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Mazhabar Tarken Adabin Hausa

A cikin wannan rubutu, an yi ƙoƙarin kawo bayani game da mazhabar tarken adabin Hausa.

Mazhabar Tarken Adabin Hausa

Idris Abubakar
Hafsat Muhammad
Hauwa Mu’azu

Littattafan Hausa

Gabatarwa

          Kafin mu kai ga yin cikakken bayani a kan abin da “Tarken Adabin Hausa” ke magana a kai yana da matuƙar muhimmanci mu yi sharhi ko tsokaci a dangane da abin da ake kira “Tarke” da “Adabi” a Hausa.

          Tarke keɓaɓɓiyar kalma ce da ke nufin tsara sharhi a kan wani matani ko wani da ake nazarta ta bin ƙa’idojin nazari da manazarta suka tsara, bisa ra’ayi.

          A wata fuskar za a iya cewa “Tarke” na nufin ka ƙirƙiro wata hanya na musamman na nazarin adabin Hausa (nazarin ƙagaggun labarai ko waƙa ko kuma wasan kwaikwayo). Tarke a taƙaice wata hanya ce da ake bi domin a nazarci wani abu ba sai na littafi ba.

          Adabi kuwa duk da dai ta sha lailaya a hannun manazarta, to amma dai mun ga ya dace mu yi tushi don cike wani giɓi.

          Hausawa sun aro kalmar ne daga Larabci wato al-adab tana nufin “Ladabi”, wato “halin ɗa’a, biyayya, halaye na kirki”. Kalmar adabi a Hausa na nufin ilimin nau’o’in azanci da fasaha na sarrafa harshe da ya ƙunshi ƙirƙirarrun fasahohin magana cikin tsarin waƙoƙi da labarai da tatsuniyoyi da tarihihi da hikimomin iya sarrafa harshe irin su karin magana, zambo, habaici, gatse, barkwanci, kacici-kacici d.s.

Tarken Adabin Hausa

          A wannan fage za a yi bayanin matsayi ko halin da tarken adabin Hausa yake ciki a yau. Amma kafin nan da ya dace mu yi tushi dan cike wani gurbi dangane da samuwar tarken adabin Hausa, sakamakon akwai masu zuwa su gabatar da wannan zai fi kyau mu ce kai tsaye kan tarken adabin Hausa saboda lokaci.

          Haƙiƙa tarken adabin Hausa ya daɗe ana yin sa ta hanyar gargajiya, kuma har yanzu wasu matarkan na yin haka. Sai dai hanyoyin zamani (mazahabobi) a yanzu kusan sun mamaye fagen tarken. Duk da cewa kuwa matarkan suna yin sa ne, ko dai da saninsu game da manufofin mazahabobin, ko da amfani da manufofin kai tsaye, ko kuma da cikakken bayanin mazahabar da kuma ɗora ta kan matanin adabin Hausa. Bayan mafarkan da ke ta yin aikinsu ta hanyar tarken gargajiya a da, a yanzu akwai sha’awar amfani da ra’ayoyi musamman a sassan nazarin adabi na jami’o’i masu amfani da salon zamani irin wanda mazahabar sababbin matarka ta fito da shi wanda kuma ya sami karɓuwa ga wasu matarkan adabin a ƙasashen Turai da Amurka.

          Ɓullowar amfani da mazahabobi ta farko ya jawo ka-ce-na-cen da ya daƙushe niyyar wasu matarkan, amma daga baya sai wasu da dama suka lura da cewa wata dama ce ta samun hanyoyin tarke masu yawa da za a riƙa zaɓa ana yin tarken da su. Wasu matarkan suna aiki da ra’ayoyin tarken littafi, wasu kuwa suna duba adabin gargajiya, sannan yawanci a yanzu matarka sun fi mayar da hankali ga rubuce-rubucen mata ko tarken al’adu da ke a cikin littattafan adabi masu sassan adabi na zamani. Hasalima ma, akwai hanyoyi da dama na tarken adabi da ake amfani da su a yanzu a wurare daban-daban.

          A tarken adabin Hausa kuwa, an sami wasu matarka da suka riƙa yin nazari da fiɗa da sharhi da fashin baƙi da kuma ƙalailaice aikin adabin. Ana iya cewa tarken adabin Hausa ya daɗe ana yin sa. Kusan tun da aka fara aiwatar da adabin Hausa na baka ake yin sa. Saboda wasu masana na nuna cewa tarke yana tafiya ne tare da adabi. An daɗe ana gudanar da shi ta hanyar tarken adabin Larabawa kafin Turawa su zo ƙasar Hausa.

Wuraren Da Ake Gabatar Da Tarken Adabin Hausa

          Saboda haka, a halin yanzu ana gabatar da tarken adabin Hausa a sassan nazarin harsunan Nijeriya da harsunan ƙasashen waje kamar Larabci da Turanci da Faransanci, a manyan makarantu da jami’o’in da ake nazarin adabin Hausa a faɗin Nijeriya da waje. Haka kuma, ana ɗaukar kowane fanni na adabin Hausa a yi tarkensa a matakin a matakin Diploma ko Ensi’i NCE) ko tun daga digirin farko zuwa na uku. Bayan haka ana yin sa a taron ƙara wa juna sani na masana da matarka na bunƙasa adabin Hausa daban-daban a cikin gida da waje, da kuma cibiyoyin nazarin harsuna a ƙarƙashin jami’o’in. misali, A cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya ta Jami’ar Bayero, Kano.

          Bayan wannan, ana yin tarke a gidajen rediyo da talabijin da ake amfani da Hausa wajen shirye-shiryen su, musamman a filayen da aka tanada na tattaunawa da masana adabi, don su yi ƙarin bayani game da fannonin adabin na Hausa. Haka batun yake a kafar sadarwa ta intanet inda ake da shafukan hira ko na bayar da gudummawar masana kan tarken adabin.

          A ɓangaren mujallu da jaridu ma ana gudanar da tarken adabi a wasu shafukan da ake warewa don yin sharhi kan wani littafin adabi ko rubutacciyar waƙa ko wani bayanin adabin Hausa. Misali, Jaridar Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo da ta Aminiyya d.s.

          A halin yanzu akwai littattafai da dama na Hausa da Turanci da matarkan adabin Hausa suka wallafa don sauƙaƙa yadda za a yi tarken adabin Hausa. Misali:

i.                   Jagoran Nazarin Waƙar Baka (1993). Na Sa’idu Muhammad Gusau

ii.                 Dabarun Nazarin Adabin Hausa (1995). Na Sa’idu Muhammad Gusau

iii.              Jagoran Nazarin Ƙagaggun Labarai (2004) Na Isa Muktar d.s.

Ana kuma samar da tarke a cikin tarurrukan da ake yi na ƙungiyoyin marubuta da manazarta harshen Hausa da ake yi a shekara-shekara a wurare daban-daban.

Misalan Matarka Adabin Hausa

          Malamai da yawa da za a kira masana adabin Hausa sun ba da muhimmiyar gudunmuwa wajen ƙirƙiro tare da samar da tubalan da matakai na nazari tun daga lokacin fassara kalmomin nazari daga wasu harsuna kamar Larabci da Ingilishi har zuwa fito da matakai da hanyoyin fiɗar adabi. A halin yanzu akwai hanyoyin nazarin adabin Hausa da yawa:

1.     Farfesa Ɗalhatu Muhammad – Zariya: Ya fito da hanyoyin da za a yi amfani da su wajen nazarin waƙa tun a 1972/73 kamar haka:

-         Tarihin mawallafi ko makaɗi

-         Jigon waƙa da warwararsa

-         Salon sarrafa harshe

-         Tsarin waƙa

2.     Farfesa M.K.M Galadanci – Kano:

Ø Gaɓa

-         Tsawon gaɓa, nauyin gaɓa, gaɓa mai ja da marar ja, gaɓa mai ɗauri, d.s.

Ø Ƙafafuwa

Ø Turke

Ø Kari/ bahari

Ø Zihafi

-         Gwauron zihafi

Ø Illa

-         Illar daɗi

-         Illar ragi

3.     Farfesa Ɗandatti Abdulƙadir – Kano:

Ø Jigon waƙa

-         Raɓa-dannin jigo/warwarar jigo

Ø Kayan cikin waƙa

-         Ƙwarangwal

-         Doguwar/gwauruwar waƙa

-         Ƙwar-biyu-tarbi’i

Ø Amsa-amo

-         Casar kalma / luguden kalma (ƙarangiya)

-         Ya galgala

-         Ƙara gishiri

-         Kamantawa

-         Muzantawa

-         Shaguɓe d.s.

4.     Farfesa Balarabe Zulyadaini Da Farfesa Mustafa Abba: Su ma sun kawo hanyoyin da za a iya bi wajen nazarin waƙar baka kamar haka:

1.     Tarihin marubuci / makaɗi

-         Sassalar waƙa

-         Shekara/lokaci da aka yi waƙar

2.     Jigon waƙe

-         Warwarar jigo

-         Jigo a gajarce

3.     Zubi da tsari

-         Mabuɗin waƙa

-         Amshin waƙa

-         Yawan ɗiyoyin waƙa

-         Yawan ɗangon waƙa

-         Gangara

-         Sabi zarce

-         Maimaita batutuwa

-         Ƙulla batutuwa

-         Marufin waƙa

4.     Salon waƙar baka

-         Miƙaƙƙen salo

-         Salo mai armashi

-         Ragon salo

-         Tsoho/sabon salo

-         Salo na gaba ɗaya

5.     Dabarun fitar da salo

-         Kamantawa                daidaito

fifiko

ƙasƙanci

tsaka-tsaki

-         Siffantawa                 gajeriya

doguwa

-         Jinsintarwa

-         Mutuntarwa

-         Dabbantarwa

-         Alamtarwa

-         Kambamar zulaƙe

-         Waskiya

-         Kalmomin fannu

-         Tasirin al’adu

-         Azancin magana

-         Zagi

-         Tatsuniya

-         Almara

-         Tashe

-         Abincin Hausawa

-         Tasirin Addini

-         Tufafin Hausawa

-         Sana’o’in Hausa

-         Sarrafa harshe

·        Aron kalmomi

·        Karin harshe

·        Amfani da tsoffin kalmomi

·        Zaɓan kalmomi

·        Ƙirar kalma

·        Sharhi

1. Farfesa Ibrahim Mukoshy

          Wannan shehin malamin yana zaune a Sakkwato da Zaria. Amma yanzu yana Sakkwato yana karantarwa, ya yi aiki sosai a Hausa. Sannan a ra’ayinsa ya kawo hanyoyin da za a bi a nazarci zuben baka na Hausa. Misali, Hanyar da za a bi a nazarci “Tatsuniya” su ne kamar haka:

-         Tauraro/tauraruwa

-         Maƙiyi/maƙiyiya

-         Jigo

-         Zango

-         Ƙashi

-         Hauhawa

-         Ƙololuwa

-         Lokaci

-         Ƙodago

-         Fayyacewa

-         ‘yan bi-yarima

-         Salo

2) Farfesa Ibrahim Yaro Yahaya

          Wannan ma babban malami ne na Hausa, domin su ne suka buɗe ɓangarori daban-daban na Hausa. An haife shi a jihar Kano. Shi ma a ra’ayinsa ya kawo hanyoyi daki-daki da za a nazarci zube na Hausa.

          Hanyoyin da za a bi a nazarci zube su ne kamar haka:

-         Tubalan gini (tatsuniya ko almarah)

-         Tasiri

-         Masu yi

-         Lokaci da wuri

-         Zubi da tsari

-         Jigo da warwararsa

-         Hikimomin da ke ciki

-         Salon sarrafawa

3) Farfesa Sa’idu Muhammad Gusau

          Wannan ma shehin malami ne ya yi aikace-aikace da dama a harshen Hausa. Ya kawo hanyoyin da yake ganin za a nazarci zube kamar haka:

-         Ma’anar abin (tatsuniya/kissa)

-         Asalin abin ma’anar abin (tushensa)

-         Masu yin

-         Lokaci

-         Tubalan gini

-         Wurare da kayayyaki

-         Nau’in abin nazarin (nau’in tatsuniyar)

-         Zubi da tsari

-         Salo na kwaikwayo

-         Dangogin adabin baka (M.S. karin magana, habaici) d.s.

-         Jigo

Haka zalika wannan masanin ya ƙara kawo hanyar da za a nazarci waƙar baka. Amma a nazarinsa ya fi ba da ƙarfi a kan masu tafiya da kiɗa. Bayan ka gama sauraren waƙar ya ce ga abubuwan da za ka yi nazarin a kansu:

1)    Gabatarwa:

·        Salsalar waƙar

·        Shekarar waƙar da na mawaƙin da lokacin waƙar

·        Ɗiyar waƙar (ɗangon waƙar)

·        Nasabar makaɗi (tarihinsa)

·        Nasabar wanda aka yi wa waƙar

2)    Turke

·        Muhallin turke

·        Taƙaita turke

·        Warwara da tsattsafe turke

·        Tubalan gina turke

3)    Awon baka

·        Yawan layuka na waƙar

·        Zubin layuka na waƙar

·        Zubin waƙar

·        Tsarin waƙar

·        Rera ɗa kawai

·        Ta’aƙili

·        Karin murya

4)    Salon sarrafa harshe:

·        Salo na gaba ɗaya

·        Adon harshe

·        Kamantawa/tamka

·        Siffantawa / kwalliya

·        Alamtarwa

·        Ƙarangiya / gagara gwani

5)    Aiwatar da harshe (Nahawun waƙar)

·        Zaɓen kalmomi

6)    Karin harshen

7)    Tsarin jimlar waƙar

8)    Rataye

4) Farfesa Abdulƙadir Ɗangambo

          Wannan ma wani shehin malami ne a jami’ar Bayero dake Kano, ya yi rubuce-rubuce a ɓangarori da dama a Hausa. Ya kawo ra’ayinsa dangane da hanyar da za a bi a nazari rubutaccen zube na Hausa kamar haka:

-         Sharar fage

-         Tarihin mawallafi

-         Sharhi kan jigon labarin

-         Sharhi kan zubi da tsarin littafin

·        Na gaba-ɗaya

·        Na filla-filla

-         Sharhi kan salon littafin

·        Dabarun jawo hankali (ba-ɗoki, daga ɗaga hankali, hotuna d.s)

·        Dabarun sarrafa harshe (azancin magana, aron kalmomi, tsofaffin kalmomi, karin harshe, d.s.).

Haka zalika wannan masani ya ƙara kawo hanyar da ta fi dacewa a ganinsa wajen yin nazarin rubutacciyar waƙa. Ɗangambo ya kawo hanyoyin nazarin rubutacciyar waƙa, kamar haka:

1)    Bayanin sharar fage:

·        Diddigi/salsalar waƙar

·        Shekarar wallafa waƙar             hanyar ramzi

Abubuwan tarihin waƙar

2)    Jigon waƙar da warwararsa

·        Furucin gundarin jigon / ƙwayar jigo

·        Jigo a gajarce

·        Warwarar jigo

3)    Zubi da tsari

·        Na gaba-ɗaya

·        Na cikin baitoci

·        Yawan baitoci da ɗango a waƙar

·        Karin waƙar (Aruli)

·        Amsa-amo/ƙafiya

4)    Salo da sarrafa harshe

·        Salon marubucin na gaba ɗaya (sauƙi, ƙaƙale, daɗi, karashi, sabon salo ko tsohon salo ne d.s.)

·        Dabarun salon sarrafawa

- Kwatantawa

* Kamantawa, siffantawa, jinsintarwa, dabbantarwa, abuntawa d.s.

* Kambamar zulaƙe, jerin sarƙen daidaito, ƙaranginya, kalmomin fannu, zubi mai jan rai/ɗaga hankali, gangara, saɓi-zarce, jinkirin faɗar sakamako d.s.

5)    Sarrafa harshe (Nahawu)

·        Amfani da kalmomi

-         Zaɓen kalmomi

-         Baƙin kalmomi/aron su

-         Tsofaffi, sabbi d.s.

-         Dangantakar kalmomi da junansu, d.s.

·        Tsarin jumloli

·        Ginin ƙirar kalma

·        Sauran abubuwan da suka shafi nahawu

6)    Jawabin kammalawa

5) Farfesa Isah Muktar

          Wannan ma wani shehun malami a wannan fage ya kawo hanyoyi da mai nazarin ƙagaggun lbari zai bi ya yi takensa. Hanyoyin da wannan masanin ya kawo su ne kamar haka:

1)    Dabarun bayar da labari:

·        Yanaye-yanayen ruwaito labari

·        Bayar da labari daga bayan fage

·        Bayar da labari daga cikin fage

2)    Magana a cikin labari

·        Bayar da labari cikin kwaikwayo

·        Taɗi a cikin labari

3)    Muryar mawallafi

·        Sharhin mawallafi

·        Kawaicin mawallafi

·        Nuna ra’ayi a cikin labari

4)    Kanun zantuka a cikin labari

·        Tattalin zance a cikin labari

·        Ƙulle zaren labari

·        Kwance ƙullin labari

5)    Nisa a cikin labari

·        Nisa tsakanin mai karatu da mawallafi

·        Nisa tsakanin mawallafi da taurarin labari

·        Nisa tsakanin taurarin

·        Nisa tsakanin mai bayar da labari daga cikin fage da bayan fage

6)    Amfani da lokaci

·        Lokacin cikin labarin

·        Saɓanin lokaci

·        Zamani

·        Auna saurin labarin marubuci

7)    Bayyana hoton gurbi

·        Amfanin bayyana hoto cikin gurbi

·        Illolin amfani da taɗi a cikin labari

8)    Zaɓen kalmomi

·        Nagartar kalmomi

·        Tsawon jumloli

·        Nau’o’in jumloli

9)    Jumlar aruli

Baya ga waɗannan akwai matarkan Hausa da dama irin su:

-         Farfesa Abdullahi Bayero Yahaya Sakkwato

-         Malam Muhammad Sani Ibrahim Kano

-         Malam Salisu Alhaji Sadi-Gusau

-         Alhaji Mudi Sipikin – Kano da kuma

-         Malam Muh’d Balarabe Umar Kano d.s.

A taƙaice waɗannan su ne misalan matarkan adabin Hausa da irin hanyoyin tarken da suka kawo wajen tarken adabin Hausar.

          Yawancin matarka a yanzu sun fi yin amfani da ra’ayoyi ko mazahabobin adabi wajen gudanar da tarkensu. Kuma wannan bai sa sun sami yawan saɓani ba ko rikici a tsakaninsu.

          Kuwa dai yana zaɓar hanyar da yake amfani da ita wadda ta dace da irin tunaninsa da yanayi ko salo ko zamanin da yake ciki.

          Saboda haka, akan sami matarkan adabin baka ko adabin zamani masu amfani da tarken gargajiya da na zamani. A na zamani ma akan sami na ra’ayi ko aƙida ko mazahabar tarken adabi, waɗanda suke yin tarke da su kan fannonin da suke sha’awa. Wasu na karkata a kan rubuce-rubucen mata ko na Adabin Kasuwar Kano (AKK) ko na rubutattun waƙoƙin Hausa ko na sauran sassan adabi da dama, kamar fina-finai da waƙoƙin baka ko wasan kwaikwayo d.s. Hasali ma, babu wani fagen adabin da ba a yin tarkensa a adabin Hausa a yanzu. Wannan ya samar da matarkan tarihi da na zamantakewa da na jinsi da na tubarkalla da na Markisanci d.s.

          Don haka, a bisa bayanan da suka gabata ana iya cewa a yanzu dai tarken adabin Hausa yana da hanyoyi da dama da ake gabatar da shi. Kuma ana samun hanyoyi tsayayyu na gudanar da shi ta yadda ya kasance daidai da takwarorinsa na duniya ta fuskar aiwatar da shi da hanyoyin tarke na zamani.

Madogara

Tuntuɓi masu gudanarwa.

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