Hausa Language Academic Website

Friday, 16 March 2018

Sigogin Kumbura A K’irar Kalmomin Hausa (4)

 

 

NA


 


MUSA SULEIMAN


08061256096


Musasuleiman424@gmail.com


 


 


KUNDIN BINCIKE NA SHAIDAR KAMMALA KARATUN DIGIRIN FARKO (B.A HAUSA), DA AKA GABATAR A SASHEN NAZARIN HARSUNAN NIJERIYA, JAMI’AR USMANU ‘DANFODIYO SAKKWATO.


 


https://www.amsoshi.com/game-da-mu/

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/tuntubi-masu-gudanarwa/

 

 




 

BABI NA UKU: SIGOGIN KUMBURA


3.0     Shimfid’a


Wannan babin ya k’unshi shimfid’a wadda za ta yi bayanin abin da babin ya d’auko a tak’aice. Babin yana d’auke da ma’anar kumbura, nau’o’in kumbura wanda ya had’a da k’aramar kumbura wadda ke nuna jinsi da kuma adadi, tare da babbar kumbura wadda ta k’unshi kumbura wadda ke nuna jituwa zahiri da ta bad’ini da jagoranci tare da nad’e wannan babin a tak’aice.

3.1     MA’ANAR KUMBURA


A al’adance idan aka ce kumbura ana nufin samun wani abu ya canza siga ko fasali ko kuma ya huru. Ina ganin wannnan ne ya ba manazarta damar da suka rad’a wa ‘bangaren wannan sunan. Saboda sauya ma’ana da fasali da kalma ke yi zuwa aji daban-daban.

A fagen nazarin kumbura wani ‘bangare ne daga cikin manyan ‘bangarorin nazarin k’irar kalma wanda ke nazarin yanda kalma ke kumbura ta sauya kama saboda dalilai na nahawu tare da nuna jinsi da adadi a cikin kalma ko jimla.

Baya ga ma’anar da aka bayyana yana da kyau a kawo ra’ayoyin masana da manazarta a kan ma’anar kumbura.

Fagge (2004): Ya bayyana kumbura da cewa: “Reshe ne na k’irar kalma da ya shafi yadda za a d’afa wa saiwar kalma wani abu, domin fad’ad’a kalmar.

Muhammad (2011) yana ganin kumbura, “‘bangare ne na nazarin k’irar kalma mai bayanin yadda harshe ke samar da wasu  kalmomi da a za a ce ba sababbi ba ne.”

Sani (2004): A cikin alfiyyarsa ta d’aya, yana cewa a baitoci na:

838: Kamaar yadda anka fad’a ma da d’a,

Akwai ‘kumburi’ nan wajen nazari.

840: kalma tana kumbura daga sai,

Wa babu shakka a kwai tabbaci.

841: Illa kawai wagga kalma ka san,

Ba sabuwa ba a wannan wuri.

Baya ga wad’annan masana irinsu: Schuh (1991:14,20) da Sha’aibu (1991:65) da Newman (2000:56,78) da Jaggar (2001:91,93) da Abubakar (2001:40) da Yar’adua (2004:20, 25) da Mu’azu da Balami (2010:25, 33) da Akmajian da Demers da Farmer da Hamish (2010:54) da Amfani (2007) . Duk suna da wannan ra’ayin.

Saboda haka, za a iya cewa; Kumbura wani ‘bangare ne daga cikin rassan nazarin k’irar kalma wanda ya shafi yadda kalma ke kumbura,a cikin harshe ta hanyar yi wa saiwar kalma d’ofane ko k’arin sauti, su ba da jinsi da adadi a cikin kalma ko jimla da sauransu.

Misali

Kalma                    d’afi                                kumbura

Fari                                          {-are}              =                      farare

Bak’i                                       {-ak’e}                        =                      bak’ak’e

Wad’annan bayanai da misalai aka bayar game da kalmomin da suka kumbura, za su iya nuna cewa, kalma idan ta kumbura ma’anarta ba ta saiyawa sai dai ta nuna adadi da jinsi a cikin kalma ko jimla.

 

3.2     NAU’O’IN KUMBURA


Masana da manazarta harshen Hausa sun kasa kumburar kalmomin Hausa gida biyu.

  • K’aramar kumbura

  • Babbar kumbura[1]


3.2.1   K’ARAMAR KUMBURA (inherent inflection)


Masana da dama sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu a kan ma’ana k’aramar kumbura.

“Is a kind of inflection that is not rek’uired by the syntactic conted’t, although it may ha’be syntactic rele’bance”. (Booij 1994)

Wani nau’i ne na kumbura wanda ba ginin jimla ke samar shi ba duk da yake tana da muhimmanci wajen ginin jimla”. (fassarar mai bincike)

Duk da haka, za a iya cewa:k’aramar kumbura a koda yaushe nau’i ne na kumbura da yake faruwa a cikin kalma ta hanyar nuna jinsi da adadi.

Ganin haka, za a d’auke su daki-daki a yi amfani da irin k’wayoyin kalma da ake d’afawa saiwar kalma a samu saiwar jinsi da adadi da giredi sa kuma suna d’an aikatau.

3.2.1.1 JINSI: (Gender)


Masana  da dama sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu a kan jinsi.

Jinju (1980:12): Ya bayyana cewa, “jinsi shi ne iri na mutane ko wad’ansu bambanta su ita ce wasulan k’arshen sunayensu. Ya bayyana cewa, k’wayar kalma ta ‘a’ kad’ai ke bayyana jinsi mace ga kalmomin sauran kuma duk suna nuna jinsin namiji”.

David crystal, (1980:206): “A grammatical category used for the analysis of the word classes displaying such contrast as masculine (m, masc, MASC), feminine (f, F, FEM) and neuter (n, neut, NEUT), animate and inanimate.”

Wani ‘bangare ne na nahawu wanda ke bayanin yadda kalma take rabuwa ta nuna jinsin namiji da jinsin mace da kuma wadda ke d’aukar maza da mata ko abu mai rai ko maras rai. (fassarar mai bincike).

Matthews (1997:154):Grammatical category dividing noun into classes basically characterizable to sed’.The di’bision is therefore between masculine (characterized by noun denoting males) and female (characterized by noun denoting female),with neuter as the term for a third class to categories of noun class generally”.

“Wani ‘bangare ne na nahawu wanda yake rarrabe suna zuwa nau’i-nau’i na jinsi. Rabe-raben an yi shi tsakanin suna wanda ya shafi maza da kuma suna wanda ya shafi mata  da kuma nau’in jinsi wanda ke ‘baukar maza da mata gaba daya.”. (fassarar mai bincike).

‘Yar’aduwa (2004:20): ya k’ira jinsi da cewa wata “Hanya ce ta yin amfani da d’afi wajen mayar da Kalmar namiji zuwa mace”.

Saboda haka,za a iya cewa: jinsi a ko da yaushe aikinsa shi ne ya bambanta nau’in halitta tsakanin namiji da mace. Saboda haka za a iya amfani da hanyoyi daban-daban da k’wayoyin kalma ke amfani da su wajen sauya jinsi namiji zuwa mace ko mace zuwa namiji.

Misali

Idan aka yi amfani da k’wayar Kalmar {-anya} ga tushen kalmar suna, za a samar da jinsin mace daga jinsin namiji daga kalmar.

Misali

Jinsin namiji            sauwa                    d’afi                      jinsin mace

Boka                                        bok-                             {-anya}           =          bokanya

Zaki     SSS                             zak-                             {-anya}           =          zakanya

Haka kuma idan aka lik’a k’wayar ma’ana ta {-uwa}, ga wata tushen kalmar sifa, a nan ma Kalmar za ta kumbura ta koma jinsin mace daga jinsin namiji.

Misali

Jinsin namiji            sauwa                    d’afi                      jinsin mace

Gajere                          gajer-               {-uwa} =          gajeruwa

Tsoho                                      tsoh-                            {-uwa} =          tsohuwa

Haka kuma, idan aka lik’a wa kalma k’wayar ma’ana {-inya} ko {-iya}, ita ma za ta kumbura ta koma jinsin mace daga jinsin namiji.

Misali

Jinsin namiji            saiwa                     d’afi                      jinsin mace

Yaro                                        yar-                              {-inya}            =          yarinya

Gajere                          gajer-                           {-iya}              =          gajeriya

Baya ga wannan hanya kuma, akwai wata hanya wadda ta bambanta da wannan wadda ta gabata. Ita wannan hanya ba a amfani da d’ofane ga saiwar Kalmar wani abu domin ta tashi daga jinsin namiji zuwa mace a dalilin kumbura, kuma irin wad’annan kai-tsaye suke fitowa daga rumbun harshen Hausa.

Misali

Jinsin namiji                                                  jinsin mace

Bunsuru                                                                                   akuya

Doki                                                                                        god’iya

Rak’umi                                                                                  taguwa

Rago                                                                                        tunkiya

(Muhammad 2012:9)

3.2.1.2 GIREDI


       Giredi shi ne samuwar wasalin karshe da Karin sauti da kuma ma ana.Had’uwar Wad’annan mizanan shi ya haifar da samuwar giredin aikatan Hausa.

Amfani (2005) ya yi bayani kan giredi. Don haka aka d’auko bayanin baki d’aya:”Duk cikin ababen nahawun Hausa, babu wani sha’ani mai ban sha’awa da kuma burge manazarci irin tsarin giredin aikatan Hausa (Hausa ‘berbal grade system). Wani shahararren masanin nahawun Hausa mai suna F.W. Persons (1960) ne ya fara lura da wannan lamari na giredin aikatan Hausa. Ya yi cikakken bayani a wata mak’ala da ya buga a (1960). Daga baya ya yi wasu rubuce-rubuce masu yin bayani game da giredin aikatan Hausa “.

Bugu da k’ari, Amfani (2005) ya ci gaba da cewa: Masana masu nazarin nahawun Hausa sun yi ta rubuce-rubuce suna nuna irin fahimtarsu game da giredin aikaton Hausa. Masana irin su Persons (1960) Newman (1973), Leben and Bagari (1975) da Amfani (2007): Sun lura da cewa, a Hausa akwai aikatau iri biyu masu bin tsarin giredi ( regular ‘berbs) da marasa bin tsarin giredi (irregular ‘berbs). Su wad’annan aikatau masu bin tsarin giredi su ake kira da sha-rinjayen aikatau. Dalilin kiransu da sha-rinjayen aikatau shi ne domin su ne suka fi yawa k’warai a cikin Kason aikatan Hausa.sha-rinjayen aikatau aikatau ne wanda ke da tushe sannan da wasalin k’arshe. Abin da ake nufi shi ne yana da tushe daban da wasalin k’arshe daban, amma kuma wannan yana da ta shi ma’ana irin ta nahawu.wannan aikatan sha-rinjaye shi yake bin tsarin giredi.

Amfani (2005) ya ci gaba da cewa: Tsarin giredi shi ne tsarin da ya nuna cewa aikatau yana da sassa biyu, tushen aikatau da wasalin k’arshe. Bayan wannan kuma kamar yadda muka sani harshen Hausa yana da tsarin Karin sauti. Kowane sha-rinjayen aikatau na da tsarin karin sauti. Wato dai wasalin k’arshe na kowace kalma sha-rinjayen aikatau da tsarin karin sauti da ma’ana su suka had’u suka yi giredin aikatan Hausa.

Person (1960) ya raba aikatan Hausa zuwa gida biyu:

  • Sha-rinjaye (regular ‘berbs) wannan shi ne aikatau wad’anda suke hawa tsarin giredin aikaton Hausa. Misali


Saya, kama, harba, d’afa, k’irga, shak’a, ‘barza, hanga, nuk’a, ru’ba, bizne, tace, ‘bullo, farfad’o, auku, turko da sauransu.

Duk wad’annan suna hawa giredin aikatan Hausa.

  • K’i-rinjaye (irregular ‘berb) wannan nau’in aikatau su ne wad’anda ba su hawa giredin aikatan Hausa. Misali:


Sha, ci, yi, zo da makamantansu.

Haka kuma, ya bayyana cewa kowace kalmar aikatau ya k’unshi manyan ‘bangarori guda biyu. Wato tushe da wasalin k’arshe, wanda ya k’ira su da suna Bi-morphemic Theory of The Hausa ‘Berbshaka kuma ya yi taswirarsu kamar haka:

 

 

 

 

Aikatau

 

Tushe                                                                          wasalin k’arshe

Kaam                                                                           a

Káamà                   Amfani(2005)

Giredi 1:- a/aa sama/k’asa (s/k’).

Masu d’aukar maf’uli (transti’be bases)

Kaam – Audu ya a káamà [Ø].

Audu ya a káamà [shi].

Audu ya a káamà [zomo].

Audu ya a káamà [wa yara] zomo.

Maras d’aukar maf’uli (intransiti’be bases).

Gas – Audu yaa gásaà [Ø].

Audu ya a gásaà [ta].

Audu ya a gásà [masara].

Audu ya a gásaà [wa yara] [masara].

Giredi 2 :- aa/-i/ -ee k’asa/sama (k’/s).

Masu d’aukar maf’uli kad’ai (transti’be only).

say – Audu ya a sàyaá [Ø ].

Audu ya a sàyeé[shi].

Audu ya a sàyí [gida].

Audu yaa sàyaá [wa ladi] [gida].

giredi 3 :- aa /-i/ -ee k’asa/sama (k’/s).

Marasa d’aukar kar’bau (Unaccusati’be bases).

Mangwaro ya a bùrá.

Gwanda ta a nùná.

Giredi 4 : -e / -ee sama/k’asa (s/k’).

Masu d’aukar maf’uli (transti’be bases).

Bizn – Audu ya a bíznè [Ø].

Audu ya a bíznè [kud’i].

Audu ya a bíznè [su].

Maras d’aukar maf’uli (intransiti’be bases).

Kauc – Audu ya a káuceè.

Masoya sun ‘bá’beè.

Giredi 5:- ar/ar da sama/sama (s/s).

Masu d’aukar maf’uli (transti’be bases).

Baay – Audu ya a báayár da [kud’i].

Audu ya a báyár da [shi].

Audu ya a báayár [Ø].

Audu ya a báayár [wa yara] [kud’i].

Giredi 6 :- oo sama/sama (s/s).

Masu d’aukar maf’uli (transti’be bases).

‘Bull – Wata ya a ‘búlló.

Farfad’ – Audu ya a fárfád’ó.

Maras d’aukar maf’uli (intransiti’be bases).

Aur – Audu ya a áuroó [maataa].

Audu ya a tárkoó [rigima].

Giredi 7:- u k’asa/sama (k’/s).

Marasa d’aukar kar’bau(Unaccusati’be bases).

Zak’ – Audu ya a zàk’ú.

Auk – Masifa ta a àukú.

3.2.1.3. SUNA D’AN AIKATAU

Wannan nau’in suna ne wanda yake samuwa daga jikin tushen Kalmar aikatau. Daga nan sai a samu sabuwaar Kalmar suna. Ana samun wannan sabuwar kalma ta hanyar yi wa tushen Kalmar aikatau d’afi na d’afa-k’eya na k’wayar kalma ta {-wa} ko {-au} ko {-yau}.

Misali

Kalma aikatau                             d’afi                      Kalmar suna

Kaama                                     {-wa}              =          kaamawa

Dafa                                                    {-wa}              =          dafawa

Cire                                                     {-wa}              =          cirewa

Haka idan aka yi d’afi na d’afa k’eya a tushen Kalmar aikatau na {-au} ko {-yau} za a samu Kalmar suna.

Misali

Mant - + {-au} = mantau

Sha - + {-yau} = shayau

Girk -+{-au} = girkau

Ja - + {-yau}  = jayau[2]

3.2.1.4 ADADI (Number)


Masana sun bayyana ra’ayinsu a kan ma’anar adadi,ga abin da wasu suka ce:

David Crystal, (1980:335). “A grammatical category used for the analysis of  word classes displying  as contrast as singular (sg, SG, Sing) plural (pl, PL) dual (du) (two) trial (three) poucal (few)”.

Wani ‘bangare ne na nahawu wnda ke bayanin yadda kalma ke sauyawa ta nuna tilo ko jam’i.” (fassarar mai bincike).

Jinju (1980:18): “Ya bayyana cewa, Adadi shi ne yawa. Idan abin da muke ambata d’aya tak ne,to za a ce sunansa mufuradi ne. idan kuma fiye da guda ne sai mu ce sunansa jam’i.”

Matthews (1997:271): “Inflectional category basically distinguish reference to one indi’bidual from reference to more than one. The simplest distinction is between singular (one) and plural (any number larger than one).”

“Wani ‘bangare ne na kumbura wanda yake bambance sashe na abu d’aya da kuma sashen abu da yawa. A tak’aice dai, bambanci ne tsakanin tilo da jam’i.” (fassarar mai bincike).

Dangane da haka, za a iya cewa; adadi kalma ce mai nuna yawan abu. A nazarce adadi na nufin kalma, kodai ta zama tilo ko kuma jam’I. kamar takwararta na jinsi, shi ma ana sarrafa k’wayoyin kalma ne wajen nuna yadda kalma ke sauyawa daga tilo ta koma jam’i. Haka kuma, mafi yawancin kalmomin da suka kumbura suna nuna adadi, suna amfani ne da d’afa-k’eya.

Misali;

Idan aka yi d’afa-k’eya a k’wayar kalma ta {-uka}, aka d’afa wa wata saiwar Kalmar suna, wannan kalmar za ta sauya daga tilo zuwa jam’i.

misali;

Tilo                                          d’afi                                jam’i

Rauni                                                   {-uka}             =                      raunuka

Tsauni                                     {-uka}             =                      tsaunuka

Kwano                                    {-uka}             =                      kwanuka

K’auye                                    {-uka}             =                      k’auyuka

Launi                                                   {-uka}             =                      launuka

                                                                   (Fagge 2013:86)

Haka kuma idan aka yi d’afa-k’eya da k’wayar kalma ta {-u}, ga wasu tushen kalmomin suna, kalmomin za su tashi daga tilo zuwa jam’i.

Misali:

Tilo                                d’afi                                jam’i

Maye                                       {-u}                 =                      mayu

Fitila                                        {-u}                 =                      fitilu

Rigima                         {-u}                 =                      rigimu

Wasiwa                                   {-u}                 =                      wasik’u

Kafad’a                                   {-u}                 =                      kafad’u

(Fagge 2013:87)

Idan dogon wasalin {-ii} ya biyo dab da saiwar tushen wata kalma, nan take za ta sauya daga tilo zuwa jam’i.

Misali:

Tilo                       saiwa                     d’afi                                jam’i

K’waro                        k’war-                          {-ii}                 =                      k’warii

Fara                             far-                               {-ii}                 =                      farii

Tauraro                        taurar-              {-ii}                 =                      taurarii

Zabo                            zab-                             {-ii}                 =                      zabii

Bak’o                          bak’-                            {-ii}                 =                      bak’i

(Fagge 2012:30/13:18)

Akwai kuma wasu saiyoyin da idan k’wayar kalma ta {-ai}, ta biyo bayansu za su kumbura su koma jam’i.

Misali:

Tilo                       saiwa                     d’afi                                jam’i

D’alibi                         d’alib-                          {-ai}                =                      d’alibai

Biri                              bir-                               {-ai}                =                      birrai

Jaki                              jak-                              {-ai}                =                      jakai

Mataki             matak-             {-ai}                =                      matakai

Tsiro                            tsir-                              {-ai}                =                      tsirrai

(Fagge 2013:78)

Wad’annan bayanai da ke sama da aka gabatar suna k’ok’arin nuna cewa ana iya amfani da hanyoyi daban-daban wajen kumbura kalma ta tashi daga tilo zuwa jam’i.

3.2.2 BABBAR KUMBURA (conted’tual inflection)


Masana kimiyyar harshe sun tofa ta bakinsu a kan ma’anar babbar kumbura.Ga abin da suke cewa:

Is a kind of inflection that is ditacted by syntad’, such as person and number markers and ‘berb that agree with subject and/or objects, agreement makers for adjecti’be and structural case makers on nouns.” (Booij 1994).

Wata nau’in kumbura ce wadda ta shafi ginin jimla, kamar mutum, adadi da aiki da kuma jituwarsa da suna aikau da kuma kar’bau da kuma yarjejeniyar da ke tsakanin sifa da suna. (Fassarar mai bincike).

3.2.2.1 JITUWA (Agreement).


Masana sun yi k’ok’arin tofa albarkacin bakinsu a kan jituwa,ga abin da wasu suke cewa:

Matthews, (1997:13). “Syntatic relation between words and phrases which are compatible, in gi’ben construction. By ‘birtue of inflection carried by atleast one of them.”

“wata jituwa ce da ake samu a tsakanin kalmomi, inda wata kalma d’aya take d’aukar wata siga ta kumbura yayin ginin jimla”. (fassarar mai bincike).

“Agreement is a form of cross-reference between different parts of a sentence or phrase, it occur when a word change it form as a function of other words it relates. The agreement based on o’bert grammartical change. Eg. Subject-’berb agreement, gender agreement, collecti’be noun agreement”. Deutch and Dank (2009),Acuna Farina (2009), and Molinaro and Job (2011).

“Jituwa nau’in babbar kumbura ce wanda ke nuna dangantakar da ke tsakanin wasu sassan jimla ko yankin jimla. Wannan yana faruwa lokacin da kalma ta sauya siga ta d’auki sigar wata kalma da suke da dangantaka da ita a cikin jimla. A nahawunce wannan jituwa a bayyane take. Misali, dangantakar suna da aiki da jinsi da kuma suna tattarau”. (fassarar mai bincike).

A tak’aice dai za a iya cewa, nau’i ne na babbar kumbura da ke nuna jituwar da ke tsakanin kalmomi, ana amfani da kalmomin dirka domin su nuna wannan yarjejeniya ta fuskar jinsi da adadi.

Misali:

Ce  =  Ana amfani da ita a kan mace.

Ne  =  Ana amfani da ita a kan namiji.

Ne  =  Tana nuna jam’i.

Misali:

  1. Sani ne                                 ba                *San ice ba.

  2. Amina ce                  ba                    *Amina ne ba.

  3. Mutane ne               ba                *Mutane ce ba

  4. Mu ne                                 ba                 *Mu ce ba.

  5. Ita ce                                  ba                   *Ita ne ba.

  6. Su ne                                   ba                   *su ce ba

  7. Musa ne                ba                    *Musa ce ba.

  8. Rabi’a ce                            ba                      *Rabi’a ne ba.


 

 

 

  1. Bunsuru ne              ba                   *Bunsuru ce ba.

  2. D’alibai ne              ba                    *D’alibai ce ba.


Dangane da haka, wannan yarjejeniya ita ce ke nuna jituwa a tsakanin wad’annan kalmomin dirka.

3.2.2.1.1 JITUWA TA ZAHIRI

          Wannan nau’in babbar kumbura ce da ke nuna dangantakar da ke tsakanin kalmomi a cikin jimla ta fuskar had’a siffofi iri d’aya.

Misali:

  • Audu ya        a         kama


NP                   agr       tnsasp    ‘B                  NP

+m                +m          +m

+s               +s  +s

 

 

 

 

  • Ali ya        a          tafi


NP                   agr       tnsasp ‘B                     NP

+m              +m     +m

+s                    +s     +s

 

  • D’alibai su                     n                      dawo


NP                   agr                   trn asp ‘B                    NP

[+pl]                [+pl]                [+pl]

Dangane da haka, za a ga duk wad’annan kalmomi da ke ajin jimlolin suna da dangantaka, haka duk sun had’a siffofi iri d’aya.

 

3.2.2.1.2 JITUWA TA BAD’INI


Wannan nau’i ne na babbar kumbura wanda ke nuna kusanci da ake samu a tsakanin kalmomi a cikin jimla.

Misali:

  • Yara su      n     tafi


 

 

  • D’alibai su     na       karanta      jarida


 

 

  • Aliyu ya     a       tafi


 

A nan za a iya gano alak’a da ke tsakanin kalmomin da ke cikin wad’annan jimloli. A jimla ta farko. [yara] suna ne jam’i don haka dole ya kasance suna da alak’a da mafayyaciya wato [su], [na] kuma lamiri ne mai ci shi ma yana da alak’a da [tafi], ita ma aikatau [tafi] suna da alak’a da maf’ulin jimlar wato makaranta. Haka kuma duk wannan jituwa ta faru a sauran jimlolin.

3.2.2.2 JAGORANCI (Go’berning)


Masana kimiyyar harshe sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu a kan ma’anar jagoranci. Ga abin da wasu ke cewa:

Da’bid Crystal, (1980:214): “A term used in grammatical analysis to refer to a process of syntactic linkage whereby one word (or word-class) rek’uires a specific morphological form of another word (or class)”.

            “Wani ‘bangare ne wanda yake aiki irin na nahawu wanda ke bayyana yadda kalma d’aya a cikin jimla ke jagorantar kalmomi ta hanyar d’aukar wasu sigogi na k’irar kalma”.(fassarar mai bincike).

Wannan nau’in babbar kumbura ce wadda ke nuna yarjejeniyar da ake a tsakanin kalmomi a cikin jimla. Wannan yarjejeniyar tana a tsakanin suna da mafayyaciya da tak’i da aiki da kuma maf’uli a cikin jimla.

Misali:

  1. [Ali] [ya  a]              [sayi]               [mota].


 

  1. [Audu] [ya  a]     [karanta]          [jarida].


 

  1. [D’alibai] [su  n]     [ci]   [jarabawa].


 

  1. [Binta] [ta a]               [sayi]               [awarwaro].


 

  1. [Yara] [su  n]          [dawo]            [gida]


 

 

Dangane da wad’annan jimloli idan muka d’auki jimla ta farko, za a iya k’yallaro alak’a da ke tsakanin [Ali] da [ya], sai kuma tsakanin lamirin shud’ad’d’en lokaci [a] da aikatau [sayi] da k’wayar kalma ta giredi [i] da maf’ulin jimlar wato [mota]. Duk haka wannan abun ya faru ga sauran jimlolin. (Muhammad 2013:6)

3.4     NA’DEWA


Wannan babin ya yi bayani a kan ma’anar kumbura da nau’o’inta, wanda ya had’a da k’aramar kumbura da kuma babbar kumbura, tare da fito da wasu bayanai a kansu.

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/contact-us/

 

[1] Dubi Muhammad A.I. (2012) Tasarifin Hausa a Alfiyar Mu’azu Sani: “Tak’aitaccen Sharhi Daga Taskar Ilmin Harshe”.shi ya kira su babbar kumbura da k’aramar kumbura

[2] Dubi Fagge (2012) Hausa Language and Linguestics

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