Nason Sana’ar Sassak’a A Cikin Wasu Sassan Adabin Hausa

Amsoshi

Daga




Rabiu Aliyu Rambo


Department of Nigerian Langauges


Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto


E mail : dirindaji12aa@gmail.com


Phone No: 08125507991


 

 

Tsakure


A al’adance, lamarin kowace irin sana’a a duniya musamman a k’asar Hausa, wata aba ce mai matuk’ar muhimmancin gaske ga rayuwar al’umma. Ita sana’a kuwa ta k’unshi duk wani aiki da za a yi domin gudanar da wani abu da za a musanya a tsakanin al’umma. Kenan sana’a wata aba ce da mutane biyu ko fiye da haka ke yi, ma’ana da rukunin mai saye da mai sayarwa domin su samu abin dogaro da kai na biyan buk’atocinsu na yau da kullum. A wannan haujin na sana’o’in Hausawa na gargajiya, sana’ar sassak’a ba kanwar lasa ba ce,  ganin irin gudummawar da take bayarwa wajen bunk’asa tattalin arzikin Hausawa ta ‘bangarori daban daban. Adabi kuwa a hannu d’aya, tamkar hoto ne na rayuwar kowace irin al’umma. A bisa ga wannan ne, wannan takardar ta yi k’ok’arin waiwaye a kan nason da sana’ar sassak’a ta yi a cikin wasu sassan adabin Bahaushe. A bisa ga wannan manufar, takardar za ta tattauna wasu ‘bangarori na adabin Bahaushe da aka samu nason sana’ar sassak’a a cikinsu. Daga cikin ‘bangarorin adabin Hausa da aka yi nazari a kansu sun had’a da: Tatsuniya da karin magana da bak’ar magana da salon magana, sauran sun k’unshi barkwanci da ba’a da kirari da kacici kacici da kuma wak’ok’in Bahaushe na baka. Ko shakka babu, nason sana’ar sassak’a a cikin wad’annan zantuka na adabin Bahaushe ya dad’a tabbatar muna da irin muhimmancin da al’ummar Hausawa suka baiwa sana’ar sassak’a a cikin sha’anin rayuwarsu na yau da kullum. 

 

Abstract


Today culture plays a vital role in any occupation in the world, particularly in Hausaland. Infact the role of occupation in any society cannot be over emphasized. To my perception, occupations include any work done to exchange goods and services in a given time and place. It means buying and selling of goods and services with the aim of gaining from both side of individuals or group of people for the purpose of self dependence. In the field of Hausa occupations, woodcarving plays a significant role in the development of Hausaland. While on the other hand, literature portrayes the people’s way of lives which include all their daily lives activities. It is in view of the above, the paper aims at the flashing back on the relevance of wood-carving in some aspect in Hausa literature. The paper intends to discuss some areas of Hausa literature where woodcarving occupation has been assimilated. Other areas to be discuses include: Hausa Folktales, epiths, proverbs, idioms, riddles, songs among others. Without any doupt, one can says that, the influence of Hausa traditional woodcarving occupation in Hausa literature, proof to us that Hausa woodcarvers play a significant role in Hausaland.                   

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/08/16/hausar-masu-kwallon-kafa-a-cikin-garin-sakkwato/

 

1.0 Gabatarwa


 

Sha’anin sana’a musamman ga al’ummar Hausawa abu ne mai dad’ad’d’en tarihi da muhimmanci ga rayuwarsu. Wannan shi ya sa sana’o’insu suka yi tasiri a cikin al’amurransu na yau da kullum. A kan haka ne sana’o’in Hausawa suka mamaye kusan dukkan adabinsu. Don haka, wannan takardar ta mayar da hankali ne a kan nason da sana’ar sassak’a ta yi a cikin wasu sassan adabin Hausawa.

Sana’ar sassak’a wata tsohuwar sana’a ce a k’asar Hausa, Hausawa sun dad’e suna aiwatar da ita tun kaka da kakanni. Galibi masu aiwatar da wannan sana’ar suna yin ta ne domin samar wa kansu abinci da kud’ad’en kashewa musamman wajen biya wa kansu wasu buk’atoci na yau da kullum. Sana’ar tana taimakawa wajen bunk’asar wasu muhimman sana’o’in Hausawa, domin ba tare da sana’ar sassak’a ba, da wasu sana’o’in ba su kammalu ba.

Irin wannan gudummawar da sana’ar sassak’a kan samar a cikin al’ummar Hausawa ya haifar da ‘bur’bushinta a cikin adabinsu, wato sana’ar ta sassak’a ta yi naso a cikin adabin. Wannan kuwa ba zai zama abin mamaki ba ganin cewa ai shi adabi dama hoto ne na rayuwar al’umma, wad’annan zantuka na adabi su za a yi nazari domin hango gurbin da sana’ar sassak’a ta yi naso a cikin al’ummar Hausawa ta wannan haujin.

Don haka, yana daga manufar wannan bincike ya yi waiwaye, wanda Hausawa ke cewa shi ne adon tafiya, domin ganin irin yadda sana’ar sassak’a ta yi naso a cikin rassa daban daban na adabin Hausa. Daga cikinsu kuwa sun had’a da: Tatsuniya da karin magana da bak’ar magana da salon magana da barkwanci da kirari da ba’a da kacici-kacici da kuma a cikin wasu wak’ok’insu.

A k’ok’arin cimma wannan manufa, takardar ta yi fashin bak’in wasu muhimman kalmomin ginin taken binciken kamar sana’a da adabi da sassak’a. Haka takardar ta yi k’ok’arin samar da misalai daga cikin sassan adabin Hausa da aka samu nason sassak’a a cikinsu. Samun wad’annan misalai ya dad’a tabbatar muna irin muhimmancin da ke cikin sana’ar sassak’a ga al’ummar Hausawa.

2.0 Fashin Bak’in Wasu Muhimman Kalmomin Taken Bincike

A wannan sashe, nazarin ya yi k’ok’arin bayanin wasu muhimman kalmomin da aka yi amfani da su wajen gina taken wannan bincike. A nan an kawo ra’ayoyin masana daban-daban dangane da ma’anar wad’annan kalmomi. Kalmomin da aka yi bitar ma’anarsu su ne adabi da sana’a da sassak’a.

2.1 Adabi


Masana da dama sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu dangane da ma’anar adabi, samar da ma’anar adabi ba wani sabon abu ba ne, amma duk da haka wannan ba zai hana a yi waiwayen ma’anar da wasu masanan suka bayar ba a wannan haujin. A misali Dangambo, (1984:1) da  Umar, (2003:1) sun bayyana cewa kalmar adabi ta samo asali ne daga kalmar Larabci wato ‘adab’, da farko kalmar na nufin ‘liyafa’ ko ‘walima’, haka tana nufin kwarewa ko fasaha ko halin d’a’a. Daga baya ta d’auki ma’anar dukkan wani abin da aka rubuta na wak’ok’i da labarai da harshen Larabci. Bayan da Hausawa suka ari kalmar, sai suka sak’ala mata wasalin ‘i’ ta koma adabi, wanda ke nufin dukkan wani zance da aka yi na hikima mai bayyana rayuwar al’umma. A takaice adabi hoto ne na rayuwar al’umma. Idan kuwa haka ne, adabi ya k’unshi dukkan sassan rayuwar al’umma da ya had’a da wad’anda ake aiwatarwa a ka da rubutattun zantukan hikima da fasaha kamar su take da kirari da tatsuniya da bak’ar magana da karin magana da wak’a da sauran ire irensu kamar labarai da hikaya.

Ta fuskar adabin zamani, wannan bai samu ba sai bayan shigowan Larabawa da Turawa a k’asar Hausa lokacin da suka samu ilimin karatu da rubutu. Wannan kaso na adabi kuwa ya k’unshi rubutacciyar wak’a da rubutacciyar wasan kwaikwayo da rubutun zube. Wannan adabin wasu na kiransa da sunan adabin zamani ko rubutaccen adabi, domin ana aiwatar da shi ne a rubuce. Shi kuwa adabin baka ko na gargajiya an same shi ne da ka, kuma da ka ake aiwatar da shi. A k’amussun Hausa na Cibiyar Harsunan Nijeriya Bello (ed), (2006:2) an bayyana adabi da cewa: “Fannin ilimi wanda ya k’unshi labarai da wak’ok’in baka da rubutattu da wasannin kwaikwayo da al’adu da abubuwan fasaha da hikima”. Idan kuwa haka zancen yake, wannan ya k’ara tabbatar mana da gaskiyar maganar Gusau, (2011:2) in da yake cewa:

Adabi wata babbar hanya ce da d’an adam yake yin

                          amfani da ita don ya sadar da abubuwan da suka shafi

                         rayuwarsa da ta ‘yan’uwansa (iyali ko dangi ko k’asarsa)

                         ga su ‘yan’uwan ko wasu daban. Abubuwan da yakan so

                         ya sadar d’in nan kuwa sukan shafi wani abu ne ya dad’ad’a

                         masa zuciya ko wanda ya sosa masa rai ko wanda ya shafi

                        siyasa ko addini ko wayar da kai wato ilmi.

A fahinta ta dangane da wad’annan ra’ayoyi, adabi tamkar madubi ne da za a kalla a iya gane rayuwarwar al’umma baki -d’aya.

2.2 Sana’a


Samar da ma’anar sana’a k’waya d’aya ta fuskar ilimi wani abu ne mai wuyan gaske,  tuni masana suka bambanta ta k’ok’arin samar da ma’anar sana”a. Don haka, wannan nazari ya  yi waiwaye ne a kan ra’ayoyin masana dangane da ma’anar sana’a musamman a Bahaushiyar al’ada. A nan, daga cikin ra’ayoyin masanan da aka yi nazarinsu sun had’a da:

Ra’ayin Garba, (1991:11) in da yake cewa: “Sana’a ita ce tushen rayuwar al’umma gaba d’aya wadda suke dogaro da ita don gudanar da tsarin rayuwarsu na yau da kullum”. A ra’ayin Yahaya, (2001:48) cewa ya yi “Sana’a hanya ce ta amfani da azanci da hikima a sarrafa albarkatu da ni’imomi da ‘Dan adam ya mallaka don buk’atun yau da kullum”. Shi kuwa Sharifai, (1990:17) ya bayyana sana’a da cewa: “Duk wata hanya da mutun yake bi domin nema ko samun abinci, abincin yana zuwa ta hanyar kud’i ko wani abin da rayuwa za ta dogara a kai. Kuma wannan hanya ta zama wadda aka gada ce tun iyaye da kakanni. Ba wata bak’uwar al’umma ce ta kawo ta ba” A hannu d’aya kuwa, Wushishi na da ra’ayin cewa: “Sana’a hanya ce ta samun aiki na dogaro da kai don tanadar abubuwan biyan buk’atu da neman rufin asiri kan harkokin rayuwa da kuma sarrafa albarkatu ta hanyar kimiya da fasaha da karkatar da su wajen saye da sayarwa da musayar kaya don mallakar abin da ba a iya samarwa”.

Bisa ga waiwayen ra’ayin wad’annan manazarta da aka gabatar a sama dangane da ma’anar sana’a, a nan za a fahinci cewa, sana’a ba wata aba ce ba illa irin hikima da basirar da Allah Ya yi wa ‘Dan adam wajen sarrafa albarkatun da Ya ba shi domin biyan buk’atocinsa na yau da kullum.

2.3 Sassak’a


Masana da dama sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu tare da kawo ra’ayoyi makusanta juna dangane ma’anar sassak’a. A misali, Zaruk da wasu, (1987:54) sun bayyana cewa:

 Aikin masassak’i dai shine sarar itace da sarrafa itacen

                              ta hure shi domin aikatar da shi zuwa dukkanin irin

                              abubuwan da ake buk’ata. Misali ta irin wannan ne ake

                              samar da kayan aikin gida kamar turmi da ta’barya. Mas-

                              assak’a ne ke samar da turmi da akushi da ta’barya da kuyafa.

                              Sannan sukan sassak’a kujerar zama ta mata zuwa su k’otar

                              fartanya da dai sauransu”.

Su  Hamma, (2004:10) cewa suka yi, Sassak’a ita ce aikin da ake yi domin samar da kayan amfani musamman kayan aikin noma da suka had’a da k’otar gatari da kalme da kuma kayan aikin gida da suka had’a da kujerar zama ta mata da akushi da sauransu, kuma ana sarrafa su ne da itace. A k’amusun Hausa kuwa na Bello (ed) (2006:393) an bayyana ma’anar sassak’a da “ Abin da aka sarrafa daga itace kamar allo da turmi da mutum-mutumi, sana’ar sassak’a sana’a ce ta sarrafa itace don samar da surori”.

Bisa ga wad’annan ra’ayoyi na masana dangane da ma’anar sana’a, ana iya cewa sana’ar sassak’a wata sana’a ce da ake aiwatarwa ta amfani da sarrafa itace zuwa wasu abubuwan buk’atocin al’umma na yau da gobe musamman abin da ya shafi kayan aikin gida da sufuri da yak’i da kid’a da aikin gona da dai wasu buk’atoci na musamman.

3.0 Nason Sassak’a a Adabin Hausa


Wannan sashen ya yi k’ok’arin nazarin yadda aka samu nason sana’ar sassak’a a cikin wasu sassa na adabin Hausawa. A k’amusun Hausa na CNHN, (2006:357) an bayyana naso da cewa: “ Shiga ko bazuwar wani abu cikin wani”. Don haka, takardar ta killaro ‘bur’bushin sana’ar sassak’a a cikin adabin Hausawa musamman abin da ya shafi tatsuniya da karin magana da bak’ar magana da barkwanci da wak’a da wasu zantukan hikimar Bahaushe.

3.1. Nason Sana’ar Sassak’a a Cikin Karin Magana

Masana da dama sun sun bayyana ra’ayinsu dangane da ma’anar karin magana gwargwadon tasu fahinta. Daga cikin ra’ayoyin da wannan bincike ya yi bita a kansu sun had’a da ra’ayin ‘Dangambo, ( 1984: 38 ) inda yake cewa: “Karin magana dubara ce ta dunk’ule magana mai yawa cikin zance ko ‘yan kalmomi kad’an cikin hikima” . A wani k’aulin an bayyana karin magana a matsayin wani tsararren zance wanda yake zuwa a gajarce, na hikima da zalak’a tare da bayar da ma’ana gamsasshiya mai fad’i mai yalwa, musamman idan aka tsaya aka yi bayani daki-daki. Haka Bada, (1995:46) yana da ra’ayin cewa, karin magana shi ne amfani da kalmomi domin bayyanin wani aiki da ma’anarsa ta sha bamban da kalmomin. Bugu da k’ari, Knapper,(1989:2) yana kallon karin magana a matsayin wasu gajerun zantuka ne da suke k’unshe da hikimomin magabata cikin harshe na musamman, mai saukin fahinta da saurare. A yayin da a hannu d’aya Bello, (1989:1) ya kalli karin magana a matsayin maganganu ne na hikima da ake amfani da adon harshe don bayyana ‘bangarori daban daban na rayuwa. Shi kuwa Bunza, (2005:4) yana da ra’ayin cewa: “ Karin magana wata magana ce da aka kaririye ma’anoninta aka sarrafa shi zuwa ga wata manufa ta musamman da mai ita ke son a fahinta”. A yayin da Sarkin Gulbi, (2014:112) ya kalli karin magana a “ matsayin wani zance ne da akan shirya cikin hikima da nak’altar harshe wanda kan zo da sigar tak’aita zance da ke k’unshe da hoton rayuwar al’umma ta gaba d’aya”. A tawa fahinta, karin magana wani zance ne a cure wuri d’aya wanda ake yi domin isar da wani sak’o, kuma galibi idan mutun bai ji Hausa sosai ba da wuya ya iya fahintar abin da ake nufi.

A wannan muhallin, sana’ar sassak’a ba a bar ta a baya ba sai da ta kutsa ta yi naso a cikin karin maganar Bahaushe. Ga misali ga kad’an daga cikin nason sassak’a a cikin karin maganar Bahaushe.

  1. Sara da sassak’a ba ya hana Gamji toho.

  2. Iccen da za a yi cokali, da kauri gare shi da sassak’a ya k’are.



  • Wahala tallar turmi.


A misali na d’aya, yana nufin lokacin da mutun ya shiga wani wahalar rayuwa ko aka ta yi masa hasada, amma daga baya sai ya samu biyan buk’ata. A misali na biyu kuwa, yana nufin a lokacin da wani ya nuna k’yashin wani abu da wani zai samu. A misali na uku kuwa nuni yake da irin wahalar da wani kan shiga a sanadiyyar sana’ar da ake ganin ba riba. Samuwar wannan ya nuna irin yadda sana’ar sassak’a ta yi naso a cikin adabin Bahaushe musamman ta fuskar karin magana.

3.2 Nason Sassak’a a Cikin Bak’ar Magana

Bak’ar magana zance ne wanda ake isarwa a mafi yawan lokutta domin nuna rashin jin dad’i ko mayar da martani ga wani bisa ga wani zance. A nan ma, masana da dama sun bayyan ra’ayoyinsu dangane da ma’anar bak’ar magana. A misali ‘Dangambo, 1984:36) yana da ra’ayin cewa: “ Bak’ar magana, magana ce da kan ‘bata rai ga wanda aka yi wa”. A hannu d’aya,  Zaruk, (1998)  su kuwa sun fahinci bak’ar magana a matsayin abar raha ce dangane da yanayinta da yanayin da ya haddasa yin ta, haka kuma aba ce da kan sa ‘bacin rai, ita ma saboda dalilin da ya jawo yin ta. Don haka, a iya cewa bak’ar magana tana iya d’aukar fuska biyu; tana iya ‘bata ran wanda aka yi wa, tana iya zama raha tsakanin wanda ya yi da wanda aka yi wa.

A lokutta daban-daban ana samun nason sana’ar sassak’a a cikin bak’ak’en maganganun Hausawa a tsakanin masassak’a da wadanda suke huld’a da su a cikin al’umma musamman masu sayen sana’arsu. Wani lokaci ana samun aukuwar bak’ar magana tsakanin masassak’a da masu aiwatar da wata sana’a ta daban. Aukuwar wannan kuwa, nuni yake da irin muhimmancin da al’ummar Hausawa ta baiwa sana’ar sassak’a a k’asar Hausa.

A misali ana samun irin wannan inda masassak’i ya kai gyaran gizagonsa ga mak’eri har suka yi musayar bak’ak’en maganganu kamar haka:

Mak’eri: Na sassak’a ne? Sai masassak’i ya ce,

Masassak’i: A’a na noma ne

Haka ana samun bak’ar magana a tsakanin masassak’i da masu sayen kayan sana’arsa. Misali

Masu saye: Turamen ga kuwa sun sassak’u?

Masassak’i: A’a gundulwa ne ( yana nufin yana sare iccen ya kawo kasuwa)

Mai saye: An ya yau ko turamen na iccen marke ne ?

Masassak’i: A’a na iccen roba ne na sassak’a.

Duba daga wad’annan misalai, ya nuna yadda ake samun nason sana’ar sassak’a a cikin bak’ar magana a al’ummar Hausawa.

3.3 Nason Sassak’a a Cikin Kirarin Bahaushe

Ahamed,(1980) a cikin Mode, (2013:886) ya bayyana ma’anar kirari da cewa: “ Kirari jeren kalmomi ne da ake amfani da su domin kod’a ko kushe wani ko wasu ( maza ko mata) ko wata dabba ko wani gari ko masu wata sana’a, a duk lokacin da aka yi wa wani ko wani abu za ka ga ana bayyana, kamanta ko siffanta shi da wani abu mai k’warjini ko k’arfi ko kankanta ko ban tsoro ko abin k’i ko k’asaita ko shahara ko alfarma. A wani lokaci kuma ana had’awa da sunan iyaye da ‘ya’ya da kakanni a cikin kirari. Haka Yakubu, (1972) da Kafin Hausa, (1997) duk sun bayar da ma’anar kirari makamancin haka.

A tak’aice dai kirari na nufin kambamawa ko zugugutawa ko tallata wani abu da ake da muradin jama’a su d’auke shi da muhimmanci. Idan kuwa haka abin yake, samuwar kirari ga sana’o’in Hausawa ba wani abin mamaki ba ne saboda muhimmancinsu ga rayuwar a’ummar Hausawa. Saboda muhimmancin sana’ar sassak’a ga al’ummar Hausawa, sun tanadar mata wasu kirari da ake yi mata domin kambama sana’ar a cikin al’umma.

Ga kad’an daga cikin misalin nason sana’ar sassak’a a cikin kirarin Bahaushe:

  1.     Sakke mayen icce, kai masassak’i tsare hannunka

  2. Gizago manta sabo ko gizago ba ka da sabo

  3. Idan da amana da d’an masassak’i bai cire hannu ba

  4. Sassak’a sana’ar kasada


Ta zaune mai kamar an huta

Lalla’ba kashe mai k’ugu

Gwarzonki bai zama a yi hira

 

vi Sakki kada mai yawa ka d’ebi kad’anne

vii Sari dunya sari d’oruwa, komai girman basakke ba ya turmi da goriba.

 

Daga wad’annan misalai na kirari da aka yi wa sana’ar sassak’a, misali na (i) yana nuna yadda mai sana’ar sassak’a ya gwane a sha’anin sarrafa itace. A misali na (ii) da na (iii) kuwa yana nuna irin had’arin da ke tattare ga sana’ar sassak’a ta yadda ba kowa zai iya yin ta ba, domin ko su masassak’an ‘yan gado da’k’yar suka sha. Wannan kuwa ya faru ne ganin kusan dukkan kayan aikinsu masu kaifi ne. A misali (iv) kuwa yana nuna siffar yadda ake sana’ar a zaune , wannan zaman kuwa shi ke haddasa ciwon baya tare da ciwon d’ankanoma (basur) wanda mai ciwon basur ba ya iya zama a yi hira da shi.

3.4 Nason Sassak’a a Cikin Kacici-kacicin Bahaushe

Kacici-kacici wani nau’in magane da ake yi a cikin hikima da basira domin auna fahintar wanda ake wa. Galibi wasu ‘yan tambayoyi ne da ke buk’atar amsa, amma kafin mutun ya fahinci amsar sai ya yi tunani mai zurfi domin zantukan a dunk’ule suke. Ana amfani da wannan ne domin isar da wani sak’o ga jama’a musamman ta koya masu wani darasi ko watsa kwakwalwa. Don haka, a fagen sana’o’in Bahaushe, ya yi amfani da wannan salon domin nuna muhimmancin sana’o’in ga al’umma. A nan sana’ar sassak’a ma ba a bar ta a baya ba, domin ta samu muhalli a wannan haujin.

Ga misali kamar haka:

Tambaya: Na sara ba ta saru ba, na sassak’a ba ta sassak’u ba

Amsa:       Inuwa

Tambaya: Samarin gidanmu masu fararen kai

Amsa:      Ta’bare

Tambaya: ‘Yar bak’a jakar mata

Amsa:      Kujerar zama ta mata

Tambaya: Akushin baba gagara sud’i

Amsa:      k’ududdufi

Tambaya:  Bak’in mutum a gaban sarki

Amsa:     Akushi

A wannan misali yana nuna mana yadda aka samu nason sana’ar sassak’a a cikin kacici-kacicin Bahaushe wanda ya dad’a tabbatar muna nason sassak’a cikin adabin Bahaushe. Ko shakka babu, samuwar irin wannan nason, yana nuna irin muhimmancin da al’ummar Hausawa suka ba sana’ar sasssak’a a rayuwarsu.

3.5 Nason Sana’ar Sassak’a a Cikin Ba’ar Bahaushe

CNHN, (2006:25) sun bayyana ba’a da zolaya ko muzantawa cikin wasa. A wannan fuskar, ana iya cewa ba’a wasu lafuzza ne da aka shirya ana aiwatarwa a tsakanin al’umma. Ana samun aukuwar ba’a a tsakanin sana’o’i masu taubasantaka da juna da nufin k’ara dank’on zumunci a tsakaninsu. Wannan ba’an yana wanzuwa ba tare da wani ya ji an ‘bata masa rai ba. Don haka, ana samun aukuwar ba’a domin samar da kyakkyawan zamantakewa a tsakanin al’umma musamman masu aiwatar da sana’o’i daban daban a k’asar Hausa. Ga misali akwai ba’a  tsakanin masassak’a da mak’era kamar haka:

Mak’eri: ‘Da sara uba sara ba mai cewa d’aya shi bari

Masassak’i: Wuta gare ku gadadda ce

Ire iren wad’annan ba’a ana shirya su ne domin k’ara dank’on zumunci a tsakanin masu aiwatar da wad’annan sana’o’in. Haka wannan na nuni da irin alak’a da fahintar juna da ke akwai a tsakanin masu aiwatar da wad’annan sana’o’i a cikin al’ummar Hausawa.

3.6 Nason Sana’ar Sassak’a a Cikin Barkwanci

Wasan barkwanci yana daga cikin azancin maganganun Hausawa, akwai masana da dama da suka bayyana ra’ayinsu dangane da ma’anar barkwanci. Tukur, (1999) a cikin Sayinnawal, (2012:134) ya bayyana barkwanci da cewa:

Wasan barkwanci ruhi ne na ‘yan’uwantaka a tsakanin

al’umma, da tabbatar da cakud’uwar k’abilu wuri d’aya

su tunkari manufa guda. Wasan barkwanci yana inganta huld’a

tsakanin k’abilu, wad’anda kafin faruwarsu ba sa ga maciji

da junansu a harkar siyasa da al’ada. Irin wannan wasan

barkwanci kuwa ya had’a da wanda yake gudana a tsakanin

Fulani da Barebari da tsakanin Nufawa da Katsinawa da

tsakanin Tiv da Fulani da tsakanin Hausawa da Jukunawa

ko kuma na tsakanin Zage-zagi da Kanawa da sauransu.

A ra’ayin ‘Dangambo, (1984:36) a hannu d’aya kuwa cewa ya yi, “ barkwanci zantuka ne na raha da wasu mutane, wad’anda Allah Ya hore wa iya raha, magana da ban dariya ke yi wa mutane”. Haka CNHN, (2006:39) sun bayyana barkwanci a matsayin “Raha ko wasa na fatar baki don ban dariya”. A hannu d’aya tana iya d’aukar ma’anar yaudara ko zolaya ko ‘bad-da-bami. Shi kuwa Sarkin gulbi, (2015:78) ya ce “Barkwanci wasa ne na fad’i-in-fad’i a tsakanin al’umma wanda yake cike da raha da annashuwa”.

Bisa ga fahinta, idan aka yi nazarin wad’annan ma’anoni na barkwanci da manazarta suka samar, ana iya cewa barkwanci wasu zantuka ne na hikima da ake aiwatarwa a cikin wasa a tsakanin al’ummomi daban-daban domin samar da raha da nishad’i tare da kyautata huld’a a tsakanin al’umma. Shi kuwa sha’anin kyautata huld’a a tsakanin al’umma bai tsaya a kan k’abilu kawai ba, a’a ya shafi sauran ‘bangarorin rayuwar al’umma musamman abin da ya gi’banci sana’o’insu. Don haka, takardar ta yi duba a  kan barkwancin da ke wanzuwa a tsakanin masu sana’ar sassak’a da wasu sana’o’in Hausawa. Ana samun wanzuwar barkwanci a tsakanin masu aiwatar da sana’o’in Hausawa domin nuna k’asaitar masu sana’ar ga abokan barkwancinsu. Wani lokaci kuwa domin nuna kishi ga d’ayan sana’an ko nuna fifikon amfani a tsakanin sana’o’in. Irin wannan kuwa ya taka muhimmiyaar rawa cikin adabin Hausawa, ta yadda ya k’ara dank’on zumunci a tsakanin masu aiwatar da wad’annan sana’o’i suka zama tamkar taubasan juna.

Ga misali akwai barkwanci tsakanin masassak’a da mak’era. Ganin cewa sana’ar k’ira a k’asar Hausa tana d’aya daga cikin sana’o’in da ke samar wa sana’ar sassak’a kayan aiki, kamar yadda a hannu d’aya suma kayan aikin sassak’a kan tallafa wajen kammaluwar wasu kayan aikin k’ira. Saboda wannan dangantaka sai aka samu wasa na barkwanci da ke gudana a tsakaninsu. Misali a cikin barkwanci suna gaya wa juna haka:

Masassak’a: Mak’eri abokin wuta, ko can tare kuke

Mak’eri:      Sakke gwanin kashin icce, ba na raya shi ba

A wannan misali, mak’eri yana nuna al’adar da aka san masassak’i da ita, ita ce ta saran icce, domin sana’arsa ta dogara ne ga sarrafa itace. A hannu d’aya masassak’i na nuna alak’ar mak’eri da wuta, domin da wuta ne yake sarrafa k’arfe wajen gudanar da sana’arsa.

3.7 Nason Sassak’a a Cikin Salon Magana

Salon magana yana d’aya daga cikin maganganun azanci wanda Hausawa ke aiwatarwa a cikin zantukansu na yau da kullum. Galibi ana amfani da salon magana ne domin nuna gwanintar harshe da samar da nishad’i ga mai yi da mai saurare. A nan an samu nason sana’o’in Hausawa a cikin salon maganganunsu domin nuna irin muhimmancin da ke damfare a cikin sana’ar ga al’ummar Hausawa. Wani lokaci Hausawa kan yi salon magana da ya ji’banci wata sana’a domin fitowa da sana’ar a sarari ga wanda bai san ta ba, ko don ya nuna muhimmancinta ga al’umma ko domin kambama ta ga masu ita ga sauran jama’a.

Ganin irin tasirin da sana’ar sassak’a ke da shi ga al’ummar Hausawa, wannan ya haifar da nason sana’ar a cikin salailan maganganunsu na yau da kullum. Ga misali akwai salon maganar Hausawa da ke cewa:

  1. Salamu alaikum matar k’ona k’ota


k’ona k’ota yana gida?

k’ona k’ota ba ya gida

to ke matar k’on k’ota

ba ni aron k’otar k’ona k’ota in k’ona

ko ni matar k’ona k’ota

ban k’ona k’otar k’ona k’ota ba

sai kai bak’on k’ona k’ota

zan baka k’otar k’ona k’ota ka k’ona

Idan aka lura, daga wannan misali na salon magana, an gina shi ne da k’ota wanda masassak’a kan samar. Nason k’ota a nan ya dad’a nuna muna irin muhimmancin da Hausawa suka baiwa sana’ar tun kaka da kakanni.

  1. Turmi ture kura kura ture turmi


Turmi ture kura kura ture turmi

Turmi ture kura kura ture turmi

A wannan misali kuwa za a ga an samu nunnugen kalmar turmi a ciki wanda aka samo daga sana’ar sassak’a. Abin buk’ata a nan mutum ya maimaita wad’annan zantuka har sau uku ba tare da wani kuskure ko ingausa ba.

3.8 Nason Sana’ar Sassak’a a Cikin Tatsuniya

Tatsiniya ma wani ‘bangare ne adabin Hausawa, don haka, tuni masana adabi suka yi kyakkuawan bayani dangane da tatsuniya. Daga cikin abin da manazarta suka yi nazari a kan tatsuniya sun had’a da ma’anarta da zubi da tsarinta da yadda ake aiwatar da ita da masu aiwatar da ita da lokacin aiwatar da ita. Manazarta kamar su Umar, (1980) da Zaruk da wasu, (1986) da ‘Dangambo, (1984) da sarkin Sudan (2000) sun yi k’arin bayani a kan wannan maulu’in.

Ganin cewa tatsuniya wata makarantar farko ce ga al’ummar Hausawa inda suke cusa wa yara tarbiya a cikin raha da nishad’i, wannan ya sa an samu nason sana’ar sassak’a a cikin tatsuniyoyin Bahaushe musamman domin nuna irin muhimmancin sana’ar ga a’ummar Hausawa.

Misali akwai wata ‘tatsuniyar wani namiji masassak’i a gindin dinkin gidansa’. A cikin tatsuniyar, bayan an bud’e ta da ‘Gatanan Gatananku’ sai aka fara cewa:

A wani gari mai suna Damamusau, an yi wani mutum mai suna sakke,

shi wannan mutumin sana’arsa sassak’an turame da k’otar hauya da

gyare-gyaren turame, har gari-gari yake bi yana wannan sana’ar ta

sassak’a, kuma yana had’awa da noma. Kuma idan rani ya yi yakan

je wani gari da ake kira Maikusumbi cin rani. Idan damina ta fad’i ya

dawo gida da nemansa ya ci damina, sai kuma kaka ta yi an yi girbi

ya adana hatsinsa ya sake fita… Labaran, (2016:74-76)

A nan za a ga an samu nason sana’anar sassak’a a cikin wannan tatsuniya, wannan kuwa  na nuni da irin  bagiren sana’ar sassak’a ta samu a cikin adabin Hausawa tun kaka da kakanni.

3.9 Nason Sana’ar Sassak’a a Cikin Wak’a

Wak’a wata muhimmiyar kafa ce ta isar da sak’o a cikin al’umma.  A wannan haujin an samu bijirowar nason sana’ar sassak’a a cikin wak’ok’in Hausawa. Don haka, a wannan bagiren takardar ta yi duba ne ga irin nason da sana’ar sassak’a ta yi cikin wak’ok’in Hausawa.

Misali a cikin wak’ar Aminu Alan Wak’a, a wak’arsa mai taken: ‘Wak’ar Baje Kolin Jahar Kano’ in da yake cewa:

Na tuna ranar baje koli, ranar da na gano Turawa

Sun zo suna yin ta’ajibi an kai sun gano dukawa

Balle a kai su fannin k’ira ko nahiya ta gun jimawa

Malam ka duba harkar sak’a matanmu ma suna burgewa

Suna rabe zare da abawa har angala ‘ya’yan baiwa

Sai ku ga masu sassak’a turmi za kai jukum kura dambarwa

Noma ko ya zama tushenmu da shi muke tufa da ciyarwa.

Amshi: Mu muke da kasuwar al’ada kurmi fa kasuwar dukawa.

(Aminu Alan Wak’a: Wak’ar Baje kolin Jahar Kano)

Haka ana samun nason sana’ar sassak’a a cikin wak’ok’in dandali wad’anda ‘yan mata ke aiwatarwa a lokacin da suke wasanninsu na gad’a. Misali a cikin wata wak’a mai suna ‘masoyi’ an samu nason sana’ar sassak’a. Ga dai yadda wak’ar take:

Gindin wak’ar: Ayye raraye alo munga aye yaraye

Amshi:    Ayye yaraye

…........................................................

Jagora: Mu yi sak’a mu kwana yin sak’a

Amshi: Ayye yaraye

Jagora: Mu yi sassak’a mu kwana yin sassak’a

Amshi: Ayye yaraye

Jagora: Mu yi rini mu kwana muna rini

Amshi: Ayye yaraye

…...................................................

( Wak’ar Dandali ta ‘yanmata mai suna Masoyi)

Haka a cikin wata wak’ar ta dandali akwai inda aka samu nason sassak’a inda ‘yan matan ke wak’a suna cewa:

…………………………………

Jagora: Na tuna fa lallai ku tafa mani

Don ko saurayina tuni ya k’ware kan gini

ya je ya k’era bene da kud’i ya kawo mini

in tsantsaro atamfar da ba za ni raina shi ba.

Amshi:      Alo ‘yan samari sana’a da dad’i take duk

saurayin da bai sana’a ya zamo soriye.

Jagora:   Ku gafara in d’an juya in yi taku haka

Domin ko ni saurayina ya k’ware sassak’a

ya je ya k’era turmi har da dutsen nik’a

A zahiri sana’a ba za a raina ba.

Amshi :    Alo ‘yan samari sana’a da dad’i take duk

saurayin da bai sana’a ya zamo soriye

…………………………………………

(Wak’ar ‘yanmata ta Dandali)

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/11/08/waibuwar-masunta/

4.0 Kammalawa


Ba shakka sana’o’in gargajiya na Hausawa sun  taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin adabin Hausawa.  Za a iya tabbatar da haka ta nazarin irin nason da sana’o’in suka yi a cikin wasu sassan adabin Bahaushe. Wannan takardar ta yi k’ok’arin gano yadda aka samu nason sana’ar sassak’a a wasu sassan adabin Hausawa. Daga cikin sassan adabin da aka yi duba a kai sun had’a da nason sana’ar sassak’a a cikin karin magana da bak’ar magana da salon magana da barkwanci, sauran sassan adabin sun k’unshi ba’a da kacici-kacici da kirari da tatsuniya da wak’a. Nason sassak’a a cikin wad’annan zantuka na adabin Bahaushe ya dad’a nuna muna irin muhimmancin da al’ummar Hausawa suka bai wa sana’ar sassak’a. Don haka, akwai buk’atar al’ummar Hausawan wannan zamani su yi rik’o sosai ga wannan sana’ar ta sassak’a saboda irin rawar da take takawa wajen bunk’asa tattalin arzikin Hausawa a ‘bangarori daban –daban na rayuwa.

Manazarta


Bada, B. D. (1995) A Litterary Study of Themes, Functions and Peotic Devices of Hausa Karin magana.  Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Department of Modern European  Langauges, Usmanu Danfodiyo University,Sokoto.

 

Bichi, A.Y. (1979) Culture Reflection in Hausa Folklore An Introduction. A cikin Harsunan Nijeriya. Vol ix No viii, Jami’ar Bayero,Kano.

 

Bunza, A. M. (2005) Arashi ya Gogi Bak’auye: Nazarin Karin Maganar Arashi da ke       Jikin Motoci. Muk’alar da aka gabatar a Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya. Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo,Sakkwato.

CNHN, (2006)  K’amusun Hausa. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello Universiyt Press.

Dan‘iya, M. A. (2006) Tasirin Kimiya da K’ere-K’eren Zamani a Kan Sana’o’in Hausawa Na Gargajiya. Kano: Kabs Print Services.

‘Dangambo, A. (1984). Rabe-Raben Adabin Hausa Da Muhimmancisa. Kano: Triumph Publishing Company.

Fadama, M. (2015) Sarkanci a Lardin Sakkwato. Kundin Digiri Na Uku. Sashen Harsunan Nigeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato.

Garba, C.Y. (1991) Sana’o’in Gargajiya a K’asar Hausa.  Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limeted.

Gusau, S. M. (2011) Adabin Hausa a Sauk’ak’e. Kano: Century Reseach and Publishing Limited.

Ibekwe. P. (1989) Proverb for Africa and Carribean in wit and wisdom of Africa. London: Work View Publishing Company.

Kafin Hausa, A.U. (1997) Kirarin Sarakuna da na Garuruwa. A cikin Harsunan Najeriya. Vol ix No viii,  Jami’ar Bayero, Kano.

Knappert, J. (1989) The A-Z African Proverbs. London: Karnak House Publishers.

Labaran. S. (2016) Gudummawar Sana’ar Sassak’an Jirgin Ruwa A Garin Yauri. Kundin Digiri Na Farko, Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato.

Madabo, M.H. (1976) Ciniki Da Sana’o’i A K’asar Hausa. Ibadan: Thomas Nelson Nigeria Limited.

Madauci, I. da wasu (1968) Hausa Custom. Zaria: Northern Nigerian Publishing Company.

Mode, M. A. (2013) Kirari and the Reconstruction of Hausa Town’s History.  In Excerpts of International Seminar on The Deterioration of Hausa Culture, Organised by Katsina State History and Culture Bureau in Collabaration with Umaru Musa Yar adua University, Katsina.

Sanyinnawal, S. I. (2012) Cud’ed’eniyar Sana’o’in Gargajiya A Adabin Bakan Bahaushe.Kundin Digiri Na Biyu. Sashen Harsunan Nigeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo.

Sarkin Gulbi, A. (2014) Magani A Ma’aunin Karin Magana. Kundin Digiri      NaUku,   Sashen Harsunan Nigeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato.

Sarkin Sudan, I.S. (2000) Magani Da Siddabaru Cikin Rubutattun K’agaggun Labaran Hausa.  Kundin  Digiri Na Biyu. Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato.

Sharifai, B. (1990). ‘Take Da Kirarin Sana’o’in Gargajiya: Nazarin Ma’anarsu Da Muhimmancinsu Ga Rayuwar Hausawa’. Kano: Kundin Digiri Na Biyu. Sashen Harsunan Najeriya. Jami’ar Bayero.

Umar, M.B. (2003). ‘Tasiri Da Yad’uwar Adabin Bakan Hausa’. Zaria: A cikin Zaria Journal of Language Studies. Vol.1

Umar, M. (1980) Adabin Bakan Hausa. Zaria: Mangwaron Babajo Publishing Centre.

Yahaya, I.Y da wasu (1992) Darussan Hausa Don Manyan Makarantun Sakondare 3. Ibadan: University Press.

Yahaya, I.Y da wasu (2001) Darussan Hausa Don Manyan Makarantun Sakondare 2. Ibadan: University Press Plc.

Yakubu, B. (1972) The Phenemenon of Kirari in Hausa Society.  Ahamadu Bello College. Kano.

Zaruk, da wasu. (1986) Zaman Hausawa Bugu Na Biyu. Lagos: Islamic Publication Bureau.

Zaruk, R.M. da wasu. (1987) Sabuwar Hanyar Nazarin Hausa Don K’ananan Makarantun Sakondare Littafi Na ‘Daya. Ibadan: University Press Limited.

 

No comments