Muhimmancin Dabbbi Wajen Ha’baka Al’adun Hausawa: K’e’ba’b’ben Nazari daga Wasu Littattafan Adabin Hausa

Amsoshi

 

 

Daga


Rabi’u Aliyu Rambo


Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya


Jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo, Sakkwato


Email:rabiualiyurambo@yahoo.com


Phone: 08125507991




Muk’alar da aka gabatar a taron k’ara wa juna Sani na k’asa da k’asa a Niamey Junhuriyar Nijar, Don Tunawa da Marigayi farfesa Muhammad Hambali Jinju. Daga Ranar 19-21 ga watan Fabrairu 2014.


 

Tsakure


A al’adance dabbobi suna taka muhimmiyar rawa ga al’ummar Hausawa. Hausawa sukan yi amfani da dabbobi a al’amurransu na yau da gobe kamar a fagen aikin gona da fatauci da tsaro da tafiyar da mulki da sauransu. A wannan mak’ala , an yi k’ok’arin nazarin rawar da dabbobi ke takawa wajen gina wasu al’adun Hausawa a cikin k’agaggun labarai wanda su Ahamad Inuwa Ingawa da Ali Hydar Aliyu da Jean Boyd suka rubuta. Wannan mak’ala za ta yi nazarin wasu labarai ne a cikin Littattafan Ka Koyi Karatu sabuwar hanya da Ka Kara Karatu sabuwar hanya da Ka Yi Ta Karatu sabuwar hanya da Iliya Dan Maik’arfi. A nan, an yi k’ok’arin fidda yadda aka gina wad’annan labarai ta amfani da dabbobi domin a gina wasu al’adun Hausawa. Wannan ba zai zama abin mamaki ba, domin rayuwar d’an’ adam da ta dabbobi suna gudana ne tare a mafi yawan lokutta, domin suna cud’anya da juna. Ita kuwa al’ada hanya ce ta rayuwa baki d’aya. Kenan, ana iya bayyana al’adun al’umma ta amfani da dabbobi tamkar nuni a cikin nishad’i.

 

 

 

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/11/06/sansamin-gamji-mai-cika-bakin-akuya-bitar-littafin-sanyinna-district-events-trends-turning-points/

1.0 Gabatarwa


Kasancewar al’adun Hausawa wata gona mai fad’in gaske, mai d’auke da abubuwa da yawa a cikinta. Idan aka dubi wannan da idon basira, za a fahinci cewa, akwai abubuwa da dama da suka had’u suka samar da wannan al’adar. Wasu daga cikin sassan da suka gina wad’annan al’adun Hausawa sun had’a da mutane da dabbobi da tsirrai da tsuntsaye da aljannu da wurare da kayayyaki da dai sauransu. Kowane ‘bangaren  al’ada ana iya samun wasu abubuwa da suke su ne tubalan gininsu. Misali idan aka d’auki tatsuniya za a taras wuraren da aka fi amfani dasu su ne, kogo ko k’urgunmin daji ko wani gari mai nisa ko gulbi ko fadama ko marmaro ko mafitar rana ko k’wai ko tufafi ko abinci da sauransu da yawa.

Dabbobi wasu halittu ne wad’anda Allah ya yi a bayan k’asa masu rai da ke da bambanci da wadda ba ita ba . Wannan shi ya sa Hausawa ko masana da tsofaffi suke amfani da su wajen tsara labarai domin a samu gina al’umma ta gari ta hanyar nuna wauta ko dabara ko jarunta ko hikima domin yara su kwaikwaye su ko su k’aurace musu. A cikin wannan muk’alar, za a dubi yadda masana suka tofa albarkacin bakinsu dangane da ma’anar dabbobi da ita kanta al’adar, tare da kawo kad’an daga cikin misalan wasu k’agaggun labarai ta amfani da dabbobi musamman domin gina wata al’ada ta Hausawa.

A k’ok’arin hak’a ta cimma ruwa, muk’alar ta yi laluben ma’anar dabba da al’ada daga ra’ayoyin manazarta daban-daban. Daga nan mak’alar ta ci gaba da nazarin jirwayen dabbobi a cikin wad’annan k’agaggun labarai domin gina wasu sassan al’adun Hausawa. A k’arshe, takardar ta kawo wasu daga cikin fa’idojin amfani da dabbobi wajen gina wasu al’adun Hausawa.

 

1.2  Ma’anar  Dabba


Masana da dama sun tofa  albarkacin bakinsu dangane da ma’anar Dabba. Duk da yake kowane daga cikin ma’anar yana iya zama kar’ba’b’be musamman idan aka dubi hujjojinsu dangane da ba da ma’anar. Duk da yake bayar da ma’anar abu kai tsaye abu ne mai wuyar gaske, sai dai kowa na kirdadon ma’anarsa ta zama kar’ba’b’biya kuma gamsasshiya ga jama’a. Hasali ma kalmar ararrar kalma ce. Asalin wannan kalmar daga harshen larabci ta fito,A Larabce ana kiran ta ‘Aldabbah’ sannu a hankali ne Hausawa suka are ta suka Hausantar da ita ta koma ‘dabba’. Almu’ujamul Wajeez ya bayyana ma’anar al-dabbah da cewa;

  ‘Aldabbatu ita ce dukkan halittar da ke tafiya a kan doron k’asa,

                       amma ma’anar ta fi ke’bantuwa ga dabbobi musamman wad’anda

                      ake amfani da su wajen harkar sufuri’.

                     Almu’umul Wajeez, (2009:209)

Haka ma Newman ya bayyana dabba da cewa:

 Dabba halittace mai rai da take da ‘yancin motsi

                             daga wani wuri zuwa wani wuri’. Newman, (1997:11)

Ra’ayin Bargery, cewa ya yi dabba tana nufin:

 “duk wata halitta bisa doron k’asa misali dabbar gida da dabbar daji”

                          Bargery, ( 1934:691)

Haka a cikin k’amussan Hausa an bayyana dabba a matsayin:

 ‘duk wata halitta mai k’afa hud’u’  K’amussan Hausa,( 2006:691)

Shi kuwa Abraham yana da ra’ayin cewa dabba na iya d’aukar ma’ana kamar haka:

  “ duk wata halitta da ta shafi dabbobi masu

                                janciki da k’wari da kifaye da tsuntsaye ana

                                kiransu dabba, sannan akwai dabbobin daji

                                da na gida” Abraham, (1946: 159)

Ta wata fuska kuma, akwai masu ra’ayin cewa:

 “Dabba wata halitta ce da Allah mad’aukaki sarki ya

                                 halitta ya kuma mallaka muna wasu , (mu ‘yan adam)

                                 mu sarrafa su yadda muke so. Kuma kamar yadda Allah

                                 ya ba mu wad’ansu baiwa dabbobi ma Allah ya ba su”

                                Muhammad, (1986:1)

Bisa ga bayanan da suka gabata dangane da ma’anar dabba, a nan, za a ga an samu ma’anoni mabambanta kowa da yadda ya kalli abin. Idan aka lura za a ga cewa, ma’anonin suna da dangantaka da juna . A nawa fahinta, ina ganin dabba na iya d’aukar sigar duk wata halitta mai rai a doron k’asa wadda ba mutun ba, ba kuma tsirrai ba. Dabbobi sun kasu gida-gida dangane da muhallinsu; akwai na gida da na ruwa da na tudu da sauransu.

 

 

1.3  Ma’anar Al’ada


Kamar yadda aka ambata a baya cewa, samar da ma’ana wadda take kar’ba’b’biya kuma gamsashiya ga kowa abu ne mai wahala. Don haka, a wannan fuskar za a yi k’ok’arin kawo wasu ra’ayoyi ne na masana da manazarta dangane da ma’anar al’ada.

A ra’ayin wani shaihin malamin al’ada ya bayyana al’ada da cewa:

 “Al’ada tana nufin dukkanin rayuwar d’an Adam tun daga

                                haihuwarsa har zuwa kabarinsa. A ko’ina mutun ya samu

                               kansa, duk wata d’abi’a da ya tashi da ita tun farkon rayuwa,

                               ya tarar a wurin da ya rayu, ko yake rayuwa, ita ce al’adarsa

                              da za a yi masa hukunci a kai. Bunza, (2006: xxxii)

Ya k’ara da cewa babu wata al’umma a doron k’asa face tana da nata al’adu wadda ke bambanta ta da sauran al’umma.

A wani ra’ayin, shaihin malami Abdul-k’adir Dan gambo yana da ra’ayin cewa:

“Al’ada ita ce abar da aka saba yi yau da gobe.

                                       Al’ada wani yanki ne na rayuwa da ta k’unshi

                                        wasu halaye, d’abi’u da aka saba yi yau da kullum

                                        don rayuwa. Akwai al’adu masu kyau akwai da

                                          maras kyau” Dangambo(1984:38)

Bisa ga wad’annan ra’ayoyi na masana dangane al’ada, ana iya ganin cewa dukkanin ma’anarsu kusan d’aya ne da juna, domin duk suna magana ne a kan d’abi’u ko halayen gudanar da rayuwa baki d’aya. Wad’annan hanyoyin kuwa sun had’a da yanayin zamantakewar al’ummar Hausawa’ wanda ya shafi dukkan matakan rayuwar Bahaushe( aure da haihuwa da mutuwa)

Wannan mak’alar, za ta yi k’ok’arin kawo jirwayen dabbobi a cikin wasu k’agaggun labarun Hausa wad’anda su Muhammad Inuwa Ingawa suka rubuta a cikin littattafansu na Ka Koyi Karatu da Ka Kara Karatu da Ka Yi Ta Karatu ( Sabuwar hanya ) da littafin Iliya Danmaikarfi. A nan, za a yi k’ok’arin kawo yadda aka yi amfani da dabbobi wajen gina wasu sassan al’adun Hausawa.

 

 

1.4  Jirwayen Dabbobi A Cikin Wasu Rubutattun K’agaggun Labarai


Yawanci dabbobi a  wannan muhallin sun fi taka muhimmiyar rawa a rukunin adabin bakan zube domin nan ne ake zuba bayani cikin rubutu. A irin wannan muhalli akan yi amfani da  dabbobi ko dai domin fad’akarwa ko nishad’antarwa ko a fito da wani abu da ake son al’umma ta amfana da shi na gyaran rayuwarsu na yau da gobe. A cikin ‘bangarorin da aka fi amfani da dabbobi domin a nuna ma mutane wani abu mai kyau ko maras kyau su ne a wajen k’agaggun labarai ko tatsuniya ko hikaya ko almara da dai sauransu.

Ganin cewa, al’adun Hausawa al’adu ne da mafi yawa ake tashi da su tun yara na k’anana a rayuwarsu. Wannan ya sa a makarantun firamare malamai irinsu Muhammadu Ingawa da Ali Hydra da Jean Boyd suka shirya littattafai masu d’auke da gajerun labarai masu karantarwa domin yara su san yadda za su yi zaman duniyarsu . Yawancin wad’annan labarai an gina su ne ta amfani da dabbobi domin yara sun fi sauk’in fahintarsu. Misali a cikin littafi na biyu na Ka Koyi Karatu sabuwar hanya akwai labarai kamar:

= Gada da ‘yarta ( shafi na 39 )

= Kaza da Giwa ( shafi na 44 )

= Kwad’i biyu  ( shafi na 46 )

A misalin labarin wasu kwad’i biyu, labarin na nuna cewa, wad’ansu kwad’i guda biyu suka fad’a cikin kwaryar madara , suka kasa fita. Suna ta iyo har d’ayan ya gaji ya ce :

“ yau kwanana ya k’are” sai ya bar k’ok’ari

                                ya nutse ya mutu . Amma d’ayan ya yi ta yi ,

                                ta wurin motsin nan da yake har mai ya taru .

                                sa’annan ya hau bisa curin mai ya yi tsalle

                                ya fita. Allah ya ce ‘tashi in taimakeka’.

                                Ingawa (2007:46)

Wannan labarin yana nuna muna duk wani hali da ka shiga kada ka yanke k’auna ga samun nasara. Haka labarin na gina yadda ake son Bahaushe ya zama mai k’wazo da himma a k’ok’arin fidda kansa daga kowace irin matsala ya samu kansa. Abin kulawa anan shi ne, al’adar Bahaushe ba ta aminta da halin nuna kasawa ba a cikin al’amurransa na rayuwa baki d’aya.

A cikin littafi na uku kuwa , akwai guntattakun labarai kamar:

= Kare da Kura da Damo (shafi na 3 )

= Kurege da Bushiya  (shafi na 6 )

= Dila da Zal’be (shafi na 8 )

= Ungulu da Shaho ( shafi na 10 )

= Hana Wani Hana Kai (shafi na 16 )

=Yi Takatsantsan da Duniya (shafi na 18 )

= Sannu Bata Hana Zuwa ( shafi na 30 )

Daga jerin wad’annan misalai na sama , idan aka dubi misalin “Hana Wani Hana Kai” inda labarin ke cewa :

Wad’ansu ‘yan kurciya guda biyu suka za’bi

                                   wuri za su yi shek’a , sai ga wata ta zo ta ce

                                  ‘ku tashi! Gidana ne , suka ce : Ba za mu

                                   tashi ba ,domin mun riga ki zuwa’ Ta ce yaya

                                  kuka riga ni ? Ai ku yara ne bara da barawaccan

                                  duk nan na yi shek’ata. Sai suka kama fad’a , har da

                                 fige-figen gashi. Ba su sani ba , ashe kyanwa

                                 tana mak’e tana kallonsu . Da ta ga hankalinsu

                                 ya rabu da su sai ta yi but ta danne su duka

                                uku ta cinye . Ba wanda ya sami gidan .

                                 Ingawa (2007:16 )

Al’adar da wannan guntun labari ke nunawa ita ce k’ok’arin gina zamantakewa mai nagarta a tsakanin al’ummar Hausawa . Domin inda wad’annan kurciya sun nuna k’aunar juna ba su yi fad’a a tsakaninsu ba , da kyanwa ba ta samu nasarar kashe su ba. Wannan kuwa, ya yi dai-dai da Karin maganar nan  na Hausawa da ke cewa: ‘Sai bango ya tsage k’adangare ke samun wurin shiga’. Wannan na dad’a nuni da cewa husuma a cikin al’umma ba abin da zai jawo illa hasara.

A cikin littafi na hud’u kuwa, mai suna Ka Yi Ta Karatu ( sabuwar hanya ) akwai jerin labarai da aka yi amfani da dabbobi wajen k’aga su, kuma kowannensu yana d’auke da wata al’ada ta musamman a tsakanin al’ummar Hausawa. Misali:

= Karambanin K’auyen Hanya ( shafi na 7-8 )

=Hankaka Mai Hikima ( shafi na 9 )

= Dila Sarkin Dabara (shafi na 12-13 )

= Komai Ka Samu Gode Allah (Shafi na 20-21)

= Samu Ya Fi Iyawa (Shafi na 24-25 )

= Gasar neman Aure ( Shafi na 32)

= ‘Beran Birni da ‘Beran Daji ( shafi na 34-35 )

Ingawa, (2007)

Idan aka d’auki misalin auren kwad’o, shi ma za a ga cewa a cikin labarin akwai ‘bur’bushin bayyana al’adar aure a ciki. A al’adar Bahaushe kafin a yi aure sai namiji ya sallama gidan mata, ya nemi aure idan sun aminta da juna sai a yi auren. Haka labarin ya gina wani sashe na al’adar d’aukar amarya a k’asar Hausa. Wannan kuwa ana iya ganinsa a fili idan aka yi nazarin wad’annan baitoci daga cikin labarin.

“--Ya je gidan ‘bera fa

Kwad’o ya yi sallama

 

Yaya ‘bera kina nan?

Sai ta amsa ga ni nan

 

In kin yarda zo mu je

Aure na ke so da ke

 

Ita ba ta k’i shi ba

Ta hau bayansa------“

Ingawa, (2007:10)

Bayan wad’annan k’ananan litattafai na firamare, akwai wasu manyan litattafai wad’anda ake nazarinsu a makarantun gaba da firamare. Akwai littafin Iliya Dan maikarfi wanda Ahmadu  Ingawa ya wallafa a shekarar 1970. A wannan littafin, marubucin ya kawo labari mai tsawo na Iliya, amma a wannan mak’ala za a fi mai da hankali ne ga irin rawar da kwalele dokin Iliya ya taka a cikin labarin.

Idan aka dubi labarin Iliya Dan maik’arfi za a ga irin k’ok’arin da dokinsa ya yi a wajen karo da mazaje da Iliya ya yi a lokacin gwagwarmayarsa. Misali kafin had’uwar Iliya da Falalu sai da Iliya ya yi wa dokinsa kwalele kirari yana cewa:

 “ kwalele dokin Iliya , kwalele dokin yak’i ba

                            ni saisheka ba ni kuwa bada aronka ! Kwalele

                            ya yi haniniya kamar ya san abin da Iliya ke fad’a ,

                            daga nan Iliya ya gyara ya d’auko sirdi ya aza

                            ya d’aure tamau ya sa’bi kulki ya rataya takobin

                             wargaji ya d’au mashi da kwari da baka ya

                             zabura ya nufi wajen Falalu”

                             Ingawa ( 1970:46)

A nan, za a ga tasirin kirari a cikin al’ummar Hausawa, domin tare da wannan kirari ne dokin Iliya ya k’ara samun k’arfin gwuiwa na shiga yak’e-yak’en da ya yi da maigidansa Iliya . Wannan al’adar kuwa dad’ad’d’iya ce kuma har gobe ana amfani da ita idan buk’atar haka ta taso musamman domin gusar da tsoro da k’ara k’aimi wurin tunkarar abokan gaba.

A yak’in  Iliya na k’arshe, Waldima ya sake neman taimakon Iliya da ya taimaka masa kan sarki abokin gaba bisa ga yak’in da za su yi. Misali inda marubucin ke cewa:

“ Iliya ya harzuka zuciyarsa ta cika da hushi .

                                           Dokinsa kuma haka . Iliya ya tashi da hushi ya

                                           k’ara gyara d’amara ya ja majayin sirdi ya rataya

                                           takobinsa da mashi ya sa’ba kulkinsa ya hau kwalele .

                                           Kafin su soma tafiya sai kwalele ya ce: Shugabana

                                           Iliya ka yi hak’uri da tafiyarmu a yau , ka yi yak’e-yak’e

                                           da yawa duka kai ke cin nasara , amma a yau naga

                                           babu sa’a sosai ribar mu kad’ance sai dai kuma abin

                                          da mad’aukakin sarki ya yi . Na ga abokan gaba sun hak’a

                                          rami guda uku dominka na tabbata zan iya haye rami

                                         na farko da na biyu amma ba zan iya haye na uku ba,

                                         ina rok’onka ka yi hank’uri sai gobe”.

                                         Ingawa, ( 1970:46 )

Can zuwa k’arshen labarin, Iliya dai ya yi nasara , a wannan labarin an yi amfani da doki domin a k’ulla zaren tunanin marubuci. Labarin na nuna irin muhimmancin doki a rayuwar d’an Adam musamman yadda dokin ya taimaka ma Iliya wurin yak’e-yak’ensa yana cin nasara. Shawarar da dokin ya ba shi na cewa, yau ba nasara yana nuna al’adar soyayya da k’auna da ke tsakanin dabbobi da mutane musamman ga masu kyautata masu.

 

1.6  FA’IDAR AMFANI DA DABBOBI WAJEN GINA AL’ADUN HAUSAWA


Babu shakka, akwai fa’idoji da dama da ke damfare a cikin k’agaggun labaran littattafan Ka Koyi Karatu da Ka Yi Ta Karatu da Ka Kara Karatu da kuma Iliya ‘Dan maik’arfi wad’anda su Ahmadu Ingawa suka wallafa. A cikin wad’annan littattafai akwai labarai da dama da aka gina ta amfani da dabbobi daga cikinsu ana samun fa’idoji daban-daban da suka shafi dukkan matakan rayuwar Bahaushe baki d’aya. A cikin wad’annan labarai akwai inda aka yi amfani da dabbobi domin fito da wasu halaye na kirki saboda mai karatu ko nazari ya yi koyi da su. Idan kuwa aka fito da wani mugun hali na wata dabba ana son mai karatu ko nazari ya guje mata.

Da yake mafi yawan labaran an gina su ne domin nishad’antarwa ko cusa wani tunani na musamman ga yara da sauran al’umma, sanya dabbobi a cikin labarin na sa yara su yi saurin fahintar sak’on da ake so su fahinta da sauri. ‘Dan ‘adam ya saba gudanar da rayuwarsa da dabbobi , domin suna zaman cud’eni-in-cud’eka ne a tsakaninsu da juna ta yadda za su amfani juna .Sha’anin al’ada kuwa, lamari ne da ya shafi rayuwa baki d’aya na kowace al’umma,  wadda ake fayyacewa a cikin wad’annan k’agaggun Labarai. Don haka, a mafi yawan lokutta ana d’auko rawuwar al’umma ne tare da na dabbobin da suke rayuwa tare. A nan, ana amfani da dabbobi domin a gina ko bayyana wata al’ada ta al’umma. Hasali ma Hausawa na cewa “ kukan kurciya jawabi ne , mai hankali ke ganewa”  Ana iya ganin wannan a fili idan aka koma cikin labarin nan na Dila da Hankaka, inda bayan hankaka ta tsinci nama ta koma kan bishiya domin ta ci abinta , sai ga Dila sarkin dabara ya ce: “Kai rannan na ji kina rera wata wak’a mai dad’i ! Muryarki da zak’i take . Ina ma za ki sake rera mani ita”. Dahiru, (2012:42) Bayan Hankaka ta ji an yaba ta sai ta yi k’ok’arin rera wak’ar , naman ya fad’o Dila ya d’auke.

Wata fa’ida ta amfani da dabbobi shi ne ta ‘bangaren kamancin d’abi’unsu da na mutane. Dabi’a na nufin wani hali da ya ke’banta ga mai yinsa shi kad’ai . Dahiru (2012) ya rawaito Dunfawa yana mai baiyyana halayyar rayuwar mutun wadda yake gudanarwa don kare kansa. Abin nufi anan shi ne halayya na nufin abin da mutun ko dabba ya ke’banta da shi a lokacin gudanar da rayuwarsa. Idan aka yi nazari za a ga cewa, halayyar dabbobi sun yi kama da na mutane a wasu ‘bangarori na rayuwa daban daban. Wannan kuwa ya taimaka wajen sauk’in gina labarai inda za a kawo wasu al’adun al’umma ko d’abi’unsu a kuma fahince su cikin sauk’i.

 

1.7  Nad’ewa


Ganin cewa wannan mak’alar, mak’ala ce da ta yi laluben jirwayen dabbobi a cikin k’agaggun labaran Ka Koyi Karatu da Ka Kara Karatu da Ka Yi Ta Karatu wanda su Ahamadu Ingawa suka wallafa. Takardar ta yi tabbatar cewa labarum suna d’auke da wasu  al’adun Hausawa wad’anda za a iya fahinta daga labaran. Kafin a tsunduma cikin aikin, muk’alar ta yi k’ok’arin kawo ra’ayoyin masana dangane da ma’anar dabba da kuma al’ada. Haka mak’alar ta gano  yadda rayuwar ‘Dan’ adam (Bahaushe) take iya gudana da dabbobi domin yanayin zamantakewarsu ta amfani juna. Ita kuwa al’ada rayuwa ce baki d’aya. Saboda kusancin mutun da dabba ya sa da wuya a d’auko hoton rayuwar al’ummar Hausawa ba tare da had’a ta da dabbobi ba. Don haka, mak’alar ta yi nazarin wasu k’agaggun labarai da aka yi amfani da dabbobi a cikinsu domin isar da wani sak’o na musamman ga al’umma.

A cikin wad’annan littattafai, an kawo jerin wasu labarai da ke cikinsu, sannan aka d’auki labari d’aya aka yi nazarinsa domin a lalubo irin rawar da dabbobi suka taka wajen gina wasu sassan al’adun Hausawa. A k’arshe, takardar ta kowo fa’idar amfani da dabbobi a cikin labarai wajen gina wasu sassan al’adun Hausawa.

 

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/11/01/nazari-ko-sharhi-a-kan-littafi-mai-suna-sarka/

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