Hausa Language Academic Website

Friday, 2 February 2018

Dangantakar Harshen Hausa Da Nufanci: Nazarin Tasirin Hausa A Kan Harshen Nufanci (5)

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/tuntubi-masu-gudanarwa/

 

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KUDU MUHAMMAD SALIHU

1210106003

 

KUNDIN DIGIRI NA FARKO A HAUSA (B.A HAUSA) DA AKA GABATAR A SASHEN HARSUNAN NIJERIYA, JAMI’AR USMANU ‘DANFODIYO, SAKKWATO

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/game-da-mu/

 

BABI NA HUD’U

TASIRIN HARSHEN HAUSA A KAN HARSHEN NUFE

4.0 Shimfid’a

Babi na hud’u babi ne da ya k’unshi abubuwan da ke da nasaba da aro wajen duba dangantaka ko tasirin harsunan nan guda biyu wato Hausa da Nufe. A nan za a yi k’ok’arin fito da ma’anar tasiri da yanayin tasiri da dabarun aiwatar da aro da kashe-kashen aro da dalilan aro da gudunmawar aro da matsalolin da ake fuskanta wajen aro da kuma tasirin ararrun kalmomin aro daga harshen Hausa zuwa harshen Nufe inda daga k’arshe sai a nad’e babin da abubuwan da suka sauwak’a a yayin nazarin batutuwan da suke cikin wannan babi.

4.1 Ma’anar Tasiri

Lamarin tasiri dai abu ne mai yalwa k’warai da gaske kuma yana faruwa tsakanin al’ummu daban-daban ko tsakanin harsunan mabanbanta musamman tsakanin harshen Hausa da harshen Nufe. Don haka, masana da dama sun bayyana ra’ayoyinsu dangane da ma’anar tasiri wasu daga cikin masanan sun kawo ra’ayoyinsu daidai gwargwadon fahimtarsu. Ga kad’an daga cikin ma’anonin da masana suka kawo kamar haka:

Hornby da Tamori (1988) sun ce:

“Tasiri na nufin dama ko isa a sanya tunanin ko aikinsa”

Shi kuma Marafa (1988) cewa ya yi:

“Tasiri ba wani abu ne wanda ya wuce sakamakon wani abu bisa wani wanda ya kan faru ta hanyar cud’anya ta fuskoki kamar na harshe da al’ada da irin su auratayya da haihuwa da sha’anonin kasuwanci da sana’o’i da kuma addini da sauran hanyoyin rayuwar d’an adam”

 

K’amusun Webster (1980: p.497) ya bayyana tasiri ya na cewa:

“Tasiri shi ne ikon da mutum ke da shi a kaikaice, a kan wani mutum, ko yanayi ko wani abu, ta hanyar hikima ko dukiya ko k’arfin hali ko d’abi’a amma ba k’arfin hukunci ba”.

 

4.2 Yanayi da Tsarin Aro a Tsakanin Hausa da Nufe

Masana ilimi harshe sun yi tsokaci cikin ma’anar aro ta siga daban-daban. Daga cikinsu, akwai ma’abota walwalar harshe sun bayyana yanayin aron kalmomi daga harshe zuwa harshe a matsayin bak’i, kyautattu, da nasassu ko kuma satattun kalmomi.

Hottman da Stock (1972) sun ba da ma’anar aro da cewa:

“Gabatar da kalmomi kai tsaye daga bak’on harshe zuwa wani, ta hanyar fassara ko kwaikwayo”.

 

Shi kuwa Bynon (1977), ya bayyana aro da cewa:

“K’irk’irar da ba ta da tushe, amma kuma tana da kalmomin harshe da ke ba da aron. Saboda haka, siffofin wannan bak’on harshen ne ake k’ira aro”.

 

Olaoye (1993), kuwa ya kalli aron kalmomi ne a matsayin

“Bak’in kalmomi da aka shigar da su cikin harshen gida”

Irin wad’annan kalmomi sukan rikid’e ko fad’o ne cikin sabon yanayi a tak’aitaccen lokaci ta yadda harshen da ya ba da aron ba zai gane ba. Sai dai kuma, kalmomin da ba su rikid’e suka sami gindin zama ba, to majiya harshen aro kan gane su cikin sauk’i. Ana iya samun irin wad’annan kalmomi daga harshen Hausa zuwa harshen Nufe. Kamar Lemu (lemo) da yaba (Ayaba) da lakita (Likita) da makamantansu.

Daga cikin abubuwan da suka gabata, kalmomin aro sune kalmomi ko sassan jumla da aka d’auko daga harshen asali (source language) domin amfani da su a harshen kar’ba (resource language), matuk’a dai yanayin bai shafi d’aukowa da kuma amfani ba, to wannan ba aron kalmomi ba ne. A maimakon haka, sai lamarin ya zamo fassara ko k’irk’ira. Su kuma fassara sa k’irk’ira ba lallai ba ne su yi amfani da aron kalmomi ko sassan jumloli, yana kuma faruwa yayin da harsuna mabanbanta suke huld’a ko mu’amala da juna. Haka kuma wasu kalmomin aro sukan rikid’e a sabon yanayi cikin sauk’i wasu kuma ba sa rikid’ewa cikin sauk’i.

Idan muka yanayin sarautun gargajiya, za mu ga cewa irin kalmomin da suke amfani da su wajen rad’awa mutane daban-daban, akwai daga cikinsu da suke rikid’ewa cikin sauk’i kamar su Waziri, da Makama, da Marafa, da Hakimi da dai makamantansu duk sun rikid’o ne cikin sauk’i.

 

4.3 Dabarun Aiwatar da Aron Nufe Daga Hausa

Harsunn duniya kan yi amfani da dabaru daban-daban domin aiwatar da aro daga harshe zuwa wani harshe daban. A yanayin huld’a da mu’amala tsakanin majiya harshe, lamarin aro yana aukuwa ne kai tsaye ko kuma a kaikaice tsakanin harsuna galibi, yanaye-yanayen suna d’amfara ne ga dabaru iri-iri daga harshen aro.

A ra’ayin wasu masana irin su Liman da Williams, ga abin da suka ce dangane dabarun aiwatar da aro.

Liman (1968) da Williams (1975) suna cewa:

“Da zarar harsuna biyu sun had’u cikin huld’a da mu’amala, to a kan sami aron kalmomi domin inganta sadarwa da fahimtar juna”.

 

A irin wannan yanayi, masana sun fi maida hankali ne ga irin dabarun da harshen aro ke amfani da su domin aro kalmomi. Da farko dai, a kan yi nazarin bak’in abubuwa ne cikin kwatanci da na yanayin muhallin harshen aro, to nan da nan sai a k’irk’ira wata kalma domin maye gurbi ko kuma dacewa da bak’on abu.

Saboda haka, idan aka gaza k’irk’ira kalma domin wakilci ko maye gurbin bak’on abu, to nan da nan sai a koma ga fassara ainihin suna, aiki ko ma’ana ta bak’on abu a harshen aro. Ga misali, ana amfani da ‘Ekagi’ domin wakiltar alk’alami ko da yake Nufawa ma suna amfani da kalmar alk’alami a sanadiyar shafe wasu k’wayoyin ma’ana kamar haka: Alik’alem. Idan kuma wannan dabara ta gaza gamsar da harshen aro, to sai a koma ga dabarar baddalawa. Ana amfani.

Wannan yana nuna cewa aro lamari ne (na lurura) da harsunan duniya kan aiwatar domin rungumar wata sabuwar fasaha a yanayin muhallin harshe aro. Sai dai kuma a mu’ala da huld’a ta zamani taakanin harsuna, to akasin haka ne ke aukuwa. A wannan zamani harsuna suna aron kalmomi ne daga mak’wabtansu cikin alfahari, wayewa da kuma fifikon ci gaba a ilmance.

A ra’ayin Bouga da Cable (1951) dole ne harsunan duniyaa su sauk’ak’a hanyoyin sadarwa cikin amfani da harsunansu. Da wannan ne, harsunan duniya a yanzu suka gwammace aron kalmomi daga mak’wabta a maimakon amfani da tsauraran hanyoyi.

4.4 Kashe-Kashen Aron Nufe da Hausa

Masana ilimi harsuna a duniya gaba d’aya, sun karkasa lamarin aro dangane da fahimtarsu kamar yadda za a kawo wasu daga ciki da irin kason da kowannensu ya yi a game da aron.

Liman (1968) ya karkasa aro zuwa kashi biyar daidai da fahimtarsa kamar haka:

  1. Aron k’irk’ira

  2. Aron baddalawa



  • Aron fad’ad’a ma’ana



  1. Aron fassara

  2. Aron gamad’en kalmomi


Shi kuma Olaoye (1993) ya karkasa aron ne zuwa gida biyu gasu kamar haka:

  1. Aro na kalmomi

  2. Aro na sashen jumloli


Shi kuma Hull (1964) ya yi nasa rabon zuwa gida biyu kamar haka:

  1. Aro na ciki

  2. Aro na waje


Hartman da Stock (1972) suma gida biyu ne suka nasu rabon kamar haka:

  1. Aron kai tsaye

  2. Aro na kaikaice


Ta la’akari da wad’annan kason da masana ilimi harsuna suka yi game da aro, wannan zai ba mai nazari damar yin duba zuwa ga harshen da yake nazari a kansa na hanya ko salon da suka bi wajen yin aro cikin harshen.

Harshen Nufe harshe ne mai yalwar kalmomi kuma al’ummar dake amfani da harshen suna da hanyoyi da suke bi wajen aiwatar da aro wanda cikin ikon Allah za a kawo su cikin sauk’i dai-dai yadda suke amfani da su.

Al’ummar Nufawa suna amfani da hanyoyin aro kamar na k’irk’ira da fassara da fad’ad’a ma’ana da na kai tsaye har ma da na aron kaikaice.

  • Aron k’irk’ira: aro ne da ake amfani da shi a harshen Nufe don samar wa kansu kalmomi. Idan kuma an k’irk’irawa abubuwa suna cikin harshensu, duk masu amfani da harshen babba ko k’arami, mace ko namiji za su sami sauk’i wajen yin amfani da su. Idan kuwa suka ji sautin kalmar daga bakin wasu al’umma daban, za su ganr cewa kalmar ta samo asali ne daga harshen su don kuwa, sune ke amfani da su dare da rana. Don haka, akwai kalmomi masu d’imbin yawa da wannan al’umma suka samar wa kansu kuma suna amfani da su wajen k’iran abubuwa wad’anda ba rikid’o su aka yi daga wani harshe ba daban. Misali,


Nufe                                         Hausa                              Ingilisi

Zufogi                                     Taga                                        Window                       

Ekagi                                                   Alk’alami                                Pen

Efe tswangi                                         Mafici…                                  local fan

Gabaa                                                  Zaki                                         Lion

Makundanu                                         Kura                                        Hyena…

Dukusoso                                            Kunkuru                                  Tortoise….

Ebo/Katapini                           Damo                                      land monito…

Eyi kuru                                              Barewa                                    Antelope

Eshigi                                                  Kare                                        Dog

  • Aron fassara: aro ne da harsuna mabanbanta kan yi amfani da kalmomi cikin harsunansu, sai su d’auko su kuma su fassara cikin harshensu. Ana yin haka ne domin dangantaka ko huld’a da ke tsakaninsu. Don haka, za a iya kawo wasu kalmomi daga harshen Nufanci sannan a fassara su cikin harshen Hausa. Ga kad’an daga cikin kalmomin da aka samo kamar haka:


Nufe                                         Hausa                              Ingilisi

Dugba                                     Fatanya                                    Hoe

Egba                                                    Gatari                                      Ad’e

Ewogi                                      Cokali                          Spoon

Cigban donbina                                   Bishiyar dabino                       Date palm

Eda                                                      Takalmi                                   Shoe

Kasa                                                    Kwando                                  Basket

Ewo                                                     Riga                                         Shirt

Emi                                                      Gida                                        House

Esa                                                      Kujera                         Chair, da makamantansu.

  • Aron fad’ad’a ma’ana: a wannan hali kuwa, akan yi amfani da kalma d’aya mai d’auke da harafi iri d’aya wanda ake samu ma’anoni daban-daban daga garesu. Abin ke faruwa a irin wannan yanayi kuwa banbancin ma’ana da ake samu, karin sauti ne ke fayyace su, amma idan babu alamar karin sauti, za a d’auka kamar abu d’aya ne ko ma’ana d’aya ne ke tattare da su.


Misali,

Nufe                                         Hausa                              Ingilisi

Émí                                                      Mai                                          Oil

Èmì                                                      Gida                                        House

Émì                                                      Baki                                         Mouth

Éyeé                                                    Ido                                           Eye

Éyeè                                                    Hanci                                       Nose

Kun                                                     Sayar                                       Sell

Kûn                                                     Rafi                                         Ri’ber

Édiñ                                                     Alayaddi                                  Palm carnel

Édiñ                                                     D’inya

Ésà                                                      Sunan gari                               …

Kujera                         Chair

  • Aron kai-tsaye: Aro ne da ake d’auko kalma daga wani harshe cikin harshen aro don yin amfanu da shi kai tsaye ba tare da wani canji ba. Sai dai, wani lokaci larura na iya shigowa inda a kan yi wa kalmar kwaskwarima don ya dace da harshen aro. Misali,


Nufe                                         Hausa                              Ingilisi

Doko                                                   Doki                                        Horse

Fanka                                                  Fanka                                      Fan

Teburi                                                  Teburi                                      Table

Takada                                                Takarda                                   Paper

Mungoro                                             Mangoro                                  Mango

Liman                                                  Limami                                    Imam

Man                                                     Malami                                    Teacher

Aku                                                     Aku                                         Parrot

Waziri                                                  Waziri                                      …

Madaki                                                Madawaki                               … da makamantansu.

4.5 Dalilan Aro daga Hausa Zuwa Nufe

Dangane da dalilan da suke haifar da aro kuwa, masana sun tanadi dalilai daban-daban da ke sa aron kalmomi daga harshe zuwa harshe daban.

Olaoye (1993), yana ganin cewa, ana yin aro ne domin buk’atar sababbin abubuwa irin su sunaye da wurare da kuma tunani.

Masanin yace, abin da ya ba shi damar amfani da irin wad’annan abubuwa, sune wad’anda babu kalmomin da ke bayyana su a harshe amma kuma akwai cikakkiyar huld’a da mu’amala da wani harshe da ke da wad’annan abubuwa.

  • Rashin amfani da kalma da kuma yawan kar’buwa duka suna haifar da aro. Kalmomin da ba a yawan maimaita amfani da su a magana ta yau da kullum ba, suna saurin mutuwa saboda haka, akwai buk’atar maye gurbinsu da wasu. Kuma wannan aiki na maye gurbi ba na harshe guda ba ne.

  • Wasu kalmomin kan rasa k’ima da matsayi wato saboda yanayin amfani da su, wasu kalmomin kan tsufa ta yadda sai an maye gurbinsu da wasu ararrun kalmomi.

  • A wasu lokuta, ana aron kalmomi domin bunk’asa matsayin ilimi. Harshen da aka cika shi da bak’in kalmomi da sassan jumla, ana kallo da d’aukarsu a matsayin harshen ilimi.

  • Ana kuma aron kalmomi domin inganta sadarwa tsakanin harsuna. Wato ana aron kalmomi domin bunk’asa fasaha da kimiyya na harshen aro.

  • Ana aron kalmomi domin agazawa harshen aro ta yadda za a nak’alci dokokin amfani da harshe domin dacewa da wasu fannoni na rayuwa irin su aikin lauya da kuma aikin likita.

  • Tasirin zamani da yawan huld’a tsakanin harsuna daban-daban da al’umma ke yi, ya kawo cikas cikin harshensu don kuwa, wasu kalmomi da suke na asali sun manta gaba d’aya.


4.6 Matsalolin Aro a Harshen Hausa Zuwa Nufe

Dangane da matsalolin aro kuwa, Olaoye (1993) ya jaddada cewa yana da tasiri wajen nak’altar k’a’idojin rubutu, musamman ma a lokacin rubutu cikin harshen asali. Gaskiya ne cewa, majiya harsuna biyu kan fuskanci matsaloli na rubuta kalmomin harshe.

  • Daga cikin matsalolin aro, canje-canje cikin sautin tasarifi da ake dangantawa da aro, yana rage k’ima da matsayin harshe a idanun harshen aro. Misali, harshen Hausa yana da sifofi na tantance karin sauti, wad’anda kuma ba lallai ba ne mai harshen aro ya kula da su.

  • Yawan aron kalmomi yana tauye harshe kuma yana gur’bata al’ada. Harshe da al’ada suna da dangantaka makusanciya ta yadda lalacewar d’aya kan shafi d’aya.

  • Isashen ilimi da inganci na harshen aro da yadda za a aiwatar da kalmomin aro, da makamantansu.


 

4.7 Tasirin Ararrun Kalmomin Hausa a Kan Nufe

K’asashen Nufawa suna can gefen kogin kwara a kan hanyar da Hausawa kan bi don fataucin goro daga k’asashen Yarabawa. Nufawa sun gwanance wajen d’inkin riguna masu aiki da kuma k’irar k’arau, suna kuma yin manja. Irin rigunan da Nufawa suke d’inkawa suna da farin jini a wurin Hausawa musamman sarakuna da attajirai. Manya daga cikin irin wad’annan riguna sune girgen Nufe da kwakwata. Irin wannan sana’o’i da Nufawa suka iya sun kawo kyakkyawar jituwa tsakanin Hausawa da Nufawa tun kafin zuwan Turawa. Wannan shi ya sa ake samun anguwannin Nufawa a cikin manyan biranen Hausawa kamar Tudun Nufawa a Kano da Zazzau da Kaduna.

Jihadin Shehu Usmanu ‘DANFODIYO ma ya taimaka wajen kawo cud’anya tsakanin Hausawa da Nufawa domin kuwa, jihadin ne ya had’a Hausawa da Nufawa a k’ark’ashin daula guda. Addinin musulunci ma ya kawo cud’anya tsakanin Hausawa da Nufawa tun da, mafi yawan Nufawa musulmai ne. A sakamakon wannan cud’anya, Hausa ta ari kalmomi daga Nufanci, sai dai kalmomi da Nufanci ya ara daga Hausa sun fi yawa. Muhammad (1978).

Ga wasu kalmomin aro daga Nufanci zuwa Hausa kamar haka:

Nufe                                         Hausa                              Ingilisi

Gulu                                                    Ungulu                                    ‘Bulture  

Gbamgba                                             Agwagwa                                Duck

Edin                                                     Alayyadi                                  Palm Kernel Oil

Walaba                                                Kwalba                                    Bottle

Lyalya                                                 Wala                                        type of beans food

Bente                                                   Bante                                       Coin cloth

Edeko                                                  Adako             small waist wrapper

worn by women o’ber the long one    

Wati                                                     Akwati                        Bod’                     

Wanu                                                   Kwano                        Plate

Akwai kuma kalmomi da Nufawa suka ara daga Hausa wad’anda a yau, wasu daga cikin al’ummar yana da wuya su yarda da irin wad’annan kalmomi cewa Bahaushiyar kalma ce. Ga wasu daga cikin kalmomin Hausa zuwa Nufanci:

Hausa                                       Nufe

Aljani                                                  Jinnu

Doki                                                    Doko

Gaskiya                                               Gaskiya

Lafiya                                                  Lafiya

Kaya                                                    Kaya

Arziki                                                  Aziki

Addu’a                                                            Aduwa

Hankali                                                Ankali

Ladabi                                                 Ladabi

Mota                                                    Mato

Allo                                                     Elo

Takarda                                               Takada

Citta                                                     Tsuta

Rak’umi                                              Rakum

Lesi                                                     Resi

Hula                                                    Fula

Alk’ali                                                 Likaki

Makaranta                                           Makanta

Yarda                                                  Yada

Aljihu                                                  Dufan, da makamantansu.

Idan muka lura da wad’annan ararrun kalmomi daga Hausa zuwa Nufe, za a iya gano cewa akwai daga cikinsu da aka d’auko ake kuma amfani da su cikin harshen Nufe kai-tsaye, akwai kuma wad’anda aka yi wa kwaskwarima don ya dace da harshen aron.

4.8 Nad’ewa

Wannan babi na hud’u ya yi bayani ne a kan tasirin harshen Hausa a kan Nufe, inda aka ba da ma’anar tasiri, da yanayinsa, da tsarinsa da dabarun aiwatar da shi da kashe-kashenta, da dalilanta a gefen aro da kuma tasirin ararrun kalmomin Hausa a kan harshen Nufe.

 

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/tuntubi-masu-gudanarwa/

 

 

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