda mu dawo, in ba ka yarda ba mu kwana can.

                                              

[10] Gusau (2019:68)

[11] Wannan addu’a ita ce: “Rabbana Atina  Fid duniya hasanatan, wa fil Akhirati hasanatan.”  Allah Ka ba mu kyakkyawa a Duniya, da Lahira. Cfassarar Marubuta).

[12] Wannan addu’ar ita ce: “ Inna fatahana La Ka Fatahan Mubina, Li Yagfirallahu Ma  taƙaddama min zanbika, wa ma ta akhkhara, Wa ya timma ni’imatuhu alaika, Wa yah diyaka siraɗal mustaƙiym. Wa yansurukallahu Nasaran aziza.”  Haƙiƙa an yi maka buɗi mabayyani, domin Ubangijinka ya gafarta maka daga zunubanka waɗanda suka gabata da waɗanda suka jinkirta, sannan ya cika ni’imarsa a gare ka, ya shiryar da kai tafarki madaidaici, ya kuma taimake ka da nasara buwayayyiya. (fassarar marubuta).

[13] Ƙul lanya sibuna illa ma kabahullahu lana, Huwa Maulana, Wa alal Lahi fal yatawakkalul Muminun.” (Faɗa musu babu abin da zai same mu face sai abin da Allah Ya rubuta a kanmu, Shi ne Mujiɓincinmu, kuma gare Shi ne  masu imani sukan dogara. (fassarar marubuta).

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