Hausa Language Academic Website

Wednesday, 7 March 2018

Sigogin Kumbura A K’irar Kalmomin Hausa (3)

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MUSA SULEIMAN


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KUNDIN BINCIKE NA SHAIDAR KAMMALA KARATUN DIGIRIN FARKO (B.A HAUSA), DA AKA GABATAR A SASHEN NAZARIN HARSUNAN NIJERIYA, JAMI’AR USMANU ‘DANFODIYO SAKKWATO.


 

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BABI NA BIYU: NAZARIN K’IRAR KALMA


2.0 Shimfid’a


Babi na biyu, wannan babi an kasa shi zuwa manyan ‘bangarori guda biyu. A ‘bangare na farko babin zai k’unshi ma’anar k’irar kalma da rassan nazarin k’irar kalma da alak’arsu da kumbura. A ‘bangare na biyu, babin ya k’unshi hanyoyin nazarin k’irar kalma, da fasalin k’irar kalma: Jiya da yau. Sannan a biyo baya da nad’ewa.

2.1 MA’ANAR K’IRAR KALMA 


Newman(1997:175) ‘tasarifi’.Hausa Metalanguage(1990:33) ‘ilimin k’wayoyin ma’ana’ ‘morphology’. Wannan kad’an ke nan daga cikin sunayen da ake kiran wannan fage kenan a Turance. Wato ke nan wani ‘bangare ne na nazarin harshe mai cin gashin kansa wanda ya shafi yadda harshe ke samar da sababbin kalmomi.

Spencer and Zwicky (2001:1) abin da su ka ce shine:

“K’irar kalma fage ne wanda ya yi arangama da fahimta dadan-daban wannan ba yana nufin fifita tasarifi bisa ga sauran ‘bangarorin nazarin harshe ba, kawai abin da ya kawo haka shi ne, ‘bangare ne wanda yake nazarin k’irar Kalmar tsantsa. Ita ko kalma a ko’ina take, tan kumshe da tsarin sautinta da fasalin da ta ke dauke da shi a cikin jimla da kuma ma’anarta”[1]

Masana irin su: Nida (1949), Katamba (1993), Abubakar (2001) Amfani(2000:139), Mathewes(1974), Sani(2011), Muhammad(2011) da Fagge (2013) duk suna da wannan ra’ayi.

A tak’aice dai za a iya cewa: k’irar kalma wani fage ne da ake nazarin yadda harshe yake samar da kalmomi, ta hanyar amfani da tushen kalma ko saiwar kalma da canza k’wayoyin ma’ana bisa k’a’idojin nahawun wannan harshe.

Haka kuma, idan muka waiwayi tarihin samuwar wannan fage, za a ga cewa; shi wannan ‘bangare na nazarin k’irar kalma:

“Fage ne da ya sha gwagwarmaya ta masana ilmin kimiyyar harshe daban-daban. Saboda tun farko wasu na ganin cewa, fage ne da ya kamata ya kasance cikin wani ‘bangare na nazarin ginin jimla da kuma wani ‘bangare na nazarin tsarin sauti”.[2]

Don haka akwai buk’atar a fahimci cewa akwai bambancin fahimtar ma’anar k’irar kalma tsakanin k’arni na 19-20, wato tun lokacin da aka fara k’ok’arin samar da wannan fage na k’irar kalma.

2.2 RASSAN NAZARIN K’IRAR KALMA


Masana da manazarta kimiyyar harshe sun yi sa’bani dangane da rassan nazarin k’irar kalma, wasu masana na ganin uku ne: tsira, kumbura da hard’antawa. Wasu kuma suna ganin biyu ne kawai, daga tsira sai kumbura. Ita hard’antawa na k’ark’ashin tsira ne. Masana harshen Hausa sun goyi bayan masu ganin rassan nazarin k’irar kalma guda uku ne.

Wannan bincike na ganin rassan nazarin k’irar kalma a Hausa biyu ne, da suka had’a da:

  • Tsira

  • Kumbura

  • Tsira: A hausance, idan aka tsira ana nufin fitowa ta tsiro daga cikin k’asa ko kuma wani abu ya samu daga wani abu. Yana iya kasancewa saboda wannan dalilin ne masana da manazarta kimiyyar harshen Hausa suka fassara kalmar da “tsira”. Yana iya yiwuwa dalilin amfani da ake da jikin wata kalma a tsirar da wata sabuwar kalma mai bambancin rukunin ajin nahawu. Masana da manazarta sun ba da gudummawa wajen ba da ma’anar tsirar kalma.


Sani (2011): A cikin littafinsa mai suna “Alfiyyar Mu’azu Sani littafi na d’aya”. Ya bayyana ma’anar tsira a cikin baiti na 769 da 771 da na 773. Inda yake cewa:

769: Farko tsaya in yi ma tambaya,

Abin da “tsira” ai na nan ke nufi.

771 :Tajabi a nan d’an’uwa ka kula,

Fitowar fa kalma a nan, ai ka ji.

773 :Wannan fa kalma da as sabuwa,

Da ban take d’ungum wajen rukuni[3]

Masana irin su Abubakar (2001), da Fagge (2004) da Muhammad (2004) duk sun yadda da wannan ra’ayi.a tak’aice za a iya cewa: Tsira wani ‘bangare ne daga cikin manyan ‘bangarorin k’irar kalma, wanda yake samar da sabuwar kalma jikin wata a dalilin yi mata d’afi a saiwar kalma, daga nan sai a samu wata kalma wadda ajin nahawunta ya bambanta da na kalmar asali da ta fito daga jikinta.

Daga ma’anar tsira da aka bayyana za a iya kallon tsira ta fuskoki guda biyu:

  • Tsirar aikatau

  • Tsirar suna


i – Tsirar aikatau

777- Mu fara da wannan a nan “aikatau”,

Yakan tsira ai daga saiwa ka ji.

 

778-Saiwa na suna” a wannan waje,

Ai ba musu akwai tabbaci.

Sani (2004)

Bisa ga wannan za a iya cewa tsirar aikatau tsira ce da ake samu, inda za a lik’a wa saiwar kalmar suna d’afi ya koma kalmar aikatau. Idan aka yi d’afa-k’eya a k’wayar kalma ta {-anta}, ga tushen kalmar suna kalmar za ta koma aikatau.

Misali:

Suna                      Saiwa                    D’afi                     Aikatau

Jaje                              jaj-                               {-anta} =                      jajanta

Gori                             gor-                              {-anta} =                      goranta

Dangi                          dang-                           {-anta} =                      danganta

Ana amfani da tushen kalmar suna maras jiki a tsirar kalmar aikatau, ta amfani da tsarin {aBa}, wato {wasali “a” da bak’i da wasalin “a”} irin wad’annan sunaye ba a ganinsu, sai dai a ji su a zuci. Misali:

Suna                                                   Aikatau

Sauk’i                          =                                  sauk’ak’a

K’arfi                           =                                  k’arfafa

Yauk’i                         =                                  yauk’ak’a

Sauyi                           =                                  sauyaya

Dad’i                           =                                  dad’ad’a

Haka kuma, ana amfani da kalmar sifa a yi mata d’afi na d’afa-k’eya a samu kalmar aikatau. Misali:

sifa                                                    aikatau

Girma                          =                                  girmama

Fari                              =                                  faranta

Kauri                           =                                  kauranta

Idan an lura za a ga suna da tsari d’aya da wad’anda suka gabata.

ii – Tsirar suna: Suna shi ne lafazin da ake kiran mutum da dabba da sauran wasu abubuwa. Haka kuma,ita ma wata hanya ce da ake nuna yadda harshen Hausa ke bi ya tsirar da kalmominsa. A nan za mu yi amfani da hanyoyin da suka had’a da:

Kalmar aikatau zuwa suna: Kalmomi suna iya tsira daga jikin Kalmar aikatau ta hanyoyi da dama. Akwai k’wayoyin ma’ana da dama wad’anda in aka had’a su da tushen wasu kalmomin aikatau, to za a samar da kalmomin aikatau. Misali

Aikatau                                      D’afi                     Suna

Fasa                                                     {-wa}              =          fasawa

Gina                                                    {-wa}              =          ginawa

Jefa                                                      {-wa}              =          jefawa

Shiga                                                   {-wa}              =          shigowa

Akan yi amfani da k’wayar kalma ta {-ma} a yi d’afa-goshi da ita ga tushen wasu kalmomin aikatau a tsirar kalmomin suna. Wannan k’wayar kalma ta [-ma] ana kiran ta “Agentivebe” a harshen Turanci. Kuma ita wannan k’wayar ma’ana ana yin d’afa goshinta ne a tushen Kalmar aikatau, daga nan sai ta samar da wata sabuwar kalma mai ajin nahawu na suna.[4]

  • D’afa goshi {-ma}

  • Idan jinsin namiji ne Kalmar na kasancewa da d’afa-goshin k’wayar kalma(2)

  • Idan jinsin mace ce tana k’arewa da k’wayar kalma ta {-iya}.

  • Idan kuma jam’i ne tana k’arewa da {-a}

  • Karin sauti kuma yana kasancewa kamar haka:



  1. Sama-k’asa-k’asa-k’asa-sama (s-k’-k’-k’-s) ga namiji.

  2. Sama-k’asa-k’asa (s-k’-k’) ga mace.

  3. K’asa-sama (k’-s) ga jam’i.


Bisa ga haka, za a dubi wasu hanyoyi domin nuna yadda wad’annan k’wayoyin kalma ke samar da sababbin kalmomin suna idan an d’afa kwayoyin kalma ga tushen kalmomin aikatau. Misali:

 

Tushen Aikatau                           D’afi                     Suna

Mafad’ata                                            {-ma}              =          mafad’ata

Gabata                                     {-ma}              =          magabata

Akan samu masu suna jinsin mace.

Mak’aryaciya

Mazinaciya

Wata kuma hanya ita ce, a harshen Hausa ana amfani da d’afa-goshi na k’wayar kalma {-ba} ko d’afa-k’eya {-wa} a tsira kalmar suna daga jikin wani nau’in suna. Irin wannan nau’in suna yana nuna ainihin wurin da mutum yake.[5] Ga yadda tsarin yake:

Ba+suna- saiwa/tushe, tilo=jam’i

Suna+tushe+wa, jam’i=adadi

Idan kuma tamace ce to za ta d’auki {iya}/{-uwa}= nuna jinsin mace.misali:

 

Tushe                    Saiwar  Suna                     Sunan Da Ya Tsira

Ba        +                      yahudu            =                      bayahude

Ba        +                      hausa                           =                      bahaushe

Ba        +                      turanci             =                      bature

Kalmar sifa ita ma ana amfani da tushenta a tsirar da kalmar tsira. Misali:

Sifa             Saiwa           D’afi            Suna

Tsagera            tsager-  {-anci}   =       tsageranci

Gurgu              gur-                  {-antaka}  =    gurguntaka

Bebe                beb-                 {-antaka} =     bebantaka

Dolo                dol-                  [-anci]     =      dolanci

Duk wad’annan bayanai da misalai na suna, sun bayyana abubuwa da suka shafi tsira na suna daga wani ajin rukuni.

ALAK’AR TSIRA DA KUMBURA

Alak’a na nufin samun wasu abubuwa guda biyu ko fiye da suka yi kama da juna ta kowace fuska ko d’abi’a ko kuma halayya.Kasancewar tsira da kumbura a matsayin rassan k’irar kalma, wannan ne ya sa dole a samu ‘bir’bishin dangantaka a tsakaninsu. A wannan ‘bangaren za a tattauna a kan alak’ar da ke tsakanin tsira da kumbura.

  • Aiki irin na nahawu: Tsira da kumbura dukansu, suna amfani da azuzuwan kalmomin harshen hausa da dama.


misali:

Kalma                             Tsira                      Kumbura

mutum                         mutunta (sifa)  =          mutane (suna)

bebe                                         bebenta (suna) =          bebaye (sifa)

fari                                           faranta (suna)  =          farare (sifa)

bak’i                                        bak’anta (suna)            =          bak’ak’e (sifa)

  • Dukansu suna amfani da d’afi: Mafi yawan kalmomin harshen Hausa suna cikin rukuni na nau’in turkakkiyar k’wayar kalma. Wannan ya sa ya zama wajibi tsira da kumbura na kalmomin harshen Hausa su yi amfani da d’ofane kafin su samar da kalma mai ma’ana. Misali:


Kalma                    Tsira                               Kumbura

Yaro                                        yaranta                         yara

Mugu                                       mugunta                                  mugaye

Dukkanin wuraren da aka ja wa layi a kalmomin da ke sama suna nuna irin d’afin da aka yi wa kalma. Wannan shi ya tabbatar da cewa tsira da kumbura suna amfani da d’afi a cikin kalmomi.

  • Tsira da kumbura suna amfani da Karin sauti domin samar da canji ga kalma ta asali[6]: A nan an riga an sani cewa, babban aikin karin sauti shi ne bambanta ma’anar kalmomi guda biyu masu kama da juna. Don haka da zarar karin sauti ya sauya a wata ga’bar kalma, nan take sigar Kalmar za ta sauya. Misali:


Tsira                                                  Aikatau

K’asa-sama                                                      sama-k’asa

Zùbá                                                                zúbà

Bùrgá                                                              búrgà

Kàmá                                                              kámà

A nan ma an ga yadda karin sauti ya sauya ma’anar kalma, daga suna ta koma aikatau, a dalilin canzawar karin sauti.

Kumbura

Ta amfani da karin sauti, aikatau d’an aji d’aya yana iya sauyawa ya zama d’an aji biyu[7]. Misali:

Aikatau d’an aji d’aya                                     aikatau d’an aji biyu

Jéefaà                                                              jèefaá

Mátsaà                                                            màtsaá

Áikà                                                                             Àiká

Yábaà                                                             yàbaá

Kumbura kalmar suna: Ana amfani da karin sauti wajen kumbura kalmar suna daga madugu zuwa bagire[8]. Misali:

Madugu                                                        Bagire

S.K’.K’.                                                                      S.S.S.

Mádùgú                                                                       mádúgú

Márhàbá                                                                     márhábá

Daga irin wad’annan misalai za a iya gane cewa tabbas akwai alak’a a tsakanin tsira da kumbura a kalmomin harshen Hausa.

2.3 HANYOYIN NAZARIN K’IRAR KALMA


Abin da ake nufi da hanyoyin nazarin k’irar kalma. Masana kimiyyar harshe, musamman masu nazarin k’irar kalma. Suna da hanyoyi daban-daban na gabatar da bayanansu na k’irar kalma, ga wasu daga ciki:

  • Wannan nazari ne wadda ya fi mai da hankali a kan k’wayar kalma, wato wannan salo ne na nazarin k’irar kalma da yadda ake jera ta a cikin kalma.

  • Wannan nazari ne wanda ya fi damuwa da mai da hankali,wajen k’ok’arin gano farkon kalma da tantance k’ari ko wani hali da ta shiga, sa’banin hanya ta farko, wato kamar tsira da kumbura,

  • Haka ma, ita ko wannan ta fi mai da hankali kan kalma, wato bayanin kalma bisa tsarin ajin kalmomi.

  • Bisa ga wannan hanyoyi guda uku, ya sa aka fahimci cewa, nazarin k’irar kalmomin Hausa an yi amfani da hanya ta uku. Wato d’ora nazarin a kan sikelin tsarin ajin kalma. Misalin wad’annan nazarce-nazarce sun had’a da: skinner (1977), Bagari (1986), Newman (2000), Fagge (1993,2004), Abubakar (2001) da Amfani (2007)[9]. Haka kuma idan ana Magana a kan yadda ake gina kalmomin Hausa, wato ta lura da k’wayoyi nawa ne a cikin kalma misali:

  • Kalmomi masu k’wayar kalma d’aya: A harshen Hausa akan samu kalma guda mai d’auke da k’wayar kalma guda d’aya kad’ai misali: sha, ci, bi, k’i, yi.

  • Kalmomi masu k’wayar kalma biyu. Misali:


Gida    =        {gid-}                +         {a}     = gida

Fara     =         {far-}          + {a}     = fara

Bak’i   =       {bak’-}               +          {a}     = bak’i

Hula    =      {hul-}                 +         {a}     = hula

  • Kalmomi masu k’wayar kalma uku. Misali:


Manomi           =         {ma-}           +           {-nom}    +           {i}    =     manomi.

Mak’eri            =         {ma-} +          {-k’er} +        {i}         =        mak’eri

Masak’i           =          {ma-}              +          {-sak’} +         {i}        =        masak’i

Haka kuma akan yi amfani da d’afi da hard’antawa domin k’era kalmomin harshen Hausa.

  • D’afi: D’afi wani ‘bangare ne na kalma wanda ba ya iya tsayawa da kansa sai dai ya jingina wata ko ya sauya kama, kuma yana da ma’ana ko akasin haka.


D’afi                                                                                   

 

D’afa Goshi                                Dafa Ciki                                   D’afa K’eya

Misali:

Bak’auye                                 gurgu = gur – a –gu (sifa)                               hausawa

Mak’eri                                    murhu = mur – a – hu (suna)              k’auyawa

Bature                          k’arfe = k’ar- a – fa (suna)                              kanawa

Mawak’i                                                                                                          kabawa

  • Hard’antawa: Shi ne had’a kalma biyu ko fiye don samar da sabuwar kalma. Misali:


Rufa – ido

A – kori – kura

Tuma – k’asa

Fasa – taro

Ta – zarce

Ta – ‘bare

Ta – watse

2.4 FASALIN NAZARIN K’IRAR KALMA: JIYA DA YAU     


Nazarin k’irar kalma tsohon nazari ne da ya d’auki lokaci mai tsawo ana gudanar da shi a duniya. Idan aka waiwayi tarihi an fara wannan nazarin tun lokacin da aka fara  rubutu a jikin bangon dutse,da ganyaye da fatoci, tsaga da jikin duma da dai sauransu[10]. Wannan ne ya nuna cewa nazarin ya yi kama da na k’irar kalma a yau. (Haspelmath 2002:1). Wannan ya nuna cewa, nazarin k’irar kalma matashin fage ne, saboda an zana sunansa a k’arni na 19, kuma dattijo ne domin ana nazarin harshe mai kama da shi , tun kafin zuwan Annabi Isah (A.S)[11].Haka nazarin ya ci gaba da bunk’asa har zuwa k’arni na 20, inda nazarin k’irar kalma ya samu sauye-sauye a dalilim bayyanar mazhabar “structuralism”. Wanda ya haifar da shi,shi ne  Ferdnand De-sassure a dalilin gina bincikensa mai suna “ A course in general linguistics” (wanda asalin da harshen faransanci yake), a shekara 1916. Wannan mazhaba, ba shakka ta ba da gudummawa ainun wajen inganta nazarin k’irar kalma da bunk’asa shi.

Haka kuma, an samu bayyanar wata mazhaba mai suna “ Generative and Transformational Grammar.” A k’ark’ashin shugaban canji na nazarin nahawu A’bran Noam Chamsky a shekarar 1957, a sakamakon gabatar da bincikensa mai farin jini da k’ayatar da manazarta, mai suna “Syntactic Structure” da wannan binciken aka haifar da wannan mazhaba mai farin jini. Babu shakka wannan mazhaba ta ba da gudummawar ta wajen fad’ad’a nazarin k’irar kalma, musamman a matakin jimla, wanda suke ganin mafi k’ank’antar tubali da aka gina ta, shi ne k’wayar kalma ba kalma ba. Sa’banin nahawun gargajiya.

Nazarin k’irar kalma fage ne mai cin gashin kansa tun k’arni na 19 har zuwa tsakiyar k’arni na (20). A wannan zamanin da mazhabar taciya ta mamaye duniyar nazarin harshe da yake mazhaba ce da ta fi damuwa da nazarin ginin jimla, sai aka ajiye k’irar kalma, sannan aka raba tsakanin k’irar kalma da tsakanin tsarin sauti da kuma ginin jimla.

Aka ci gaba da tafiya hakan sai bayan shekaru 20, aka gano cewa akwai wani gi’bi da ya kamata a cika shi , wanda zai kula da k’a’idojin k’irar kalma. Wannan ya faru a sakamakon wani nazari da shugaban tafiyar ya yi wato Chomsky, a cikin mak’alarsa mai suna “Remark on Nominalization” a shekarar (1970), da kuma ta abokin aikinsa Halle (1973) “Prolegomena on The Theory of Words Formation”. Wannan mak’alar ce ta farfad’o da nazarin k’irar kalma a nahawun taciya.

Daga nan almajiransa (Chomsky) suka ci gaba da sharhi a kan batun, aka shiga ruwan rubuce-rubuce da soke-soken ra’ayoyi na ilmi, har ta kai ga kasuwar nazarin k’irar kalma ta cika mak’il da rubuce-rubuce wad’anda suka zama hujja ga d’aliban nazarin k’irar kalma.(Muhammad 2014:3).

Haka aka ci gaba da nazarin k’irar kalma a cikin harshen Hausa. Inda masana da dama suke nazarinsa a k’ark’ashin wani ‘bangare na nahawu. Ko dai su sa shi a tsarin sauti ko kuma ginin jimla. Wasu kuma sukan d’auki wani ‘bangare na k’irar kalma su yi bayaninsa. Haka aka ci gaba har zuwa shekarar (1970), inda aka fara samun rubuce-rubucen masana da ya shafi k’irar kalma, daga wasu ‘bangarori daga cikin littatafansu. Skinner (1977) a cikin littafinsa mai suna “A Grammer of Hausa for Nigerian Secondary School and Colleges” ya yi Magana a kan k’irar kalma inda ya rik’a amfani da k’wayar kalma ta [ma-] a cikin littafinsa. Haka kuma idan aka dubi irin aikin su Jaggar (1945) shi ma bai yi wani cikakken bayani ba, sai dai ya d’auki wani ‘bangare, inda ya rik’a amfani da k’wayar kalma ta [ma-] a cikin aikinsa.

Bugu da k’ari haka aka ci gaba har zuwa wani lokaci da harshen Hausa ta samu gata aka fara rubuta littatafan k’irar kalma masu zaman kansu. Abubakar  (2001) ya wallafa littafi mai suna “ Introductory Hausa Morphology”, wanda ya yi tsuran bayani a kan k’irar kalma. Haka kuma an samu Yusuf, O ( ed) (2007), da Amfani (2007), da Sani (2002) da Yusuf (2013) da Muhammad (2011) da Fagge (2004, 2013). Wad’annan malaman duk sun taka rawar gani wajen ha’bakar nazarin k’irar kalma a harshen Hausa, wanda a dalilin wannan gagarumin k’ok’ari da suka yi, d’alibai suke ta karatu da kuma nazartar ayyukansu.

2.5 NA’DEWA


Wannan babi ya yi bayani a kan ma’anar k’irar kalma, tare da bayani a kan alak’arsa da kumbura. Haka kuma babin ya yi bayani a kan abin da ya shafi hanyoyin nazarin k’irar kalma tare da bayyana yadda fasalin k’irar kalma yake a jiya da kuma yau, tare da nad’e wannan aiki a tak’aice.

https://www.amsoshi.com/contact-us/

 

[1] Fassarar Muhammad I.A. (2012 : 4) Tasarifin Hausa a Alfiyar Mu’azu Sani (Tak’aitaccen Sharhi Daga Taskar Ilimin Kimiyar Harshe).

[2] Muhammad, I.A.(2014): Gudummawar Mazhabar Nahawun Taciya Wurin Bunk’asa Nazarin K’irar Kalma: K’alubale ga Malamna Harshen Hausa a K’arni na 21

[3] Don k’arin bayani a dubi Alfiyyar Mu’azu Sani Ta D’aya Shafi na Saba’in da Biyar (75)

[4] Domin neman k’arin bayani a dubi Hausa Agenti’be Nominalization na Sammani Sani (2003)

[5] A dubi Abubakar (2001) Introduction to Hausa Morphology domin k’arin bayani.

[6] C.N.H.(2007) Karin Sauti a Cikin K’usoshin Gina Kalmomin Hausa.

[7] A dubi cikin .W. Person (1960) a Kan Giredin Aikaton Hausa.

[8] Newman(1960)Tone and Affid’ation

[9] Muhammad I.A. K’undin digiri na biyu mai taken “Nazarin K’wayoyin Ma’anar Hausa”.

[10] Domin Neman K’arin Bayani a Dubi Ulumul-kur’an

[11] Muhammad I.A. (2014) gudummawar mazhabar taciya wajen bunk’asa nazarin k’irar kalma; k’alubale ga malaman hausa na (k’arni na 21)

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