Sautukan Hausa A Bakin Jukunawa (5)

 

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/game-da-mu/

           NA


SANUSI GAMBO BELLO



KUNDIN DIGIRIN FARKO NA HAUSA (B.A HAUSA) DA AKA GABATAR A SASHEN KOYAR DA HARSUNAN NIJERIYA, JAMI’AR USMANU ‘DANFODIYO, SAKKWATO


 

https://www.amsoshi.com/tuntubi-masu-gudanarwa/

 

 

                                BABI NA HU'DU


                 GURBIN SAUTUKAN HAUSA A BAKIN JUKUN


4.0 SHIMFID’A


A babi na uku an gabatar da bayanai kan tsarin sautin Hausa a bakin Jukunawa da kuma irin tasirin da harshen Jukun ke yi a muhallin furucin sautukan Hausa, sannan an bayyana irin bambancin da ake samu wajen furta sautukan Hausa a bakin Jukun.

A wannan babi kuma an kawo irin jerin kalmomi ne da jimloli domin kwatanta wa mai nazari ya fahimci al’amarin da kyau, ta yadda aka kawo kalmomin a daidaitacciyar Hausa sannan aka kwatanta su da yadda Jukunawa  suke furucinsu don a fito da yanayin matsalolin da Jukunawa ke cin karo da su a yayin furucin wasu kalmomin na harshen Hausa. sannan babin ya gabatar da kalmomin ta la’akari da irin musanyar da ake samu tsakanin bak’ak’e da kuma matsalolin da ya shafi wasula a lokacin da Jukun ke furta kalmar Hausa. haka kuma babin ya fito da  kalmomin da ake samun shafe wata gaba a cikinsu a bakin Jukun lokacin da suke furta su don sadarwa. Babin ya fito da kalmomin da ake tsarma wani harafi yayin furucinsu, da kuma irin kalmomin da ake samun shafewar wani harafi a cikinsu, sannan ya kawo kalmomin da ake samun d’ayanta tagwan wasula yayin da Jukunawa ke k’ok’arin furta wad’annan kalmomin na Hausa.

4.1 MUSANYAR BAK’I


Abubakar (2000) ya bayyana musanyar gurbi da cewa “wani yanayi ne da masana harsuna ke amfani da shi yayin da mai amfani da wani harshe ya maye gurbin sautin wani harshe da bai da shi da kwatankwacinsa wanda yake da shi a harshensa”. Irin wannan musanyar kan faru da Jukunawa yayin da suke k’ok’arin mu’amala da kalmomin Hausa a yanayi daban-daban, ta yadda suke maye gurbin hamzattattun bak’ak’en Hausa da takwarorinsu marasa hamza, kamar haka: “k’arya >  karya”.  Haka nan sukan musanya sautin /ø/ da /p/ kamar haka, Fulani > Pulani”, sannan shi kuma sautin /r/ su musanya shi da /r/ kamar haka: “daaroo > daro”, shi kuma  /m/ su musanya shi /n/ kamar haka, “ambato > anbato”. Baya ga wad’annan akan sami wasu wurare da suke musanya sautin /g/ da /k/ kamar haka “tsaka > tsaga”, sannan su musanya /ø/ da /f/ a wani yanayi na musamman kamar haka”Oiilii > fiilii. Haka nan sukan hamzanta wasu sautukan idan sun zo cikin wasu kalmomin don samun sauk’in furuci. Ga yadda abin yaki daki-daki tare da misalai kamar haka:

4.1.1  RASHIN HAMZANTAWA: Wannan wani yanayi ne da idan bak’ak’en Hausa suka zo da bak’in hamza, yayin furucinsu sai Jukunawa su maye su da kwatankwacinsu marasa hamza, ta yadda suke musanya sautukan /’b/ da /d’/ da /k’/ da /k’w/ da /k’y/ da /s’/ da kuma /’y/ wad’anda suke masu hamza ne da takwarorin su wad’anda ba su da hamza irin su: /b/ da /d/ da /k/ da /kw/ da /ky/ da /s/ da kuma /y/ idan suka zo cikin kalmomi kamar haka:

A furucin sautin /’b/ na Hausa, Jukun na furta sautin /b/ a madadin ta. Misali:

Hausa                Jukun

‘Beeraa                 beeraa

‘Barnaa                 ‘barnaa

Ga’ba                             gaba

Bala ya a kaama beeraa

A muhallin da k’wayar sauti /d’/ ke fitowa a Hausa. Jukun kan mai da ita /d/ a lokacin furta ta a cikin kalma. Misali:

Hausa                Jukun

D’ankwaalii          dankwali

D’aawiisu              dawisu

D’anjuuma            danjuma

Ali ya a kaama dawisu

K’wayar sauti ta /k’/ a Hausa, idan Jukun za su sarrafa ta cikin kalma sukan mai da ita /k/. Misali:

Hausa                Jukun

Wasiik’a               wasika

K’asaa                              kasa

K’uusa                  kusa

Ali ya a rubuta wasika

K’wayar sauti ta /k’w/ a Hausa, idan Jukun za su furta ta sai su furta /kw/.  Misali:

 Hausa               Jukun

K’wak’walwa        kwakwalwa

K’warjini             kwarjini

K’warya              kwarya

Kwarya ta a fashe

A bagiren furucin k’wayoyin sautuka na /k’y/  Jukun kan furta k’wayar sautin /ky/ a wad’annan bagiren. Misali:

Hausa                Jukun

K’yauree               kyaure

K’yalle                  kyalle

K’yaamaa             kyaamaa

Bala ya a cire kyauren kofa

A bak’in /s’/ na Hausa, Jukun na amfani da /s/ a yayin furta shi. Misali:

/s’/     da                /s/

Tsamiyaa              samiya

Tsummaa              summa

Matsaloli               masaloli

Motar tana da masaloli

 

A muhallin furucin /’y/ na harshen Hausa, Jukun kan furta /y/ a wad’annan wuraren.

/’y/    da                /y/

‘Ya                       ya

‘Ya’ya                  yaya

‘Yanci                   yanci

Lebura ba shi da yanci

4.1.2  Sai kuma /ø/ da /p/, sukan musanya sautin /ø/ wanda yake bale’be zizan mara ziza, da sautin /p/ wanda yake shi bale’be tsayau marar ziza ne idan wasula ‘yan k’urya sun biyo shi, wato “u” ko “o”. Ga  misalai kamar haka:

Hausa                Jukun

Funkaasau            punkaso

Fursuna                 pursuna

Samfurii                sanpuri

Bala ya a sayi punkaso

4.1.3  Haka nan /r/ da /r/, hasrshen Hausa tana amfani da sautin /r/ iri biyu ne, wato ra­-gare da kuma ra-kad’e. Saboda haka, Jukunawa ba su iya bambancewa domin su sautin /r/ d’aya suke da shi a harshensu. Ga misalai  kamar haka:

 

Hausa                Jukun

Daaru                    daru

Ruwaa                   ruwa

K’aramii               k’arami

Ali ya a sha ruwa

4.1.4 Sa’annan sautin /m/ da /n/ a harshen Hausa akwai muhallin da sautin /m/ yake zuwa, ta yadda Jukunawa sukan maye ko musanya shi da sautin /n/, a misalai kamar haka:

Hausa                Jukun

Gambiiza              ganbiza

Atamfaa                atanfa

Gimbiyaa              ginbiya

Talatu ta a sayi atanfa

4.1.5 Akwai kuma inda suke musanya sautin /g/ da /k/, a wannan ‘bangaren kuwa bahank’e tsayan mai ziza /g/ ne ke musanya gurbi da d’an’uwansa bahand’e tsayau marar ziza /k/ a wasu kalmomi kamar haka:

Hausa                Jukun

Tsakaa                    saga

Dagacii                 dakacii

Jummai taa bugi tsaga

4.1.6 Sannan sautin /ø/ da /f/, a wani yanayi kuma sukan musanya bale’be zuzau marar ziza /ø/ na Hausa da le’be-hank’a zuzau marar ziza /f/ a harshen Jukun idan wasula ‘yan gaba suka biyo bayan sa. Wato /e/ ko /i/. Ga misali kamar haka:

 

Hausa                Jukun

øitilaa                    filila

øiilii                      fili

Azurøaa                azurfa

Bala ya a sa zoben azurfa

4.1.7  HAMZANTAWA: Wannan wani yanayi ne da Jukunawa ke hamzanta wasu sautuka na Hausa wad’anda asalin su ba hamzatattu ba ne, yayin da suke k’ok’arin furta wasu kalmomin Hausa don gudanar da mu’amala da harshen Hausa. Ga misali kamar haka:

 

Hausa                Jukun

Daaru                     d’aru

K’adangaree         kad’angare

K’udaa                 kud’a

Kad’angare ya a sinci sabar daawa

4.2  MUSANYAR WASALI


Abubakar (2000) ya bayyana musanyar gurbi na wasali da cewa, “Wani yanayi ne da akan sauya wa wasula muhalli yayin furuci”. Irin wannan musanyar wasalin ya yawaita yayin da Jukunawa ke k’ok’arin mu’amala da harshen Hausa, ta yadda suke musanya  wasalin /a/ da /i/, a wani lokaci kuma sukan musanya wasalin /a/ da /o/, ko kuma a wani muhallin su musanya /a/ da /e/, haka ma sukan musanya wasalin /o/ da /u/. Ga  abin yadda  yake daki-daki tare da misalai.

4.2.1  wasalin /a/ da /i/, wasalin /a/ wanda yake wasalin tsaka-tsaka na k’asa, yakan koma wasalin gaba  na sama /i/. Ga misali kamar haka:

 

Hausa                Jukun

Matsiyaacii            micaci

Rakee                    rike

Tsayaa                    siya

Audu yaa sha rike

4.2.2 Sai kuma wasalin /a/ da /o/, wasalin yakan tashi daga wasalin tsaka-tsaki na k’asa ya koma wasalin k’urya na tsakiya a kalmomin kamar haka:

Hausa                Jukun

Talo-talo               tolo-tolo

Cookalii                 cokoli

Zarto                      zorto

Zorto yaa yanki Tanko

4.2.3 Sa’anan wasalin /a/ da /e/, wasalin yakan tashi daga wasalin tsaka-tsaki na k’asa ya koma wasalin gaba na tsakiya. Ga misali kamar haka:

Hausa                Jukun

Gwanii                  gweni

Wani                      weni

Tallafii                    tellefi

Weni yaro yaa shiga gida

4.2.4 Haka nan wasalin /o/ da /u/, wasalin k’urya na tsakiya yakan koma wasalin k’urya na sama. Ga  misali kamar haka:

Hausa                Jukun

Gammoo               gammu

Noonoo                nunu

Noomaa                numa

Yaro yaa doki kaya da gammu

4.3 SHAFE WATA GA’BA TA KALMA


Wannan wani irin al’amari ne da ke faruwa yayin da Jukunawa ke k’ok’arin furta kalmomin Hausa, ta yadda suke shafe wata ga’ba a tsakiyar kalma na daidaitacciyar Hausa. Ga  yadda misalan su yake kamar haka:

Hausa                        Jukun

Masallaci                          mallaci

Makaranta                          manta

Lokacii                               loci

Yaaraa za su tafi manta

4.4 TSARMA BAK’I A TSAKIYAR KALMA


A nan, sukan saka bak’i ne a tsakiyar kalma yayin da Jukunawa ke amfani da kalmomin Hausa wanda kuwa alhali babu wannan bak’in a kalmomin daidaitacciyar Hausa. A duba wad’annan misalai:

Hausa                Jukun

Tuzuuruu              tunzuuruu

Laalamaa              lallama

Audu                    Awudu

Awudu yaa tafi gida

4.5 SHAFE WANI HARAFI A KALMA


Wannan wani yanayi ne da Jukunawa kan shafe wani sauti a kalma. Irin wannan kan faru ga sautin bak’i, haka kuma yakan faru ga wasali a cikin kalma.

 

 

4.5.1 SHAFE BAK’I A KALMA


Irin wannan al’amari na shafe bak’i kan faru ne a lokacin da Jukunawa suke k’ok’arin amfani da kalmomin Hausa, sukan shafe bak’i a farkon kalma ko a tsakiyar kalma ko kuma a k’arshen kalma. Ya danganci yadda kalmar take kamar  haka:

4.5.1.1 SHAFE BAK’I A FARKON KALMA


Wannan wani yanayi ne da Jukunawa kan shafe wani bak’i a farkon kalma yayin da suke furta wasu kalmomin Hausa. Ga misali kamar haka:

Hausa                        Jukun

Hawainiyaa                    awaihiyaa

Hatsabiibii                      atsabiibi

Wasu sun kashe awainiyaa

4.5.1.2 SHAFE BAK’I A TSAKIYAR KALMA


Irin wannan, bak’in akan shafe shi ne a tsakiyar kalma sannan a ringa amfani da wasali kawai a muhallin kamar haka:

Hausa                        Jukun

Mahaifi                           ma’aifi

Mahaifiya                      ma’aifiya

Alhamis                         alamis

Yau ranar alamis ne

4.5.1.3 SHAFE BAK’I A K’ARSHEN KALMA


A wannan yanayin kuma, sukan shafe bak’in k’arshe ne na kalmar Hausa yayin da Jukunawa ke furta kalmomin daidaitacciyar Hausa. Ga misalai kamar haka:

Hausa                        Jukun

Asabar                            asaba

Alhamis                          alhami

Tumaatir                         tumatu

Yaaraa sun cire tumatu

4.5.2 SHAFE WASALI A CIKIN KALMA


A nan Jukunawa kan gajarce doguwar wwasali ne, wato ga’bar da ta zo da dogon wasali sai su mai da shi gajare. Hakan akasari kan auku ne a ga’bar fako ta kalma. Misali:

Hausa                        Jukun

Faataarii                         fataarii

Taayaa                            tayaa

Kaataakoo                        kataakoo

Kataakoo ya d’auko a kansa

4.6 D’AYANTA TAGWAN WASALI


D’antata (1994) ta ce, “D’ayanta tagwan wasali shi ne musanya ingancin wasali daga tagwai zuwa tilo.”

Shi kuwa Sani, (1989) ya bayyana cewa, “ A al’adance Hausa tana da tagwan wasula, wanda wasula ne mabambanta suke had’uwa wuri guda su samar da wad’annan wasulan, wanda a rubutun yau da kullum akan alamta su kamar haka: “ai” da “au”, amma wannan ba wai yana nufin wad’annan su ne kawai tagwayen wasulan  Hausa ba, akwai wasu kamar “oi” da “ui” wanda sukan zo cikin kalmomi kamar (coi) da kalmar (kuibi) kamar yadda suke zuwa a kar’ba’b’biyar Hausa. sai ya k’ara da cewa, tagwayen wasulan “ai” da “au” su kuma ga masu magana da  harshen Hausa a matsayin harshe na biyu kamar Jukunawa sukan musanya su da wasulan “ee” da kuma “oo” idan sun zo cikin kalmomin Hausa.”

Saboda haka D’antata (1994) ta k’ara cewa, “d’ayanta tagwan wasula a harshen Hausa yakan kasance ne lokacin da wasulan “ai” da”au” suka gabaci bak’ak’e ‘yan k’urya, kamar yadda al’amarin yake a kalma kamar “Laimaa sai ta koma Leema”, sannan kuma kalmar “tsautsayi takan koma tsotsayi.”

Al’ummar  Jukunawa a matsayinsu na al’ummu  masu koyon harshen Hausa don ya zamo harshe na biyu, sukan fuskanci irin wad’annan matsaloli na d’ayanta tagwan wasula zuwa tilo, ta yadda sukan musanya wasalin “ai” da “e”, kamar haka “sai > see” shi kuma “au” da “o” kamar haka “sauk’i > soki”, a yayin da suke mu’amala da harshen Hausa.

4.6.1 Wasalin  /ai da /e/, wasalin tsaka-tsaki na k’asa da wasalin gaba na sama suka had’u suka samar da /ai/, sai suka koma wasalin gaba na tsakiya /e/. Ga misali kamar haka:

Hausa                Jukun

Waina                   wena

Daidai                   dede

Sai                       se

Baiwa                   bewa

Bala yaa sayi wena

4.6.1 Shi kuwa /au/ da /o/, wasalin tsaka-tsaki na k’asa da wasalin k’urya na sama suka had’u suka samar da /au/, sai suka koma wasalin k’urya na tsakiya /o/. Ga yadda abin yake kamar haka:

Hausa                Jukun

Sallau                    sallo

Tabarau                 tabaro

Shekarau               shekaro

Sallo ya a tafi kasuwa

Idan aka duba an ga yadda al’amarin d’ayanta tagwan wasali ya fito fili k’arara, ta yadda tagwan wasula wad’anda wasula ne mabambanta suka samar da su, akan musanya su da wasali tilo na tsakiya, na gaba ko na k’urya.

4.7  NAD’EWA


A wannan babi, bayan an yi shimfid’a don share fagen nuna irin yadda babin zai gudana, sannan aka nuna irin musanyar da ake samu na bak’i da kuma musanyar da ya shafi wasali tare da gabatar da misalai. Babin kuma ya bayyana irin yadda ake samun shafe wata ga’ba ta kalma, sannan aka kawo al’amarin da ya shafi tsarma harafi a cikin kalma, haka nan babin ya yi bayani tare da zayyano irin yadda al’amarin shafe wani harafi yake gudana a cikin kalma, sannan aka kawo abin da ya shafi d’ayanta tagwan wasali, ta yadda babin ya bayyano su a fili tare da bin diddigin misalan su cikin kalma tare da kwatanta yadda Jukunawa ke furtawa da yadda abin yake a daidaitacciyar Hausa.

 

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/tuntubi-masu-gudanarwa/

1 comment: