Hausa Language Academic Website

Friday, 2 February 2018

Nazarin Littafin Dak’ik’a Talatin A Bisa Ra’in Mazahabar Zahiranci (2)

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ADO MAGAJII MUSA


 


KUNDIN NEMA DIGIRI NA FARKO (B.A HAUSA) A K’ARK’ASHIN SASHEN NAZARIN HARSUNAN NIJERIYA, JAMI’AR USMANU ‘DANFODIYO, SAKKWATO


 

 

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BABI NA ‘DAYA


GABATARWA




  • Shimfid’a




Ko shakka babu adabin Hausawa abu ne mai fad’in gaske. Ya zama babban kandami a sha a yi wanka. Duk fagen da aka d’auko don gudanar da wani aiki sai a tarar an yi wani abu. Na shirya gudanar da binciken ne a ‘bangaren adabi a reshen wasan kwaikwayon Hausa, kuma rubutacce. Binciken an gudanar da shi ne domin yin nazarin abubuwan da ke faruwa a cikin littafin Dak’ik’a Talatin wanda shahararren marubucin nan mai tashe ya rubuta wato, Ado Ahmed Gidan Dabino a shekarar 2015.

Binciken an gudanar da shi ne bisa nazarin wannan littafi (Dak’ik’a Talatin) a bisa ra’in Mashabar Zahiranci da ake nazarin rayuwar mutane ta duban abin da yake gudana yau da gobe. Bayan yunk’urin gudanar da wannan aiki sai aka rarraba shi har zuwa biyar (5). An yi haka ne saboda a samu hanyar gudanar da shi cikin jin dad’i da kwanciyar hankali da kuma sauki.

Babi na farko shi ne shimfid’ar aikin wanda ya k’unshi abubuwa kamar haka: manufar bincike da bitar ayyukan da suka gabata da muhallin da za a gudanar da bincike da hujjar ci gaba da bincike da kuma ra’in zahiranci sai da kuma nad’ewa.

A babi na biyu, akwai shimfid’a da tak’aitaccen tarihin marubucin littafin Dak’ik’a Talatin da rubuce-rubucensa. Shi kuma babi na uku (3) aka yi tak’aitaccen sharhi kan littafin Dak’ik’a Talatin  ta fuskar jigo da salo, sai kuma zubi da tsarinsa.

A babi na hud’u (4), aka yi bayani a kan rayuwar zahiranci a cikin littafin Dak’ik’a Talatin. Bayan shimfid’a sai aka shiga nazarin abubuwan masu faruwa na kyau kamar amana da nasiha da zumunci da dogaro da kai da soyayya. A d’ayan ‘bangaren kuma abubuwa marasa kyau aka duba kamar su; kishi da hassada da zargi da ingiza-mai-kantu-ruwa da ta’addanci da ganganci da makamantansu, sai kuma nad’ewa. Babi na biyar (5) kuma wanda shi ne babin k’arshe ya k’unshi shimfid’a da tak’aita abubuwan da aka tattauna a sama wato kammalawa da zayyano manazarta da aka yi bincike a cikinsu.


  • Manufar Bincike




Sanin kowa ne babu wani aiki da mutum zai gudanar face sai da niyya ko manufarsa ta yin wannan aiki. Don haka wannan bincike da aka gudanar yana da manufa da ake son cimma. Manufar ta had’a da:

  1. Domin nuna wa al’ummar duniya cewa Hausawa na da irin wannan adabi na Zahiranci da k’arfafa wa d’alibai guiwa kan ci gaba da bincike domin k’ara fito da ra’in wannan mazhabar cikin adabin Hausa.

  2. Domin bunk’asa manufofin mazhabar zahiranci a cikin al’ummar Hausawa ta la’akari da wannan littafi Dak’ik’a Talatin.



  • Manufar wannan bincike ce samar da wani kundi da zai taimaka domin samun shaidar takardar digiri na farko.



  1. Domin bunk’asa adabin Hausawa musamman ma abin da ya shafi wasan kwaikwayo rubutacce.


    • Muhallin Bincike






Akwai buk’atar kowane aiki ko bincike da za a gudanar ya kasance yana da muhalli ko farfajiya da zai shafa. Muhallin wannan bincike ya tak’ita ga rubutaccen adabin Hausa, kuma a ‘bangaren wasan kwaikwayo sannan ke’bance aiki cikin littafin Ado Ahmed Gidan Dabino mai suna Dak’ik’a Talatin. Binciken ya shafi yin nazari a kan ra’in mazhabar zahiranci a cikin wannan littafin na Dak’ik’a Talatin, wanda yake littafin wasan kwaikwayo ne, kuma domin a fito da abubuwa na zahiri masu kyau da marasa kyau.


  • Bitar Ayyukan da Suka Gabata




Duk wani irin bincike da wani zai gabatar ba za a rasa irinsa ba da wani ya yi bincike a kansa ba, wanda zai ba wani mai niyyar bincike damar samun matsaya ta yadda zai samu hanyar gudanar da bincikensa cikin sauk’i. Don haka akwai d’alibai da masana da dama da suka yi aiki ko bincike a kan adabin Hausawa musamman ma wanda ya shafi wannan ‘bangare na wasan kwaikwayo.

  1. Y. Yahaya da S. M. Gusau da T. M. ‘Yar’aduwa (2001) sun rubuta littafi mai suna Darussan Hausa na 2 da na 3. Wad’annan littattafai sun taimaka min kan ma’anar wasan kwaikwayo da rabe-raben wasan kwaikwayo, kuma sun taimaka min wajen fito da jigon littafin Uwar Gulma da Wasan Marafa. Na ga yadda tsari da zubi da salo har ma da warwarar jigo. Wad’annan abubuwa da suka tattauna sun agaza min ga fahimtar littafin Dak’ik’a Talatin.


D’andare, (2006) ya yi nazari a kan littafin Ai Ga Irinta Nan. Na yi amfani da wannan kundi domin samun sauk’in aikin da na gabatar saboda sun yi kama ta wajen nazari. Duk sun shafi nazarin wasannin kwaikwayo ne gaba d’ayansu (Ai Ga Irinta Nan da Dak’ik’a Talatin).

Junaidu da ‘Yar’aduwa (2007) a cikin littafinsu na Harshe da Adabin Hausa a Kammale, sun yi sharhi a kan littattafai guda biyu: Uwar Gulma  da Jatau na Kyallu. Duk littattafan suna magana a kan jigon fad’akarwa, kuma ni ma aikin zai shafi maganar jigo ne.

Farida (2010) ta yi aiki mai taken: “Kowane Allazi da Nasa Amanu: Nazari a Kan Jigon Aure a Cikin Littafin Idon Matambayi.” Binciken nata ya taimaka min musamman a wajen da ya shafi jigo inda ta kawo kishi da ingiza-bami.

Dange (2012) ta yi bincike mai taken: “Nason Jahilci a Cikin Wasannin Kwaikwayo na Malam Inkuntum.” Wannan bincike ya taimaka min ta hanyar gano wasu halaye na wasu ‘yan wasa na acikin littafin Dak’ik’a Talatin.

Mustapha (2013) ya rubuta kundi mai taken: “Tasirin Mazhabobin Adabi Kan Tarken Adabin Hausa.” Kundin digiri na uku a Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero Kano. Ya yi bayani wanda ya taimaka min wajen samun bayanai kan mazhabobi ciki har da ta zahiranci.

Yakasai (2014) ya shirya mak’ala a bikin karramawa da gidan jarida ta yi wa Ado Ahmed Gidan Dabino. Ita wannan mak’ala ta taimaka min wajen samun tarihi da gudummawar marubucin wannan littafi na Dak’ik’a Talatin.

  1. M. Gusau (2015) ya rubuta littafi mai suna: Mazhabobin Ra’in da Tarke a Adabi da Al’adu na Hausa. Wannan littafi ya k’unshi mazhabar rubutaccen adabin Hausa wanda ya had’a da wasan kwaikwayo ya agaza min ta fuskar nuna mini muhimman abubuwa da zan kula da su kamar jigo da salo da taurari da harshe domin fahimtar littafin da na yi nazari wato Dak’ik’a Talatin.


1.4 Hujjar Ci Gaba da Bincike


Duba da irin ayyukan da suka gabata musamman ma a ‘bangaren wasan kwaikwayo ban ci karo da wani bincike da aka gudanar ba wanda ya yi canjaras da wannan bincike nawa ba, wannan ya ba ni damar ci gaba da bincike.

Ba shakka gudanar da wannan bincike zai k’arfafa sha’anin nazarin wasan kwaikwayo ta hanyar fito da fahimtar wata mazhaba ta kansa. Haka kuma nazarin na kawo yalwar bincike-binciken adabin al’ummar Hausawa musamman a bisa ra’in mazhabar zahiranci.


  • Ra’in Mazhabar Zahiranci




Wannan mazhabar ta zahiranci tana d’aya daga cikin hanyoyin zamani na tarken adabin al’ummomin duniya. Ta dad’e ana amfani da ita kuma har yanzu ana ci gaba da amfani da ita a wasu sassan duniya wajen tarken adabi. Tarihi ya nuna cewa an k’irk’iro wannan mazhaba a kusan tsakiyar k’arni na 19 a Faransa a shekarar 1830. Wad’anda suka k’irk’iro wannan mazhaba ta zahiranci sun had’a da; Honor de Balzac da Gustare Flaubert da Anton Chekhou da Wata adabiya mai suna Geoge Eliot da ta rubuta littafin Adam Bede a shekarar 1959, da Mark Twain da Wulliam Dean Howeels da babban d’an Zahirancin nan Hanry Jame.

1.5.1 Bunk’asar Mazahabar Zahiranci

Ita wannan babbar d’arik’a ta mazhabar zahiranci ta yad’u daga k’asar Faransa ta kuma isa zuwa k’asar Ingila da k’asar Amurka a k’arni na 20. A Ingila an sami zahiranci a cikin rubuce-rubucen Charle Dicken da William Makepeace Thackery da George Moore da makamantansu. A Amurka ma an aro ta ne daga Faransa da Rasha a wajen tsakiyar k’arni na 19 (Reymond, 2009).

Mazahabar zahiranci na d’aya daga cikin mazhabobin tarken adabi da ke duba wasu abubuwa na cikin al’umma musamman rayuwa ta zahiri ta hanyar aikace-aikacen adabin duniya. Kasancewarta mazahabar tarke sai ta sami kar’buwa ga masu sha’awar duba halayen al’umma daban-daban. Da ta k’ara k’arfafa sai aka sami ‘bullowar wasu masu la’akari da halayen zahiri a cikin littattafan hira da na wasan kwaikwayo. A k’arni na ashirin (20) aka samu tsarin zaman jama’a (socialist realism) a shekara ta 1934, a taron adabin Rasha. K’ungiyar na da ra’ayin cewa tarke da adabi lalle su ha’baka tunanin sauyi na mutanen zamani a cikin al’umma (Reymon, 2009).

1.5.2 Wasu Manufofin Mazhabar Zahiranci

  1. Tana kimanta duniyar d’an Adam da abin da ke faruwa a cikinta da son bayyana su yadda ya dace.

  2. Tana ba adabi k’arfin niyyar gamsar da makaranta irin halin rayuwar da al’umma ke ciki (Ilori, 1994:23).

  3. Tana sauk’ak’e salon littafi da hoton tunani da k’ara mayar da kai a kan halin talauci da abubuwan da ke wakana a cikin al’umma (Le’bin, 1965: 277).

  4. Tana nuna faruwar abubuwan zahiri a cikin al’umma kamar wahala da musgunawa da danniyar shugabanni da yadda ake fad’ar su daidai-wa-daida ba tare da wasu kwane-kwane ba (‘Banjime, 2007:142).

  5. Tana k’ok’arin fito da abin da ya faru ko yake faruwa ba wanda ake buri ba ko wanda ake ra’ayi ko fatan aukuwarsa ba.


1.5.3 Zahiranci a Adabin Hausa

A ‘bangaren adabin Hausa marubuta da dama suna yin rubuce-rubuce game da halin rayuwar al’ummar Hausawa da take gudanar a zamaninsu don k’ok’arin fito da wasu matsalolin da ke aukuwa a cikin al’umma da nufin magance su. Wasu matsaloli k’irk’ira su aka yi kuma suna da nasaba da halin rayuwar da mutum ya sami kansa ya kuma kasa d’aurewa, kamar dai yadda Le’bin (1965:276) ya bayyana. Saboda haka, akwai wasu matsaloli da dama da ake fuskanta wad’anda a zahiri suke wakana a cikin al’ummar Hausawa.

Wannan batu na rayuwar zahiri marubuta adabin Hausa suna nuna shi ta hanyar tsara aikinsu tare da amfani da halayen wani mutum ko wata k’asa da ke d’auke da irin wannan rayuwar zahiri. Suna kuma nuna irin hangen su game da matsayin al’ummar da wannan matsalolin rayuwa ke fuskanta, ko suka mamaye ta, don a sami yiwuwar magance su, a kuma sami al’umma ta gari (‘Bajime, 2007).


  • Nad’ewa




Wannan babi na d’aya ya yi magana a kan abubuwan da aka tatauna tun daga farkon wannan aiki har zuwa k’arshensa a matsayin gabatarwa. Haka zalika an yi magana a kan manufar binciken, sannan an duba bitar ayyukan da suka gabata na malamai da d’alibai, kana an yi bayanin hujjar ci gaba da bincike. Daga k’arshe an d’an duba ra’in mazhabar zahiranci a tak’aice. Wad’annan su ne abubuwan da aka tattauna a cikin wannan babi.

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/tuntubi-masu-gudanarwa/

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