Sautukan Hausa A Bakin Jukunawa (4)

 

 

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SANUSI GAMBO BELLO



KUNDIN DIGIRIN FARKO NA HAUSA (B.A HAUSA) DA AKA GABATAR A SASHEN KOYAR DA HARSUNAN NIJERIYA, JAMI’AR USMANU ‘DANFODIYO, SAKKWATO


 

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           BABI  NA UKU


  TSARIN SAUTIN HAUSA A BAKIN JUKUN


3.0 SHIMFID’A


A babi biyu an zayyano sautukan Hausa da na Jukun, tare da bayyana inda suke da kama da kuma inda suke da bambanci. A wannan babi kuma an yi bayani ne dangane da tsarin sautin Hausa a bakin Jukunawa da kuma nuna irin tasirin da ake samu na harshen Jukun a muhallin furucin sautukan Hausa. Sa’annan an yi  bayanin irin bambancin da ke aukuwa a wajen furta sautukan Hausa a harshen Jukun, don gane yadda abin yake da kuma sauye-sauyen da ke faruwa. Ga yadda ake jeranto aikin don fahimtar mai nazari.

3.1 TSARIN SAUTIN HAUSA A BAKIN JUKUN


Masana kimiyyar harshe sun tabbatar da cewa, tsarin sauti a harshe na k’ok’arin duban al’amura ne da suka shafi zamantakewar sautuka a cikin kalma ko kalmomi, ta yadda wannan sauti yake zuwa a bayan wannan, idan wannan sauti ya zo tilas wannan ya kau ko kuma ya sauya sifa. Wato dole ne a sami tasirin yanayin wani sauti kan wani. Irin wad’annan sauye-sauyen wasu lokuta kan haifar da sauyin ma’ana, wasu lokuta kuma ba su haifar da sauyin ma’ana. Don haka masana irin su: Bagari (1980) da Zarruk (1997)  da Sani (1999/2010) da Mukoshy (2011) suka bayyana yadda irin wannan tsarin na zamantakewa a tsakanin sautuka yake. A inda har suka ba da ma’anar tsarin sauti kamar haka:

Mukoshy (2011) ya bayyana tsarin sauti (phonology) da cewa, “shi ne sanin bak’i da wasali da yadda suke gudana a cikin tsarin harshe.”

Shi ko Sani (2010) cewa ya yi, “Tsarin sauti reshe ne na ilimin harsuna wanda ya shafi yadda sautuka na harshe suke aiki a cikin wannan harshe.” Sannan ya k’ara da cewa, kowane harshe na duniya yana da tsarin sauti nasa, mai nuni da irin  sautuka daban-daban da ya k’unsa, da irin had’uwar wad’annan sautukan su ta da kalma, da kuma wasu canje-canjen da aka iya samu a sakamakon wannan had’uwa. Haka nan tsarin sautin wani harshe ba zai ta’ba zuwa daidai wa daida da na wani harshe ba.

A harshen Hausa, sautin /w/ a kalma tilo yakan koma /y/ idan ya zamo jam’i, a kalma kamar “ciyaawa” sai ya koma “ciyayi”, haka nan sautin /d/ a kalma tilo yakan koma /j/ idan ya zamo jam’i, a kalma kamar ‘gidaa’ sai ya koma ‘gidaje’. Sa’annan a tsarin sautin Hausa, wasali ba ya zuwa a farkon kalma , duk inda aka sami wasali a farko to yana tafiya ne da bak’in hamza. Misali, a Kalmar “aure” sai a sami bak’in hamza ‘D?d’, ya zamo kamar haka ‘?aure’ ko kuma Kalmar ‘akawu’ sai a rubuta shi kamar haka ‘?akawu’ . Baya ga  wannan, harshen Hausa ba ya amfani da tsarin cincirindon bak’ak’e kamar yadda Ingilishi da wasu harsuna ke amfani da shi.

A harshen Jukun kuma abin ya sha bamban, ta yadda wasali kad’ai kan kasance kalma mai cin gashin kansa, a kalma kamar ‘au’ wadda yake nufin ‘kai’, haka kuma akasarin kalmomin harshen, idan ya kasance shi kad’ai akan masa d’afin sautin /a/ don nuna Kalmar a matsayin ‘ma’arifa’. Misali, a kalma kamar ‘akwi’ wato ‘kaji’ amma idan ya zo cikin jimla wannan wasalin yakan kau, misali kamar haka, ‘ku ri hwe kwi’ wato ‘yana sayan kaji’. Baya ga wad’annan harshen jukun yana amfani da tsarin cincirindon bak’ak’e kamar yadda “Welmers 1973” ya bayyana, sa’banin harshen Hausa.

Ta la’akari da yanayin tsarin sautin harsunan biyu wato harshen Hausa da na Jukun da aka bayar da misalai a baya, za a ga cewa harsunan suna da bambanci matuk’a dangane da tsarin zamantakewa na sautuka, saboda haka ne idan Bajukune ya zo furta sautukan Hausa akan sami abubuwa da dama da suke aukuwa, da suka had’a da:

Musayar bak’i, misali, dagacii > dakacii

Musayar wasali, misali, noonoo >nuunuu\

D’ayanta tagwan wasali, misali, k’wai > kwe

Shafewar wata harafi a farko ko a tsakiyar  ko a k’arshen kalma, misali,

Haihuwa >aihuwaa,

mahaifii > ma’aifii,

asabar >asaba.

Tsarma bak’i a tsakiyar kalma, misali; hak’uri> hank’uri

Gajarta wasali, misali; taayaa> tayaa

Dukkan wad’annan da ma wasu suna aukuwa da tsarin sautin Hausa idan Bajukuni na k’ok’arin furta kalmomin Hausa. Cikakken bayani da misalai sai a duba babi na hud’u.

3.2 TASIRIN HARSHEN JUKUN A MUHALLIN FURUCIN SAUTUKAN HAUSA


A duk lokacin da aka yi Magana a kan tasiri ba wani abu ake nufi ba, wanda ya wuce sakamakon wani abu  a kan wani, wanda yakan faru sakamakon cud’anya ta fuskoki daban-daban. Ta ‘bangaren harshe da al’adu da ya k’unshi aure da haihuwa da kasuwanci da sana’o’i da addini da sauran hanyoyin rayuwa na yau da kullum.

Hornby da Tomori (1988) sun ce “Tasiri na nufin dama ko isa da ke sanya a sauya tunanin mutum ko aikinsa.”

A harshe, idan an yi Maganar tasirin, abu na farko da ake fara dubawa shi ne, bambancin k’wayoyin sautuka na harshen, saboda kowane harshe yana da nasa k’wayoyin sautuka na daban . ta la’akari da wannan ne aka kasa tasirin zuwa gida biyu kamar haka: mai haifar da sauyin ma’ana da marar haifar da sauyin ma’ana.

3.2.1 TASIRI MARAR HAIFAR DA SAUYI MA’ANA:


wannan na faruwa ne yayin da mai koyon wani harshe ya yi amfani da basirarsa na harshen Uwa da ya zamo dole ya yi amfani da shi don sauk’ak’awa a harshen koyo. Irin wannan yakan yi tasiri ne daga harshen Uwa kan harshen koyo misali,

Fitila >pitila,

haihuwa > aihuwa

Faata > paata.

3.2.2 TASIRI MAI HAIFAR DA SAUYIN MA’ANA-


wannan kuwa yakan kasance ne yayin da mai koyo ya yi amfani da tsarin sautuka harshen Uwa, kuma ya yi tasiri a kan harshen koyo. Misali

K’uusa > kuusa,

tsaamii >saami

Sauroo >sooroo

Idan ana Maganar tasiri mai haifar da sauyin ma’ana, abu na farkon da ake dubawa shi ne bambancin k’wayoyin sautuka na harsunan biyu kan taimaka matuk’a wurin haifar  da matsaloli ga mai koyon harshe na biyu, ta yadda mai koyon zai rik’a musanya wasu sautukan harshen koyo da na nasa harshen, domin samin sauk’in furucinsu.

Irin wannan al’amari na wanzuwa tsakanin k’wayoyin sautukan Hausa da na Jukun. Harshen Jukun ba shi da sautuka masu k’ugiya da Hausa take amfani da su, irin su: /d’/ da /’b/ da /k’/ da /k’w/ da /k’y/ da kuma /s’/ . Soboda haka sukan musanya su da kwatankwacin su marasa k’ungiya, ta yadda sukan musanya sautin /d’/ da /d/ a kalma kamar “D’anjuma” sai ya koma “Danjuma” sa’annan su musanya sautin /’b/ da /b/ a kalma kamar “‘baraawo” sai ta koma “baraawo”, haka ma, sukan musanya sautin /k’/ da /k/ a kalma kamar “k’arya” sai ta koma “karya”, su kuma musanya /k’w/ da /kw/ a kalma kamar “k’waroo” sai ta koma “kwaroo”. Shi kuma /k’y/ su musanya  shi da /ky/ a kalma kamar “k’yaama” sai ta koma “kyaama”, irin wannan ma kan faru  ga /s’/ ta yadda sukan musanya shi da /s/ a kalma kamar “tsooroo” sai ta koma “sooroo”, sannan /’y/ da /y/ a kalma Kalmar “’ya’ya” sai ta koma “yaya”.

Baya ga sautuka masu k’ugiya, akwai wasu sautukan da irin wannan musayar ke aukuwa  gare su kamar sautin /f/ sai su musanya shi da /p/ a kalma kamar “fari” sai ta koma “parii”, sa’annan sautin /r/ su musanya shi da /l/ a kalma kamar “Turare” sai ta koma “Tulare”. Da yake harshen Jukun /r/ guda d’aya suke da shi, wato ‘ra-gare saboda haka ba su bambancewa tsakanin /r/ guda biyu da Hausa ke da su, wato ‘ra-gare da ra-kad’e a kalma kamar “daaru” sai ta koma “daru”.

Baya ga sautukan bak’ak’e, irin wad’annan ma kan auku a wajen furucin wasula, ta yadda ake samun musaya wasu sautukan wasula da wasu, kamar haka:

A yayin daban-daban sukan musanya wasalin /a/ da wasalin /i/  ko /e/ ko /o/ ko kuma /o/da wasalin /u/, ya danganci muhallin da ya zo. Misali:

/a/ da /i/ a kalma kamar “rakee > rikee”

/a/ da e/ a kalma kamar “gwanda > gwenda”

/a/ da /o/ a kalma kamar “zarto > zorto”

/o/ da /u/ a kalma kamar “Dabino > Dabinu”

Sa’annan sukan musanya tagwan wasalin /au/ da wasalin /o/. misali: “tauri > tooro”, haka ma wasalin /ai/ sukan musanya shi da wasalin /e/. misali, Waina > Wena”. Dukkanin wad’annan sauye-sauyen na aukuwa yayin da Jukunawa ke k’ok’arin furta sautukan Hausa.

Saboda haka ne, Lado, (1977) ya bayyana cewa “wani muhimmin abin la’akari  da ke haifar da irin wannan tasirin shi ne, za a ga alamcin sautukan iri guda amma suna wakiltar sautuka ne mabambanta daga harsunan”.

Shi kuwa Tiffen, (1977) ya bayyana cewa “wani muhimmin abin da ke haifar da irin wad’annan matsaloli na tasiri daga harshen Uwa kuwa su ne, d’abi’un harshen Uwa ya riga ya yi tasiri a gare mu, don haka, ba mu kula don kiyayewa yayin furta sautukan bak’on harshen da muke koyo, sai dai mu furta su kawai ba tare da la’akari da yadda su masu harshen suke furta su ba.”

3.3  BAMBANCIN DA AKE SAMU WAJEN FURTA SAUTUKAN HAUSA A HARSHEN JUKUN


A duk lokacin da abubuwa biyu ko fiye suka had’u wuri guda, tilas a sami daidaito ko rashin daidaito (sa’bani), irin wannan sa’banin ake kira da bambanci. Bambanci kuwa na nufin wani yanayi ko halin da ke fayyace irin sa’banin da ake samu a tsakanin abubuwa biyu ko fiye da aka kwatanta.

Roach (1999) ya ce “Tasiri na tsarin sauti kan iya aukuwa saboda bambance-bambancen da  ke akwai na yanayin samar da sautuka kamar, karkarwar mak’wallato da rashinsa (wato ziza da rashin ziza), daga iskar da ke fitowa daga huhu zuwa kafafe daban-daban na mafurtai, baki da hanci ta yadda yake haifar da sautuka’yan baki da kuma ‘yan hanci. Sannan bambancin yanayin furuci irin su: tsayau da tunkud’au da had’iyau da makamantansu. Haka kuma bambancin da ake samu na sautuka dangane da guraben furuci irin su: Le’b’ba, hank’a, gand’a da makamantansu. Duk wad’annan tsare-tsaren kan taimaka wajen haifar da bambanci na furuci tsakanin harsuna mabambanta.”[1]

A rubutan yau da kullum sautin /f/ na harshen Hausa, da kuma /f/ a harshen Jukun, wad’annan sautukan sun bambanta dangane da mafurta, ta yadda na Hausa bale’be zuzau marar ziza ne, shi kuwa na Jukun le’ba hank’a zuzau marar ziza ne ya kasance, saboda haka, irin wannan kan iya sanya harshen Jukun su musanya sautin /f/ na Hausa da sautin /p/ a harshensu  wanda yake bale’be zuzau marar ziza, don sauk’ak’a sad’arwarsu, misali;

Fahimta       > pahimta

Saafiyaa      > sapiyaa

Idan aka dubi abin, dangane da sautuka masu k’ugiya, kamar (hamza) kuwa, Jukunawa kan shafe hamzar sai su musanya su da kwatankwancin su na harshensu marar hamza da suka saba furuci da shi. Misali:

/k’/ da /k/ a kalma kamar  “k’arami >karami”

Haka nan sautin /f/ wanda yake bale’be zuzau marar ziza ne a Hausa, suka musanya shi da /f/ wanda yake le’ba-hank’a ne a harshen Jukun, ko kuma su musanya shi da /p/ wanda yake bale’be zuzau marar ziza. Misali:

/ø/ da /f/ a kalma kamar “ øaataarii > fatari

/ø/ da /p/ a kalma kamar “furee > pure

Wani abin lura a nan shi ne, idan wasula ‘yan k’urya wato “u’ ko ‘o’ suka biyo bayan sautin /f/ na Hausa sukan musanya shi da sautin /p/. misali:

/f/ da /p/ a kalma kamar “furee > pure, fursuna > pursuna”.

Sa’annan kuma, idan wasula ‘yan gaba ne wato /i/ ko /e/ sukan musanya shi da /f/. Misali:

/ø/ da /f/ a kalma kamar “Oitilaa – fitila”, “Oeed’e > fede’.

Bugu da k’ari, sukan maye gurbin d’an nad’e harshe ra-kad’e mai ziza /r/ da bahank’e ra-gare mai ziza /r/. Misali, a kalma kamar “Daaroo > daro”. Sa’annan a muhallin da sautin bale’be d’an hanci mai ziza /m/ ya kamata ya zo,  sukan musanya shi da bahank’e d’an-hanci mai ziza /n/, wato a tsarin nan na ‘yan le’b’ba wanda idan sautin /n/ ya zo bayan ‘yan le’b’ba, misali /b/ da /f/ da mkamantansu yakan koma ‘yan le’b’ba wato /m/. misali:

Gimbiya      > Ginbiya

Amfani        > Anfani

Dangane da sautin /n/ kuwa, wanda shi kanshi ya rabu gida uku, kuma akan dube shi ne dangane da muhallin da ya zo,  ta yadda akwai mai zuwa bayan ‘yan hand’a, amma a harshen Jukun duk ba su la’akari da wad’annan sharud’an duk da yake suna da wad’annan bambancin a harshensu. Sukan yi amfani da sautin /n/ bahank’e ne kawai a kowane hali. Misali:

 

Can           > can

Hanya          > hanya

Dank’o        > dank’o

A ‘bangaren wasula kuma, za a ga cewa sukan musanya wasali guda da duk sauran wasulan, dangane da muhallin da ya zo a cikin kalma. Ga bayanin kamar haka, sukan musanya wasalin tsaka-tsaki na k’asa /a/ da wasali d’an k’urya na tsakiya /o/. Misali, talo-talo > tolo-tolo, takobi > tokobi. Haka kuma wasalin tsaka-tsaki na k’asa sukan musanya shi da wasalin gaba na sama. Misali, matsiyaacii > micaci, fartanya >fitinya. Baya ga wannan ma, sukan musanya shi da wasalin gaba na tsakiya. Misali, gaduu > gedu, gyatsa >gyetsa. Haka nan sukan musanya wasalin k’urya na sama misali, kwano > kwanu, gwaano > gwanu.

Tagwan wasula ma sukan sami irin wannan musanyar ta yadda a kullum suna tafe ne da muhallin furuci mabambanta suke had’ewa wuri guda don samar da su, walau wasalin sama da na k’asa a gaba wato su had’u su samar da wasalin /ai/ ko kuma wasalin sama da na k’asa a k’urya su had’u su samar da wasalin /au/, amma a harshen Jukun sai su mai she su tilon wasula na tsakiya. Misali, k’wai > kwe, Waina > wena, k’alau > kalo, sallau >sallo.

Ta la’akari da bayanan da suka zo a baya, za mu ga cewa, akwai bambance-bambance da dama da aka tabbatar da aukuwar su yayin da Jukunawa ke k’ok’arin furta sautukan Hausa don sadarwa

3.4 NAD’EWA


Masu  iya Magana na cewa, komai nisan jifa k’asa za ta fad’o. Wannan batu haka yake, domin kuwa a nan wannan babin ya zo k’arshe, bayan an tattauna kan ire-iren sauyi da bambancin da ake samu a yayin furucin wasu muhimman k’wayoyn sautuka na harshen Hausa da Junawa suke amfani da su a harshensu lokacin da suke k’ok’arin sadarwa. Wannan babin ya fito da matsalolin da Jukunawa kan ci karo da su a fili don mai sha’awar nazartar harshen Jukun ya sami madafa a lokacin da yake mu’amala da su.

 

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[1] A dubi kundin digirin farko na Yunisa, A. A da Rabi’u, A. 2007 Department of modern European language and linguistics (MELL), Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo Uni’bersity, Sakkwato.

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