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Hoton Waibuwar Hausawa a Cikin Waƙoƙin Dakta Mamman Shata

 Gobir, Y. A. & Sani, A-U. (2018). Hoton Waibuwar Hausawa A Cikin Waƙoƙin Mamman Shata. In Gusau, S.M. (ed). Studies in the Songs of Dr. Mamman Shta Katsina. Katsina: Umaru Musa ‘Yar’adua University. Pp.189-203, ISBN: 978-978-5588-2-4.

Dakta Mamman Shata Katsina

Hoton Waibuwar Hausawa a Cikin Waƙoƙin Dakta Mamman Shata

Yakubu Aliyu GOBIR (Ph. D.)1
Department of Nigerian Languages
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
08035605024, 07087765510
Email Address: yagobir@yahoo.co.uk 

And

Abu-Ubaida SANI2
Department of Languages and Cultures
Federal University Gusau, Zamfara
Phone No. 08133529736
Email Address: abuubaidasani5@gmail.com

Tsakure

Masana da manazarta sun tafi kan cewa, daga cikin adabin al’umma (na baka ko rubutacce), mutum na iya fahimtar salon rayuwar al’ummar na gaba ɗaya. Wannan ya haɗa da tunaninsu da imaninsu da fahimtarsu da al’adunsu da tsarin zamantakewa da dai sauransu. Da ma dai an ba da ma’anar adabi da: “Madubi ko hoton duba rayuwar al’umma.” A ɓangare guda kuwa, waƙa na ɗaya daga cikin manyan rukunnen adabi da ke taka muhimmiyar rawa tare da yin gagarumin tasiri a kan al’amuran rayuwar al’umma na yau da kullum. Wannan ya haɗa da siyasarsu da addininsu da iliminsu da ma sauran abubuwan da suka shafi al’ada. Mawaƙa na taka muhimmiyar rawa wurin fito da tunanin al’umma. A bisa wannan zaren tunani ne takardar ta ginu, inda take ƙoƙarin hango waibuwar Hausawa daga bakin Dakta Mamman Shata. Shata yakan danganta mutum da aljani ko kuma ya ba shi wata siffa ko ɗabi’a ta aljani domin nuna shahara da buwayar mutumin. Haka ma yakan danganta magani da aljani a wasu daga cikin waƙoƙinsa. Wannan takarda ta bibiyi irin waɗannan waƙoƙi da suka haɗa da ‘Malam Babba na Ƙofar Gabas,’ da ‘Hasan Sarkin Dogarai,’ da ‘Mamman Sakwkato Kyaftin,’ da kuma ‘Waƙar Sarkin Bori Sule.’ Daga ƙarshe takardar ta fahimci cewa, Bahaushe ya yarda da wanzuwar aljani har ma ya ɗauke shi a matsayin halitta mai matuƙar hatsabibanci. Bugu da ƙari, Bahaushe na danganta magani da aljani. A taƙaice, Bahaushe ya tafi kan cewa, ƙololuwar buwaya kan samu ga ɗan Adam yayin da ya yi cuɗanya da aljani.

 

Muhimman Kalmomi: Hausaswa, Waibuwa, Aljani, Dakta Mamman Shata

 

Gabatarwa

Waƙa ba sabuwar aba ba ce da ake da buƙatar dogon bayani game da ma’anarta. Masana da manazarta da dama sun bayyana ma’anar waƙa a rubuce-rubuce da suka gabatar a matakan ilimi daban-daban. Masana da marubuta da suka yi tsokaci kan ma’anar waƙa sun haɗa da: Gusau, (1993) da Ƙaura, (1994) da Bunza, (1988) da Yahya, (1996) da Habibu, (2001) da Zurmi, (2006) da Abdullahi, (2017) da makamantansu.

Kusan dukkanin ma’anonin waƙa da masana ke bayarwa na da makusanciyar alaƙa da juna, wanda har za a iya cewa, abu ɗaya suka faɗa cikin kalamai ko salailai mabambanta. Akwai kalmomin da su ne ke matsayin tubalan ginin ma’anar waƙa. Sun kasance siffofin da waƙoƙi ke ƙunsa. Ga su kamar haka:

i.                    Jigo

ii.                  Hikima da fasaha

iii.                Tsarawa

iv.                Bin ƙa’ida

v.                  Salo da sarrafa harshe

vi.                Zaɓen kalmomi na musamman

vii.              Armashi

viii.            Rerawa

Kasancewar waƙa zance tsararre da ake rerawa cikin salo da raujin murya ta musamman tare da zaɓen kalmomi da jera su cikin tsari mai jan hankali, hakan ya sa waƙa ta kasance mai matuƙar tasiri ga zukatan al’umma. Masana da marubuta irin su: Furniss (1996) da Gusau (2009, 2014); Sani, (2016) da Sani da Tsaure (2016) sun tabbatar da cewa, waƙa ta kasance aba mai matuƙar tasiri ga zukatan al’umma tun zamani mai tsawo da ya wuce. A taƙaice za a iya cewa, waƙa ta fara tasiri tara da samar da sauyi ga rayuwar Hausawa tun lokacin da suka fara ta’ammuli da ita. A wani ra’ayi mai kama da wannan, A’azamiyyun, 1962 da CNRS a cikin Science Daily, 2014 da Sani, 2016; duk sun tafi kan cewa, tasirin waƙa ba zai taɓa gushewa ba daga zukatan al’umma. Wannan ne ma ya sa, waƙa ta kasance babbar hanyar isar da saƙwanni ga al’umma, wanda kuma saƙwannin na yin tasiri ga rayuwarsu.

Mawaƙan Hausa na amfani da salailai daban-daban domin isar da saƙwanninsu ga al’umma cikin siga mafi jan hankali. Irin waɗannan waƙoƙi nasu na kawo hoton adabi da al’adar al’umma. Cikin irin wannan yanayi ne mawaƙan ke nuna hulɗar Bahaushe da aljannu domin yin fice ko buwaya. Yunƙurin wannan takarda dai shi ne tsakuro irin wuraren da Dakta Mamman Shata ya kawo hoton waibuwar Hausawa cikin waƙoƙinsa.

Taƙaitaccen Tsokaci Game da Dakta Mamman Shata

Dakta Mamman Shata ba ɓoyayyen mawaƙi ba ne. Yana ɗaya daga cikin makaɗan da suka fi kowa suna da ɗaukaka a duniyar waƙa a ƙasar Hausa. Waƙoƙinsa sun shiga duk lungu da saƙo na ƙasar Hausa, haka ma sunansa. Wannan ya samo asali ne a dalilin zunzurutun fasaha da ke cikin waƙoƙinsa tare kuma da farin jini da yake da shi, wanda hakan ya zamar da shi wani zakara tsakanin mawa        ƙan lokacinsa. Hakan ne ma ya sa, har a yau mawaƙa da dama (cikinsu har da na zamani) suke ƙoƙarin danganta kansu da Shata. A taƙaice kenan, inkiyar Shata da za a yi wa mawaƙi a yau na nuna ficen mawaƙin a fagen waƙa. Duniyar mawaƙan Hausa sun yi ittafa’in Shata a matsayin sarkin waƙa. Nura M. Inuwa (Mawaƙin zamani) ya ambaci Shata a matsayin sarkin waƙa, inda yake cewa:

Mai sautina kunno,

Wani zance zan tono,

Yaro na mawaƙa ne ni ba Shata ne ba,

Matsayi ban kai a kira ni da sarkin waƙa ba.

Daga baitin da ke sama, lallai mawaƙin yana nuna matsayinsa bai kai a kwatanta shi da Shata ba. Dalili kuwa shi ne, shi (mawaƙin) yaro ne kawai a cikin mawaƙa, amma bai kai matsayin sarkin waƙa ba. A taƙaice kenan, Shata sarkin waƙa ne.

Saboda fice da Shata ya yi a duniyar waƙa, ƙoƙarin kawo tarihinsa zai zama maimaici ne kawai na aikin da masana da marubuta suka daɗe da baje guminsu a kai. Saboda haka, a wannan gaɓa takardar za ta waiwaici irin ayyukan da aka yi ne game da Shata, wanda kuma ke ɗauke da tarihin rayuwarsa.

Sheme da wasu (2000) sun kawo cikakken tarihin Shata a cikin littafinsu mai suna: Shata Ikon Allah. Haka kuma, Kankara, (2013) ya yi matuƙar ƙoƙari wurin tattaro cikakken tarihin Shata da kuma aikace-aikacensa masu tarin yawa. Ya tattara wannan tarihi cikin littafinsa mai suna: Mahadi Mai Dogon Zamani: Shata da Kundin Waƙoƙinsa. Wannan littafi yana ɗauke da tarihin rayuwar shata tun daga kan iyaye da kakanninsa. Sannan littafin ya kalato irin abubuwan mamaki da al’ajabi da Shata ya yi ta nunawa a lokacin rayuwarsa. Bayan waɗannan, akwai kuma wasu ayyuka da aka gudanar game da Shata da suka haɗa da: Ɗangambo, (1973) da Gusau, (1996) da kuma Gusau, (edita) (2003).

Aljani a Tunanin Bahaushe

Da ma dai, duk wani abin da mawaƙi ke furtawa ba ya rasa nasaba da tunanin al’ummar da yake cikinta. Domin kuwa, mawaƙi yana fitar da abin da ke ƙunshe cikin ƙwaƙwalwarsa ne zuwa fatar baki. Da wannan ne ma Bahaushe ke cewa: “Duk maganar da ta zo baki, to ta daɗe ga zuciya.” A taƙaice kenan za a iya cewa, a cikin waƙoƙin Hausa za a iya tsintar hotunan yadda Hausawa suka ɗauki aljannu da irin tasirin da aljannun ke da shi game da rayuwarsu.

Jayeola-Omoyeni, da wasu, (2015) sun tabbatar da; Hausawa sun yi imani da cewa, aljannu na da tasiri kan rayuwar ‘yan Adam. Wannan ya shafi yadda ɗan Adam ke gudanar da al’amuran rayuwarsa na gaba ɗaya. Za a iya cewa ra’ayin yana kan hanya musamman idan aka yi duba ga al’adun Hausawa da suka shafi cuɗanya da aljani tun kafin zuwan Musulunci ƙasar Hausa (girka) da ma bayan zuwan Musulunci (ruƙiyya).

Game da zuwan Musulunci ƙasar Hausa kuwa, an samu ra’ayoyi mabambanta. Sai dai ko ba komai, masana sun tabbatar da cewa, Musulunci ya iso ƙasar Hausa tun zamanin sarkin Kano Ali Yaji. Kenan dai tun tsakanin 1349 zuwa 1385 (Habibu, 2001; Birnin-Tudu, 2002). Addinin Musuluncin ya zo da sauye-sauye da dama game da cuɗanyar ɗan Adam da aljani, musamman da yake yana suka da kakkausar murya dangane da tsafi da nau’o’insa.

Hausawa na nuna waibuwa iri-iri ta hanyar amfani da aljani a yayin bukukuwa ko wasannin gargajiya da suka danganci jarumta. Wasannin sun haɗa da dambe da kokawa da sharo da tauri da makamantansu. Haka kuma, sukan nuna waibuwar yayin bukukuwan da suka shafi wasu sana’o’in Hausawa. Sun haɗa da ƙira da wanzanci da noma da sarkanci da farauta da dai sauransu. A binciken marubuta irin su: Emeka da wasu, (2010) da Gummi, (2014) da Usman, (2014) da Muhammad, (2015) sun nuna cewa, masu sana’o’i daban-daban daga cikin Hausa na nuna abubuwan al’ajabi na waibuwa yayin bukukuwan da suka danganci sana’o’insu. Sukan yi hakan domin nuna buwaya da gogewa a ɓangaren sana’o’in nasu. A binciken marubuta irin su Hunwick, (1975) da George da Amusan, (2009) da Emeka da wasu, (2010) da Usman, (2014) da kuma Abubakar, (2017) sun kawo wasu daga cikin nau’ukan al’adu inda Bahaushe ke ta’ammuli da aljani. Sun haɗa da:

i.                    Bori

ii.                  Tsafi

iii.                Maita

iv.                Duba

v.                  Bautar iska da makamantansu

A hasashen Bala, (2015), Hausawa na da ra’ayin cewa, waibuwa na yiyuwa ne kawai da taimakon aljani. Shi kuwa aljani ya kasance ɓoyayye ga idanun ɗan Adam, duk da kuwa shi yana iya kallon mutane. Sai dai Bahaushe yana da ra’ayin cewa, aljani na iya rikiɗa zuwa wata dabba da ɗan Adam ke iya ganin ta. Misali, zai iya rikiɗa zuwa maciji ko hawainiya ko zomo da dai makamantansu.

Waibuwar Hausawa A Cikin Waƙoƙin Shata

Dakta Mamman Shata ya kawo ire-iren waibuwar Hausawa a wasu daga cikin waƙoƙinsa. Ko bayan Shata ma, akwai mawaƙa da dama da suka nuna hoton waibuwar Hausawa cikin waƙoƙinsu. Wasu daga cikin waɗannan mawaƙa su ne: Gambo, (a cikin waƙarsa ta Tsoho Tudu) da Ɗan’anace (a cikin waƙarsa taShago) da Baga Ɗansala (a cikin waƙar ‘Yarkala) da Garba Ɗanwasa (a cikin waƙar Gojirgo) da kuma Sani Ɗanbalɗo (a cikin waƙarsa ta Ciran Rogo) da ma wasu mawaƙan na daban. Mawaƙan Hausa na fito da waibuwa ko cuɗanyar Hausawa da aljani a wasu gurabu na musamman. Sukan yi hakan yayin nuni zuwa ga:

i.                    Kambamar zulaƙe

ii.                  Jarumta

iii.                Tsafi

iv.                Magani

Waibuwa a Matsayin Tubalin Ginin Kambamar Zulaƙe Cikin Waƙoƙin Shata

Kambamar zulaƙe ta ƙunshi kurarawa da rurutawa tare da zuzutawa da kuma ɗaukaka abu sama da yadda yake a haƙiƙa. Ahmad, (2010) da Fitri, (2010) na da ra’ayin cewa, kambamar zulaƙe na samuwa ne yayin da aka yi amfani da wasu kalmomin da za su ɗaukaka wani mutum ko wani abu sama sosai da yadda ya kasance a haƙiƙa. Manazarta irin su Omosowone da Nelson, (2003) da kuma Amaechi, (2010) na da irin wannan fahimta, inda suka ƙara da cewa; kambamar zulaƙe ta ƙunshi ɗaukaka wani abu zuwa wani matsayin da bai kai wurin ba. Sai dai mai kambamar zulaƙe yakan yi ne dumin barkwanci ko dai gyaran zance ko kuma jan hankali zuwa ga abin da yake magana a kai.

Bunza, (2015) yana ganin cewa, kambamar zulaƙe shi ne mafi ƙololuwar salo da mawaƙi zai iya amfani da shi domin ƙayata waƙarsa tare da jan hankalin mai sauraro da kuma ɗebe wa masu sauraro tantama dangane da wani abu da dai makamantansu.[1] Shata yakan danganta faruwar wasu abubuwa da waibuwa yayin da yake kambamar zulaƙe domin fito da girman wani abu ko wani mutum. A cikin waƙar Sarkin Bori Sule, Shata ya yi amfani da kambamar zulaƙe wurin da yake cewa:

Shi ke kwana bakwai,

Ba ci ba sha Sule,

Kullum bori yake.

Binciken kimiyya ya tabbatar da cewa, ɗan Adam ba zai iya sama da kwana huɗu a raye ba tare da ruwa ba, balle har a ce yana aikata wani aiki, kuma mai wahala da buƙatar jijjiga jiki. A nan kuwa, sai ga shi Shata yana cewa, ai shi Sule na shafe har tsawon kwanaki bakwai ba tare da ci ko sha ba, sai dai zunzurutun bori. Haƙiƙa a nan kambamar zulaƙe ce Shata ya yi game da borin Sule.

A cikin waƙar Hasan Sarkin Dogarai, Shata ya kawo kambamar zulaƙe dangane da girman shi Hasan.[2] Yayin da yake siffanta girman Hasan a cikin waƙar, sai yake cewa:

Mutuum huɗu da rabin mutum,

Mutuum huɗu da rabin mutuum.

Haƙiƙa wannan kambawa ce Shata ya yi dangane da girman Hasan Sarkin dogarai. Domin kuwa, ko kusa Hasan bai kai wannan girma da ake kwatanta shi da shi ba.

Ko bayan Shata, akwai mawaƙan Hausa da ke amfani da hoton waibuwar Bahaushe wajen gina kambamar zulaƙe. Misali Gambu ya yi amfani da kambamar zulaƙe wajen bayyana yadda Tsoho Tudu ke da tsananin waibuwa. Ya yi hakan ne a cikin waƙarsa mai suna Tsoho Tudu. A cikin waƙar yake nuna cewa, saboda tsantsar ƙuƙuwa ta Tsoho Tudu, ko da furarsa ce ta zube ƙasa, to hatta ƙwaro ba ya iya taɓinta.[3]

Don duk mai ku]i a Arewa

                                    Ko wa ya haihwai ]an gaton’uwa

                                    Babu kamar guda mai }u}uwat Tudu

                                    Sai dai a gwada mai tara jalli

Duk da hura tai tat tu]e }asa

                                    Tabbata }waro bai ta~in ta

                                    Saboda mugunyar }u}uwa tai”.

Danganta Jarumta da Waibuwa a Cikin Waƙoƙin Shata

Jarumta ta ƙunshi jajircewa da dogewa cikin zage damtse da taƙarƙarewa a kan duk wani abu da aka sanya a gaba. Wannan ya haɗa da fitar da tsoro da fargabar abin da aka tunkara tare da dakakkiyar zuciya da ƙarfin guiwar hangen nasara. Wannan ne ma ya sa, masana irin su: Becker da Eagly, (2004) da kuma Blau da Zimbardo (2011) ke da ra’ayin cewa, jarumta ta ƙunshi aikata ayyuka da ke da matuƙar hatsari ga rayuwa. Wato dai, sau da dama jarumi kan cusa kansa ga halaka. Shi ya sa Bahaushe ke cewa: “Umar rago ake yi wa barka, ta jarumi sai jaje.” Kenan dai, rago ne ke tsira saboda karaya kan sa shi guje wa bacin rana. Shi ko jarumi, a koyaushe dogewa yake yi, “sai ya ga abin da ya ture wa Buzu naɗi.”

Akan samu jarumai cikin al’umma, inda jarumtar ta danganta ga sana’o’i ko zamantakewa da dai sauransu. Misali, akan samu jarumai cikin manoma ko mafarauta ko sarkawa ko maharba da sauran sana’o’i da ke buƙatar jajircewa da nuna bajinta. Sai dai kuma, nuna jarumta bai tsaya ne ga kyawawan ayyuka ba kawai. Akan nuna jarumta har ga ɗabi’u da ayyuka da suka kasance ababan ƙi cikin al’umma. Sun haɗa da sata da fashi da sane da makamantansu. Douglas da Mathew (2012) na da wannan ra’ayi, inda suka nuna cewa, duk wata jajircewa da nuna bajinta akan iya kiran ta jarumta, ba wai sai ga abin ƙwarai ba.

Waƙar Sarkin Bori Sule kyakkyawan misali ne na yadda Shata ke nuna dangantakar jarumta da waibuwa. Misali a cikin waƙar, Shata na nuna cewa, idan Sule ya faɗi magana bayan ya yi duba, to kuwa sai ta tabbata. Kenan dai ya ƙware a kan sana’ar duba, wanda hakan ne ya zamar da shi jarumi da ya yi fice. A taƙaice kenan, waibuwa ce ta zamar da Sarkin Bori Sule jarumi ga tunanin Shata. Ya ce:

Bugi ƙasa ka duba musu,

Shidda shidda ka ɗauke uku,

Ka ga idan ka haɗa su sun zama tara,

Kowa aka gani cikin tara ɗin nan,

Yai sha’ani nai shi ta rufa …

Ka je Baba ya duba maka.

Idan ya zana ƙasa ya duba maka,

Ya ɗaga kai ya shaida maka,

Ka ga kamar da shi ne a kai.

 

A wani baitin na daban, Shata ya nuna ficen Sarkin Bori Sule da cewa, nan take marar lafiya ke samun sauƙi idan dai har aka kai shi ga Sule. Shata yake cewa:

Yau wannan zamani,

Wannan lokaci,

Ko wani ke zazzaɓi,

Ka ga ana gai da shi,

Yana amsawa jika-jika,

Ku kai mai borin Sule,

Sarkin Bori Sule.

 

Yanzu sai ka ga sun warware,

Suna yawon duniya.

 

Baya ga haka Shata ya nuna cewa, Sule ya yi matuƙar sanuwa a garuruwa daban-daban na ƙasar Hausa. Duk kuwa a dalilin bori ne. Ya bayyana hakan inda yake cewa:

Wurin rangadi Sule,

Ya zo birnin Kano,

Na Kazaure sun sani,

Katsinawa sun sani,

Ya je Kukar Bauɗe Shiɗe,

Ya nemo bori duka.

A wani baiti makamancin wannan, Shata ya kawo wasu muhimman mutane masu manyan matsayi da muƙamai a cikin Hausawa tare da cewa su ma sun san Sule a dalilin bori. Daga cikinsu har da sarki da alƙali da magajin gari da kantoma da DPO da razdan har ma da gwamna. Shatan yake cewa:

Sarki ya sani,

Alƙali ya sani,

Magajin gari ya sani,

Kantoma ya sani,

D.P.O. ya sani,

Kuma Razdan ya sani,

Kuma gwamna sun sani,

Duka sun san borin Sule.

 

Haƙiƙa baitukan da ke sama, suna nuna mana yadda Shata ke danganta waibuwa da shahara. Ya nuna yadda Sule ya shahara a sanadiyyar bori. Sai dai yana da kyau a tuna Shata ba ne kaɗai ke da irin wannan ra’ayi a cikin mawaƙan Hausa. Misali, Ɗan’anace ya danganta shahara da buwayar Shago[4] da hulɗa da aljani. Ya kawo hakan ne cikin waƙarsa mai suna: Shago Mai Hagun Mai Dama, inda yake faɗin:

Ɗan Audu duk da idanunka ba awa na mutum ba,

Ɗan Audu ya hau bori borin da ba shi da girka,

… ba a gyara maka iskoki ba.

 

A nan yana nuna cewa, hatta siffar Shago na jirkicewa yayin fafatawa. Wato dai yakan koma tamkar ba mutum ba. A nan ya ƙara da kwatanta wannan yanayi da hawan bori, wanda kuma ba a yi wa girka ba. Ma’ana dai, tamkar mutum da ke ta’ammuli da aljanu alhali ba a masa girka domin daidaita su a kansa ba.

Tsafi a Matsayin Waibuwa

Zafi ya shafi hulɗa da aljani tare da biya masa wasu buƙatunsa domin shi kuma aljanin ya riƙa taimaka wa mai hulɗa da shi wajen yin abubuwan ban mamaki, da kuma biya masa wasu buƙatun da zai iya buƙata yau da gobe. Za a iya kallon tsafi a matsayin mafi ƙolulurar mataki da mutum zai taka a matsayin hanyar waibuwa. Matsafi kan yi abubuwan ban mamaki waɗanda ga al’ada, ɗan Adam ba shi da damar gudanar da su ba tare da taimakon iskoki ba. Wannan ya haɗa da:

a.       Rikiɗa zuwa wasu halittu

b.      Ci ko shan wani abu da ya saɓa hankalin al’ada kamar allurai ko ƙaya ko wani ƙarfe ko fasasshiyar kwalba da makamantansu.

c.       Ɓacewa nan take

d.      Sanya wani abu marar motsi motsawa, kamar zabira ko garma/galma da makamantansu.

e.       Bayyanar da wani abu nan take wanda a farko matsafi ba ya tare da shi

Sai dai yana da kyau a lura da cewa, akwai abubuwan bammamaki makamantan waɗannan da ɗaiɗaikun jama’a ke yi, wanda ya shafi siddabaru ne ba tsafi ba.[5] Matsafa kuwa na amfani da ƙarfin tsafinsu domin kare kai, ko nuna bajinta ko ma cutarwa a wasu lokuta.

A cikin waƙar Shata ta Hasan Sarkin Dogorai, an ga yadda Shata ya nuna Hasan a matsayin mai waibuwa, inda yake cewa:

Nan na ga al’ajabi,

Ranar tafiya Dorayi,

Ranar hawan Dorayi,

In sarki yah hawo,

Hasan kuwa ya yo hawa,

Ko hadari ya taho,

Ana ta ruwa yaf-da-yaf,

Hassan ya ja yai gaba,

Yai gaba sai ya tsaya,

Na ɗauko doki guje,

Na zo ciki na rakuɓe,

Zatona rumfa a kai,

Wanda sarki zai shiga,

ƙasa sai na ga kofatai,

Kuma sai na ga idon mutum,

Sai na ruga guje.

Kamar yadda yake cikin baitin, tsananin waibuwar Hasan, ruwan sama da ake yi ba zuba a daidai wurin da yake tsaye tare da sarki. Wannan ne ma ya sa har Shata yake tunanin ko rumfa ce aka yi a wurin, domin a tare wa sarki ruwan saman, gudun kada ya jiƙe. Sai dai kuma yayin da Shata ya je wurin, sai ya ga kofatai, sannan da idanun mutum a ƙasa. A nan ma za a ga cewa, Shata ya danganta waibuwar Hasan da cuɗanya da aljani. Da ma dai a tunanin Bahaushe, kofoto na ɗaya daga cikin siffofin aljannu.

A waƙar Malam Babba na Ƙofar Gabas, Shata ya sake bayyana waibuwar Malam Babba, inda yake nuna cewa, yayin da shi Malam Babba ya yi duba, sannan ya faɗi sakamakon; to kuwa abin zai kasance tamkar yana wurin aka shirya. Kenan dai Shata na nufin cewa, Malam Babba yana iya faɗin abin da zai faru. Ya ce:

Malam na ga kana yin yaushi,

Je ka Babba ya duba maka.

Ya zana ƙasa ya duba maka…

Ya ɗaga kai ya shaida maka,

Ka ga kamar da shi ne akai.

 

A wata waƙa mai suna: Mamman Sakkwato Kyaftin, Shata ya nuna yadda Kyaftin Mamman ke da waibuwa, musamman a daji. Waibuwar tasa har ta kai matsayin da, ko da mutum ya san shi, to idan ya kalle shi a daji, zai ga ya zama wani abin tsoro, wanda ba siffar mutane ba. Irin wannan waibuwa ta filin daga kuwa, ba sabon al’amari ba ne ga tunanin Bahaushe. Ma’ana, yana ɗaya daga cikin abin da Bahaushe ya yi amanna da su. Shata ya ce:

Ko ka san shi mutum kauce mashi,

Kiyayi Mamman Sakkwato daji …

Ya ce min, Shata mai waƙa,

Sarkin waƙa,

Iallai a daji Sakkwato Kyaftin,

Wannan abin tsoro ya koma.

 

Waibuwar Magani a Cikin Waƙoƙin Shata

Magani dai na nufin duk wani abin da ake amfani da shi domin samun waraka daga wata cuta. Bunza, (1995) ya nuna cewa, magani ga Bahaushen tunani na iya kasancewa sassaƙe ne ko saiwa ko ruwa ko allura ko ma wasu hanyoyin riga-kafi na daban. Tarihin Hausawa na ƙunshe da wasu hanyoyin waraka da Hausawan suka yi amfani da su, waɗanda suka haɗa da bori da ma sauran hanyoyin hulɗa da aljannu domin samun magani. Sai dai kuma yana da kyau a tuna, dalilan da kan sa Bahaushe ya nemi magani ba ciwon jiki ba ne kawai, har ma da na zuciya. Bahaushe kan nemi magani domin neman waraka ko kariya ko ɗaukaka da buwaya ko ma domin cutar da abokin gaba (Bunza, 1995; Sarkin Sudan, 2008; Gobir, 2012). Kenan dai kalmar ‘magani’ na da faffaɗar ma’ana ga Bahaushen tunani.

 A cikin waƙar Mamman Sakkwato Kyaftin, Shata ya bayyana Mamman a matsayin mai waibuwar magani a filin daga. Waibuwarsa ta sanya, ko da ana musayar wuta, harsashe na zirya, to shi ba ya kwantawa ko ya duƙa domin gudun kada harsashi ya same shi. A maimakon haka, zai ci gaba da kutsawa ne kawai riƙe da sandarsa. Kenan dai Shata na nuna Mamman a matsayin wanda yake da maganin harsashi. Ya ce:

In dai an ce bakin daga,

Muddin an je bakin fama,

Ga harsashi na warici,

Ga harsashi na yawo nai,

Malam Mamman Sakkwato Kyaftin,

Bai kwantawa,

Bai duƙawa,

Ya riƙe sanda,

Kui gaba yaran Sakkwato Mamman.

 

Akwai mawaƙa da dama da suka kawo irin wannan yanayi inda mutum ke amfani da waibuwar magani. Misali Gambu mai waƙar ɓarayi ya kawo irin wannan waibuwa cikin waƙar Jibril Mugun Tsoho inda yake cewa:

Sai ga Hausawa irinmu,

Ihu ɓarawo,

Nic ce, an yi ɓarna,

Wanga bawa ba kaiwa zai ba,

Tun wada na hanga hakan ga,

Sai yana tahiya tai yanga-yanga,

Ba mai jiha ko bugawa,

Sai dai nuni sai a ɓatai.

 

A nan Gambo ya kawo labarin inda aka yi wa ɓarawo ihu domin a kama shi. Sai dai saboda tsabar waibuwar ɓarawon (magani), sai kowa ya kasa kaiwa gare shi, ballantana har a samu wanda zai doke shi. A maimakon haka, sai shi ɓarawon ya ci gaba da tafiyarsa cikin yanga. Duk dai wannan na nuni ga waibuwar Bahaushe a ɓangaren magani.

Kammalawa

Haƙiƙa Bahaushe ya yi imani da cewa akwai aljani. Sannan ya ayyana wasu siffofi gare shi da suka shafi hatsabibanci. Har ma yana bin wasu hanyoyi domin ta’ammuli da shi, da zummar samun buwaya. Baya ga haka, nazarin ya lura da cewa, a lokuta da dama Bahaushe na danganta ɗaukaka da buwaya da kuma cuɗanya da aljani. Yana da tunanin cewa, hulɗa da aljani hanya ce mafi sauƙi na samun buwaya. Wannan ne ma ya sanya, mawaƙa da dama ke amfani da waibuwa a matsayin tubalin ginin saƙwannin waƙoƙinsu. Kamar dai yadda Shata ya yi amfani da waibuwa a matsayin dalilin samuwar jarumta da magani. Mawaƙa na ba wa mutum wata ɗabi’ar aljani domin ɗaukaka buwayarsa da kambama shi da fito da shahara da gagararsa fili.

 

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[1] ƙoƙarinsa na ba da misalin kambamar zulaƙe, Bunza, (2015) ya rawaito Muhammadu Sani Ɗanbolɗo a waƙarsa ta Zaura, inda yake kambamar zulaƙe yayin yaba siffar wata mace. Yana cewa:

Farar fatat ta ka ruɗa ni

Dun nar rice

Tsawon hancinta misali nai

Ya kai mil goma misalin dogon hanci.

(Muhammad Sani Ɗanbloɗo: Waƙar Zaura)

Da ma dai, Bahaushe ya ɗauki dogon hanci a matsayin babban abu wajen nuna kyawun mace. Domin fito da tsawon hancin matar da Sani yake yi wa waƙa fili, sai ya yi amfani da kambamar zulaƙe, inda yake nuna ai tsawon nasa ya kai har mil goma (Da a magana ce ta yau da kullum, sai a ce zuge ta malle!).

 

[2] Hasan Sarkin Dogarai wani dogari ne da aka taɓa yi a fadar Kano, wanda ya yi zamani da Sarkin Kano Mai Martaba Ado Bayero. Al’umma ta tafi kan cewa, Hasan yana da tsananin waibuwa sosai. Saboda haka, kambamar zulaƙe da Shata ya yi masa, bai rasa nasaba da wannan fahimtar mutane game da Hasan, wato waibuwar da yake da shi.

[3] Gambu ya yi haka ne domin ya nuna yadda Tsoho Tudu yake da zunzurutun waibuwa, wanda babu wani ɓarawo da ya isa ya masa sata.

[4] Shago ɗan dambe ne da ya yi matuƙar shahara a ƙasar Hausa. An tabbatar da cewa, sau da dama Shago na kai abokin karawarsa ƙasa da bugu guda kawai.

[5] Siddabaru dai shi ne amfani da dabara da hikima maɗaukakiya domin aikata wani aikin da zai ɗaure kan masu kallo ko saurare. Sau da dama idan aka yi siddabaru, masu kallo (musamman waɗanda ba su gane dawar garin ba) kan samu wasu-wasi tare da ɗaukar mai siddabaru a matsayin wanda yake da waibuwa ta musamman.

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