Tasarifin Sunayen Hausawa Na Gargajiya

Amsoshi

                                             Daga


                                      Nazir Ibrahim Abbas


                             Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya


                              Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodio, Sokoto


                                      Gsm: +2348060431934


                           Gmail: ibrahimabbasnazir@gmail.com



 

Tsakure


 

Kimiyyar harshe wani fage ne da ke nazarin wasu al’amurra na harshe da suka shafi tsarin sauti da k’irar kalma da ginin jimla da kuma ma’ana. K’irar kalma ko tasarifi shi ne yake kula da bayanin k’irar kalmomi a harshe ta hanyoyin da masana suka samar. Wasu daga cikin fitattun hanyoyin tasarifi su ne ‘kumbura’ da ‘k’irk’ira’ da kuma ‘had’a kalmomi’. Wani abin lura shi ne sunayen Hausawa na gargajiya wad’anda suka danganci d’aid’aikun mutane suna da tsarin tasarifi irin na sauran gama-garin kalmomi Hausa. Wannan tsarin tasarifin ya shafi k’era su daga tushen wasu kalmomin Hausa. Saboda haka akan sami kumbura (wadda ba ta sauya ajin kalma a nahawu) da kuma tsira ko k’irk’ira (wadda ke haifar da wata kalma ta daban daga saiwa ko kalmar). Irin wannan hali na tasarifin kalmomin Hausa kan gudana har ma a cikin sunayen Hausawa na gargajiya. Ta haka ne aka samar da suna ‘Tunau’ daga kalmar aikatau ‘tuna’, ‘Jatau’ daga Kalmar ‘jaa’, da kuma ‘Giwa’ daga suna gama-gari ‘giwaa’. Wannan zai tabbatar mana da cewa babu shakka ilimin tasarifi yana taka rawa sosai a k’irar sunayen Hausawa na gargajiya, musammam wad’anda suka danganci d’aid’aikun mutane.

 

 

 


  • Gabatarwa




 

Ilimin tasarifi ‘bangare ne na nahawun harshe wanda yake kula da yadda harshe ke sarrafa k’wayoyin ma’ana wajen k’irar kalmomi. Sauran manyan sassan nahawun harshe su ne ilimin tsarin sauti da tsarin ginin jumla da fannin ma’ana.

Wannan takarda za ta yi magana ne a kan tasarifin sunayen Hausawa. Takardar za ta yi nazarin yadda harshen Hausa yake k’era suanyen jama’a da suka danganci d’aid’aikun mutane ta hanyar ilimin tasarifi. A takardar za mu ga cewa sunayen Hausawa kamar sauran kalmomin Hausa, suna bin tsarin tasarifi ko ginin kalmar Hausa.

Takardar a matakin farko, za ta kawo bayani kan ma’anar ‘suna’ da ma’anar ‘tasarifi’. Bugu da k’ari, takardar za ta tattauna sunaye, mu kuma nuna yadda ake amfani da fitattun hanyoyin tasarifi na ‘kumbura’ da ‘tsira’ ko ‘k’irk’ira’ wajen k’era su.

1.1 Ma’anar Suna da Sunayen Hausawa

K’amusun Hausa (2006) ya bayyana ‘suna’ a matsayin ‘kalmar da ake amfani da ita wajen kira ko ambaton wani abu’.

Bargery (1934: 956) ya ce: ‘suna kalma ce da ake kiran mutum ko bukin da ake yi a rana ta bakwai ta haihuwar yaro ko yarinya a cikin al’ummar Hausawa’.

Sa’eed (1977:25) ya ce: ‘sunaye kalmomi ne da ke bayyana mutane da wurare, kuma suna da ma’ana kad’an’.

Daga wad’annan bayanai, muna iya cewa a dunk’ule, ‘suna kalma ce da ake amfani da ita wajen ambaton wani abu, musamman don bambancewa da kuma rarrabewa’.

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/08/16/nazarin-ingausa-a-sakon-gsm/

1.1.1 Sunayen Hausawa

 

Ana iya rarraba sunayen Hausawa zuwa rukunai daban-daban da suka had’a da sunayen mutane da na dabbobi da na tsuntsaye da ma wurare da kuma na garuruwa da tsaunuka.

A cikin sunayen Hausawa na mutane akwai; ‘Sunayen Gargajiya da Sunayen Yanka da Sunayen Lak’abobi da kuma Sunayen Dangantaka’. (Yahaya 1978:3). Wannan takarda za ta ke’banta da yin nazari a kan sunayen Hausawa na gargajiya da suka shafi d’aid’aikun mutane, irin su ‘Dáarí da Tùnáu, Sáadà da Búudà da Màrká.

2.0 Ma’anar Tasarifi


Kalmar ‘tasarifi’, kalma ce ta Larabci. Malaman Hausa suka aro ta suka yi amfani da ita wajen bayyana wani ‘bangare na nazarin nahawu wanda ke kula da yadda ake k’era kalma a Hausa.

Fagge (2013:3) ya bayyana tasarifi da ‘k’irar kalma da ke nazarin k’wayoyin ma’ana a harshe da tushen kalmomi da k’a’idojin kumbura kalmomi da na tsirar kalmomi da kuma li’irabin kalmomi’.

  • Tasarifin sunayen Hausawa na gargajiya


Sunayen Hausawa na gargajiya kamar sauran kalmomin Hausa da ake iya sarrafawa, suna da tsari a nahawu da ake iya aza su a kai wanda ke bayyanar da yadda tasarifinsu yake gudana.

A wannan ‘bangare za mu ga akwai sunayen da muke iya kallo ta fuskar fitattun hanyoyin tasarifin nan guda biyu, wato: (a) kumbura (b) tsira ko k’irk’ira. A dukkan wad’annan hanyoyi biyu ana iya amfani da saiwa da d’afi wajen samar da kalmomi.

Kumbura a ilimin tasarifi tana nufin k’era wata kalma daga jikin wata kalmar ba tare da samun canjin ajin nahawu ba, amma ana iya samun sauyawar jinsi ko adadi ko kuma sauyawar ajin aikatau daga wani aji zuwa wani. Wasu daga cikin misalan kumbura a tsarin tasarifi kuwa su ne:

(a) Sifa- kalma: guntu

saiwa: gunt-

d’afi: -uwa

kumbura: saiwa+d’afi= guntuwa

(b) Suna- kalma: yaro

saiwa: yar-

d’afi: -o

kumbura: saiwa+d’afi=yaro

(c) Aikatau- kalma: hak’o

saiwa: hak’-

d’afi: -o

Kumbura: saiwa+d’afi=hak’o

Tsira kuwa a ilimin tasarifi, tana nufin hanyar da ake bi wajen k’era wata sabuwar kalma daga tushen kalma, wadda ajinta na nahawu ya sha bamban da na kalmar farko. Alal misali:

(a) Suna- kalma: gurgu

saiwa: gurg-

d’afi: -u (ajin suna) ko –unta (ajin aikatau)

tsirar kalma: gurg+unta=gurgunta (daga suna an samu suna d’an aikatau)

(b) Suna- kalma: mutum

saiwa-mutum-

d’afi-ta

tsirar kalma: mutum+ta+mutunta

(c)  Sifa- kalma: dolo

Saiwa: dol-

d’afi: -anci

tsirar kalma: saiwa+d’afi=dolanci (sifa an samu aiki)

3.1. Kumbura A Sunayen Hausawa


A nan akwai wasu azuzuwan kalmomi na nahawu wad’anda kumbura take samar da su. Wad’annan azuzuwan su ne na suna gama-gari da na ‘boyayyun suna da kuma ajin sifa.

(a) Suna gama-gari: Wannan ajin suna ne a nahawu wanda ake kiran kowane abu da shi ba tare da ke’bancewa ba, suna ne da ake iya samu a kowane wuri kuma a yi amfani da shi a kowane yanayi.

A cikin sunayen Hausawa akwai wad’anda ake k’erawa daga ajin na suna gama-gari don su koma na d’aid’aikun mutane. Misali:

Suna gama-gari                                    Sunan Mutum Namiji

ángòo                                                          Ángò

bàk’óo                                                                  Bàak’ó

dámóo                                                         Dámó

dárée                                                            Dáré

d’ànd’áa                                                      ‘Dànd’á

dóokìi                                                          dóokì

dúmáa                                                         Dúmá

gádóo                                                          Gádó

géebèe                                                         Géebè

k’óofàa                                                        K’óofà

A lura da yadda dogon wasali na k’arshen suna gama-gari yake komawa gajere a sunan mutum namiji (ángòo/Ángò).

(b) ‘Boyayyen suna: Shi ne sunan abin da ba a iya gain a zahiri. Wad’annan ‘boyayyun sunayen ma, Hausawa suna amfani da su wajen k’era sunayensu na gargajiya. Misali:

‘Boyayyen Suna                                   Sunan Mutum

d’áaríi                                                           ‘Dáarí (namiji)

gòodíyáa                                                      Gòodíyá (mace)

k’wàazóo                                                     K’wàazó (namiji)

násáràa                                                        Násárà (mace)

ní’ímàa                                                         Ní’ímà (mace)

wàdáatàa                                                      Wàdáatà (namiji)

yàlwáa                                                         Yàlwá (mace)

yàucíi                                                           Yàucí (mace)

(c) Sifa: Ajin kalma ne wanda ke bayyana suna. Akwai sifofi da yawa da Hausawa ke amfani da su a matsayin sunaye. Ga misali:

Sifa                                                   Sunan Mutum

dóogóo                                                        Dóogó (namiji)

dúunàa                                                         Dúunà (namiji)

fáríi                                                             Fárí (namiji)

gàjéerée                                                       Gàjéeré (namiji)

kyárcée                                                        Kyárcé (namiji)

k’àrámàa                                                     K’àrámá (mace)

k’àrámíi                                                       K’àrámì (namiji)

A dukkan wad’annan misalan na azuzuwan kalmomi, an yi amfani da hanyar tasarifi ta kumbura wajen k’era kalmomin. Abin lura a nan shi ne dogon wasalin k’arshe na suna gama-gari da na ‘boyayyun suna da na sifa yakan koma gajere a sunan mutum (mace ko namiji). Duk da wannan sauyi da kumbura ta haifar, ajin nahawu bai sauya ba.

3.2 Tsira A Sunayen Hausawa


A ‘bangaren tsira ma ana amfani da irin wannan hanyar tasarifi wajen k’era wasu sunayen Hausawa na gargajiya. Idan aka yi amfani da hanyar tasarifi ta ‘tsira’ don samar da kalma, to, ajin nahawun samammiyar kalmar yakan bambanta da na kalmar da aka samo sabuwar kalmar daga gare ta. Daga cikin azuzuwan kalmomin da ake k’era sunaye daga gare su a wannan ‘bangare akwai ajin aikatau so-kar’bau mai ga’ba biyu da ake yi wa d’afin (-au). Sai kuma aikatau so-kar’bau mai ga’ba d’aya da ake had’awa da suna gama-gari. Ga misali:

(a) Aikatau So-kar’bau mai ga’ba biyu

Tushen kalma        Aikatau       Sunan Mutum

bar-                       bàrí             Bàráu                    Bar(-au)       (namiji)

dad’-                     dàd’aá                   Dàd’í                    Dad’(-i)       (namiji)

jimr-                     jímrèe          Jìmráu                   Jimr(-au)     (namiji)

koor-                    kóorèe         Kòráu                   Koor(-au)    (namiji)

maak-                   máakèe        Màakáu                 Maak(-au)   (namiji)

may-                     máyèe         Màyáu                  Maay(-au)   (namiji)

saad-                     sáadàa         Sàadáu                  Saad(-au)     (namiji)

sunt-                     sùntàa          Sùntáu                  Sunt(-au)     (namiji)

tun-                       tuna             Tùnáu                   Tun(au)       (namiji)

(b) aikatau so-kar’bau mai ga’ba d’aya. Wannan ajin ma na aikatau yana tafiya a kan tsarin tasarifi na tsirar kalmomi. A irin wannan hali, akan yi amfani da irin wannan aikatau da suna gama-gari, sai a samar da sunan mutum. Daga cikin misalan wad’annan aikatan da ake k’era sunayen mutane akwai: Cíi da Jáa da Sháa da Sóo. Ga misalai:

Aikatau              Suna gama-gari            Sunan Mutum

Cí                         láyyá                              Cìiláyyá

Cí                         rámàa                             Cìirámà

Cí                         túmùu                             Cìitúmù

Cí                         wáakée                           Cìiwáké

Jáa                        gàbáa                              Jàagàbá

Sháa                     áayàa                              Shàa’áayà

Sháa                     d’áaríi                                      Shàad’áarí

Sháa                     ráanáa                             Shàaráaná

Sháa                     rùbùutúu                        Shàarùbùutú

Sóo                       dángì                              Sòodángì

A irin wannan yanayi, k’irk’ira aka yi, inda aka had’a aikatau da suna gama-gari aka samar da sunan mutum na gargajiya. Wani abin lura a nan shi ne, dukkan kalmomin aikatau d’in suna da karin sautin sama, amma idan aka had’a su da suna gama-gari, don samar da sunan mutum, karin sautin aikatan yana canzawa daga karin sautin sama zuwa karin sautin k’asa. Mai yiyuwa ne, a samu wani aikatau da ba mai ga’ba d’aya ba da ke iya d’aukar irin wannan k’irar tasarifi. Amma a wannan bincike wannan aikatau kawai muka gano.

4.0 Kammalawa


Wannan takarda ta yi nazarin tasarifin sunayen Hausawa na gargajiya. Takardar ta kalli sunayen Hausawa na gargajiya a matsayin kalmomin Hausa da ake iya nazarin tasarifinsu.

Wajen gudanar da aikin, mun kalli hanyoyin tasarifin nan guda biyu (wato kumbura da kuma tsira ko k’irk’ira) da ake amfani da su wajen k’era kalmomin sunayen Hausawa na gargajiya da suka danganci d’aid’aikun mutane. Sunayen, kamar yadda muka kawo su, sun had’a da wad’anda ake samu daga suna gama-gari da ‘boyayyen suna da kuma sifa.

Bugu da k’ari, mun kawo wasu rukunan sunaye da ake k’erewa ta hanyar amfani da aikatau so-kar’bau mai ga’ba biyu da kuma inda ake had’a aikatau so-kar’bau mai ga’ba d’aya da suna gama-gari a samar da hard’ad’d’en sunan mutum.

Wannan bincike ya tabbatar da cewa ana iya kallon wasu al’amurra da suka shafi tasarifin sunayen Hausawa na gargajiya da suka danganci d’aid’aikun mutane.

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/08/16/hausar-masu-kwallon-kafa-a-cikin-garin-sakkwato/

Manazarta

 

Abbas, N.I. 2012. ‘Nahawun Sunayen Hausawa’. Kundin Digiri na biyu.       Department of Nigerian Languages, Usmanu Danfodio University,         Sokoto.

 

Abubakar, A. 2001. An Introductory Hausa Morphology. Maiduguri: University Press.

 

Abdulmuminu, S. A. 1995. ‘A Study of Coumpound Nouns In Hausa’. M.A.          Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

 

Aminu, M. 1992. Matsayin Sunaye a Al’adun Hausa. Kano: Aminu Zinaria   Publishers.

 

Awak, M.K.S and Et al 2002. ‘Linguistic Overview of Tangale Traditional    Names: Examples from Tangale East’. In Maiduguri Journal of    Linguistics and Literary Studies. Vol. iv No. 2.

 

Bargery, G.P. 1934. A Hausa English and English Hausa Vocabulary. London: Oxford University Press.

 

CNHN. 2006. K’amusun Hausa. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press.

 

Daudu, G.K. 2000. ‘The Structure and Meaning of Ful’be Personal Names’. In Harsunan Nijeriya  Vol. XX Pp. 75-88. Center for the Study of        Nigerian Languages. Bayero University, Kano.

 

Fagge, U.U. 2013. K’irar Kalma A Hausa. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University   Press.

 

Ibrahim, A.M. 1992. ‘Suna da Sunaye a Al’adar Bahaushe’. Kundin Digirin Farko. Department of  Nigerian Languages. Usmanu Danfodio   University, Sokoto.

 

Kwantagora, I.S.S. 1997. ‘Tasirin Zamani Da IIIolinsa a kan Sunayen Hausawa’. Mad’alar da aka gabatar a taron k’ara wa juna sani. Faculty       of Arts and Islamic Studies. Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto.

 

Madauci, I. and Et al. 1968. Hausa Customs. Zaria: Northern Nigeria   Publishing Company.

 

Saeed, J.I. 2007. Semantics (Second Edition) Australia: Blackwell       Publishing.

 

Yahaya, I.Y. 1978. ‘Sunayen Hausawa Na Gargajiya’. Center for the Study   of Nigerian Languages. Bayero University, Kano.

 

Yakasai, S.A. 2005, ‘Aro ko K’irk’ira: Nazarin Samuwar Sababbin Kalmomi         A Jami’a da Kuma Garin Sakkwato’. Mak’alar da aka gabatar a taron       k’ara wa juna sani, Department of Nigerian Languages, Usmanu          Danfodio University, Sokoto.

 

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