Tasirin Shirin Game Duniya Ga Ci Gaban Kasa: Nazari A Kan Dabarun Binciken Sana’ar Sassak’a A K’asar Hausa

Amsoshi

Daga



Rabiu Aliyu Rambo


Department of Nigerian Languages


Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto


Email: dirindaji12aa@gmail.com


                                                  Phone No: 08125507991


Da


Musa Shehu


Department of Nigerian Languages


Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto


Email: msyauri@yahoo.com


Phone No: 07031319454




Abstract


Globalization, the new world order, has today captured the attention of the entire world. Indeed, it is believed to be a global development. It is a process of advancement and increase among the world’s countries and people’s facilities by progressive technological changes in locomotion, communication, political and military power, knowledge and skills as well as interfacing of cultural values, system and practice. (Bichi, 2014:95).The wood carving industry has been practice in many parts of West African communities in which Hausaland is included. The industry has passed through many stages of development, from purely primitive structure to a near-modern business. Wood carving is an important and established traditional artifact industry in Hausaland. The industry has a very good cultural based that has influence in many ways, its organization, product and survival to date.Today, researchers on Hausa wood carving recognizes not only the significance of globalization on Hausa wood carving  research studies, but also some negative aspect imposed by this globalization on the current Hausa wood carving studies are equally identified. It is in view of the above concept of globalization and woodcarving research methord study, this paper aims at studying the impact of globalization in the current wood carving research work in Hausaland. Thus, the paper focused its attention on the positive impact of globalization which directly or indirectly paved way to national development in the 21th century. Moreover, the negative aspects of globalization on the same issue have been treated.

 Tsakure


Shirin game duniya, wani sabon tsari na duniya, a yau ya mamaye dukkanin al’amurran duniya baki d’aya. Hak’ik’a, wannan tsari ya haifar da bunk’asar duniya. Wannan tsari ne na samar da bunk’asar al’ummomin k’asashen duniya ta fuskar k’ere-k’ere, susuri, sadarwa, siyasa da k’arfin soja , ilimi da fasaha, al’adu da tsarin gudanar da rayuwa baki d’aya. (Bichi 2014:95). An dad’e ana aiwatar da sana’ar sassak’a a cikin al’ummomi daban-daban na k’asashen Afirka wanda ya had’a har da k’asar Hausa. sannu a hankali, wannan sana’ar ta dad’e tana samun ci gaba daga wannan mataki zuwa wancan, tun daga yadda ake aiwatar da ita a gargajiyance ya zuwa wannan zamani da sana’ar da ta samu wani matsayi na musamman. Sana’ar sassak’a wata tsohuwar sana’a ce mai nuna fasahar masassak’a a k’asar Hausa. Wannan fasahar tattare take da al’adu da ake aiwatarwa ta fuskoki daban-daban, wannan kuwa ya inganta tsarin zamantakewarsu da ababen da sukan samar tare da wanzuwarsu ya zuwa yau. A yau, masu nazarin sana’ar sassak’a a k’asar Hausa, tuni sun fahimci irin muhimmancin da shirin game duniya ya kawo ga masu nazarin sana’ar sassak’a. Haka kuma, an gano wasu illoli da shirin ya haifar ga masu binciken sana’ar a k’asar Hausa. Bisa ga wannan matani na shirin game duniya da dubarun binciken sana’ar sassak’a, wannan takardar ta k’udurci nazarin tasirin shirin game duniya a kan dabarun binciken sana’ar sassak’a a wannan zamani. Don haka, takardar ta mayar da hankali ne wajen bayanin muhimmancin shirin wajen binciken sana’ar sassak’a. Yin wannan kuwa kan taimaka kai tsaye ko kaikaice wajen samar da ci gaban k’asa a wannan k’arni na ashirin da d’aya (21st century). Haka takardar ta tattauna a kan illolin shirin a wannan haujin. 

 

 


  • Gabatarwa




A zamanin yau duniya baki d’aya tana cikin wani yanayi da Turawa ke kira “Globalisation” watau Shirin game duniya, wasu kan kira shi da ‘Zamanin Kwamfuta’ ko ‘Duniya a tafin hannunka’ ko ‘Tsarin mayar da duniya tamkar wani d’an k’auye ko zure guda da dai sauran sunaye daban-daban da al’ummomi daban-daban suke kiran wannan shiri. Yakasai, (2010:116) yana cewa: “Tun a shekarun 1960, lokacin da lamarin zamanantar da duniya ya bayyana, masana suke kallon batun ta fuskoki mabambanta. Ga misali, a wani lokaci an yi amfani da lamarin zamanantar da duniya a matsayin  hali ko tsari cikin yanayi a wani zamani. Duk da cewa ana danganta lamarin da had’akar tattalin arzikin k’asashen duniya domin inganta rayuwa, to batun  ya kuma tattaro musayar basira, ilimi da kuma al’adu tsakanin al’ummu na k’asashen duniya”. Ko shakka babu, shirin ci gaban zamani na game duniya babu irin kusurwar da bai shiga ya yi rawa ya baje kolinsa a al’amurran  yau da kullum na k’asashen duniya ba. Zailani, (2013:236) ya bayyana cewa, “Shirin game duniya yana k’ok’arin d’ora komai na duniya ya zamo iri d’aya (Hamogenisation), kuma a sami wani tsari ya danne wasu ya maye gurbinsu (Hagemonisation)”.  Wannan ci gaban an same shi ne ta fannoni daban-daban wanda ya had’a har da sana’o’in Hausawa. Ita kuwa sana’ar sassak’a wata tsohuwar sana’a ce da aka dad’e ana aiwatarwa a k’asar Hausa. Wannan sana’ar ta k’unshi duk wani abin aka sarrafa daga itace kamar allon karatu da turmi da mutum-mutumi da sauransu. Don haka, sana’ar ta k’umshi sarrafa itace domin aiwatar da ko samar da wasu abubuwan buk’atun al’umma.  A hannu d’aya kuwa, fannin dabarun bincike a matsayin wani ‘bangare na ilimi, wannan shirin bai bar shi a baya ba sai da ya yi tasiri a kansa ta fuskoki daban daban. Misali a yau za a ga cewa, shirin ya samar da k’ere-k’eren zamani da suka shafi konfutoci da jiragen sama da na ruwa da na k’asa daban-daban. Haka an samu bunk’asar masana’antu da kafofin sadarwa na zamani. Ta fuskar kasuwanci kuwa, shirin ya samar da sauk’in kasuwanci ta yadda ake iya had’a huld’ar kasuwanci da k’asashen duniya cikin sauri da sauk’i ta amfani da hanyar yanar gizo.

Bisa ga wad’annan sauye-sauyen da wannan shirin ya haifar ga rayuwar al’umma ta fuskoki daban-daban, wannan takardar ta yi duba ga irin tasirin da wannan shirin ya haifar ga dabarun binciken sana’ar sassak’a a k’asar Hausa. Don haka, takardar ta tattauna muhimmancin shirin wajen inganta samar da bayanai a kan sana’ar sassak’a a k’asar Hausa. A hannu d’aya, takardar ta tattauna illolin shirin ga mai binciken sana’ar musamman a k’asar Hausa.

2.1 Bincike a jiya da yau


Ganin cewa, k’ashin bayan wannan bincike shi ne k’ok’arin tattauna tasirin shirin game duniya ga mai binciken sana’ar sassak’a musamman a wannan k’arni na ashirin da d’aya. Don haka, ya dace a d’an yi waiwayen  ma’anar bincike a matsayin matashiya ga takardar.

Aikin dabarun bincike aiki ne mai muhimmanci a rayuwar al’umma baki d’aya. Ta hanyar bincike ake iya samun sauye-sauye na ci gaban rayuwa a fannoni daban daban. Akwai ra’ayoyi da dama dangane da ma’anar bincike. Don haka, samar da ma’ana k’waya d’aya wadda take kar’ba’b’biya ga kowa abu ne mai wuyan gaske, sai dai kowa na kawo ma’anar ne gwargwadon fahimtarsa. Aikin bincike ya shafi nema da fito da wani abu sabo tare da kafa hujja k’wararra domin kare abin da aka fad’a. Saboda haka, mai aikin bincike yana nazarin hanyoyin magance matsaloli ne na yau da kullum. A wani k’aulin, Selltiz, (1976:2) ya bayyana bincike da cewa, shi ne bin taliyo ko d’aukar wata hanya ta bayanin abu tare da yin taka-tsantsan wurin k’arin bayanin. Ana sabunta tunani domin hangen wani kuskure ko gi’bi daga abin da aka sani tun farko. Haka a k’amusun Hormby, (2006) an bayyana bincike da cewa:  Nazari a tsanake a kan wani abu musamman a k’ok’arin bankad’o gaskiya ko sabon bayani a kan batu. Bisa ga wannan, a iya cewa, ai ba wani abu ne bincike ba, illa k’ok’arin bayyana zahirin abu a k’arara, ko a fito da shi a fili ko a fito da sabon bayani da zai taimaka a fahinci gaskiyar abin da ya shige wa al’umma kai. A tak’aice dai, bisa ga bayanan da suka gabata a baya,  babbar manufar kowane irin bincike a jiya ko a yau, ita ce k’arin neman sani da bunk’asa ilimi da tabbatar da wanzuwar wani sabon sakamako ta hanyar bincike domin samun ci gaban k’asa.

Idan kuwa haka abin yake, akwai dubarun bincike na zamani da dama da wannan shirin ya yi tasiri musamman  ga mai binciken sana’ar sassak’a k’asar Hausa.

2.2 Shirin Game Duniya (Globalization)

Stiglitz, (2006:2) yana cewa, a yau duniya baki d’aya tana cikin wani zamani da Turawa ke kira “Globalization” watau shirin game duniya. Lamarin zamanantar da duniya ko game duniya ya had’a da wanzuwar ilimi da musanyar al’adu da lamurran tattalin arziki da siyasa a tsakanin al’ummomi mabanbanta. Haka Bichi, (2014:94) ya rawaito Nsibambi, (2001) yana ganin shirin game duniya tamkar wani yanayi ne da ya kawo ci gaban hidimomin duniya baki d’aya ta fannin fasahar sadarwa da al’adu da siyasa da aikin soja da k’ere k’ere da tattalin arziki da sauransu. Bugu da k’ari, wasu masanan na ganin sha’anin game duniya ba wani abu ba ne illa batun da ya shafi had’a sassan duniya wuri d’aya ta hanyar fasahar zamani ta sadarwa da nufin kawo canji a tsakanin zamantakewar al’ummar duniya da siyasa da tattalin arziki da makamantansu. Ya k’ara da cewa, babban manufar shirin game duniya shi ne, ya fito da nufin kawo sauyi  (sabon tsari) a tattalin arzikin duniya. Akwai k’arin bayani a ayyukan Adamu, (2011) da Muhammad, (2011) da Bichi, (2012) da (2013) da Usman (2013).

Ko shakka babu, wannan shirin ya haifar da bunk’asar tattalin arziki da raya al’adun al’umma. A wani bincike, Aina, (2013:248) ta rawaito Giddens, (1990) da Tombason, (1999) da Bangu (2000) suna ganin hanyar sadarwa ta zamani (ICT) wata babbar kafa ce da ake samun had’aka da ha’baka sauran k’asashen duniya a lamurran yau da kullum.

C S I S, (2012:1) Cibiyar tsara dabarun yak’i ta k’asa da k’asa (Centre for Strategic International Studies) tana kallon lamarin game duniya wadda ICT ta haifar a matsayin wata kafa da ake samun musayar ra’ayoyin jama’a ko kamfanoni ko gwamnatoccin k’asashen duniya a fannoni daban-daban na rayuwar d’an Adam domin samun ci gaban k’asashen duniya baki d’aya. Idan kuwa haka zancen yake, sha’anin game duniya na a matsayin wata kafa ta k’ok’arin bunk’asa yanayin tattalin arziki da siyasa da yanayin zamantakewa da al’adu a tsakanin k’asashen duniya. A ra’ayin Rambo, (2014:6) cewa ya yi “babbar manufar wannan ita ce, k’ok’arin ha’baka yanayin rayuwar al’umma baki d’aya, ta yadda za a ba k’asashe masu raunin tattalin arziki damar huld’a da k’asashen waje masu k’arfin tattalin arziki domin su shiga a dama da su”.

Bisa ga wad’annan manufofi na shirin, ko shakka babu, guguwar wannan canji ba ta bar sana’ar sassak’a a baya ba, sai da shirin ya ratsa ta, ya yi ruwa da tsaki a fannoni daban-daban da suka shafi sana’ar. A nan takardar ta tattauna sauye-sauyen da mai binciken sana’ar ya samu ta fuskar   dabarun tattaro bayanai da suka shafi kayan aikin sassak’a da kayayyakin da take samarwa da d’abi’un su kansu masassak’a a k’asar Hausa. Haka takardar ta tattauna a kan illolin shirin ga mai binciken sana’ar sassak’a a k’asar Hausa a yau.

2.3 Waiwaye A Kan Ma’anar Sassak’a

Masana da dama sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu tare da kawo ra’ayoyi makusanta juna dangane ma’anar sassak’a. A misali, Zaruk da wasu, (1987:54) sun bayyana cewa:

    “Aikin masassak’i dai shine sarar itace da sarrafa itacen ta hure shi domin aikatar da shi zuwa dukkanin irin abubuwan da ake buk’ata. Misali ta irin wannan ne ake samar da kayan aikin gida kamar turmi da ta’barya. Masassak’a ne ke samar da turmi da akushi da ta’barya da kuyafa. Sannan sukan sassak’a kujerar zama ta mata zuwa su k’otar fartanya da dai sauransu”.

Haka Sanyinnawal, (2015) ya rawaito su  Hamma, (2004:10) cewa suka yi, Sassak’a ita ce aikin da ake yi domin samar da kayan amfani musamman kayan aikin noma da suka had’a da k’otar gatari da kalme da kuma kayan aikin gida da suka had’a da kujerar zama ta mata da akushi da sauransu, kuma ana sarrafa su ne da itace. A k’amusun Hausa kuwa na CNHN, (2006:393) an bayyana ma’anar sassak’a da “ Abin da aka sarrafa daga itace kamar allo da turmi da mutum-mutumi, sana’ar sassak’a sana’a ce ta sarrafa itace don samar da surori”.

Bisa ga wad’annan ra’ayoyi na masana dangane da ma’anar sana’ar, ana iya cewa sana’ar sassak’a wata sana’a ce da ake aiwatarwa ta amfani da sarrafa itace zuwa wasu abubuwan buk’atocin al’umma na yau da kullum musamman abin da ya shafi kayan aikin gida da na sufuri da na yak’i da kid’a da aikin gona da dai wasu buk’atoci na musamman. Manufar wannan waiwaye ita ce, domin  a samu haske ga yadda sana’ar take a k’asar Hausa. Fahimtar wannan zai taimaka wajen sauk’in fahimtar tasirin shirin ga mai binciken sana’ar sassak’a.

2.4 Al’ada

Masana da dama sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu dangane da ma’anar  al’ada. Misali Shoremi, (2002) yana da ra’ayin cewa, al’ada ita ce hanyar rayuwa wadda aka gada tun kaka da kakanni, kuma tana wanzuwa daga wannan al’umma (Generation) zuwa waccan. Ya k’ara da cewa, ta al’ada ne ake iya gane mutum ko shi waye. Domin al’adar mutum ita take iya bayyana halayensa da d’abi’unsa da k’abilarsa. Taylor, (1871) da M C Quail, (2005:553) duk sun tafi a kan wannan ra’ayin. A wata fuska, al’ada na iya d’aukar ma’anar dukkanin rayuwar d’an Adam tun daga haihuwarsa har zuwa kabarinsa. Bunza, (2006: xxxiii) yana ganin ginshik’an rayuwar d’an Adam su ne musabbabin ginuwar al’adarsa. Wad’annan ginshik’ai kuwa su ne aure, haihuwa da mutuwa. A k’amussan Hausa CNHN,(2006:9) an bayyana al’ada a matsayin d’abi’a ko hanyar rayuwar al’umma. Yakasai, (2010:118 ) ya rawaito Tailor, (1871) yana cewa, al’ada ta k’unshi dukkan abubuwan da al’umma ke yi wad’anda suka had’a da ilimi da imani da fasaha da k’ere k’ere da tarbiya da horo da sauran wasu halaye da mutun ke yi a matsayin sa na d’an Adam. Zailani a cewar Dangambo, (2011:383) ya rawaito cewa; Al’adu su ne d’abi’u da mutane suke gudanarwa wad’anda al’umma ta tanadar don gudanar da rayuwa da suka ji’banci huld’od’i da bukukuwa da hanyoyin da al’umma ke bayyana murna da bak’in ciki da tunani da sauran harkokin rayuwa da suka saba gudanarwa don inganta zama tare. Haka kamar yadda Zailani, (2013:239) ya bayyana, al’adu su ne suke bambancewa tsakanin wannan al’umma da waccan.

Bisa ga wannan, ana iya cewa, al’ada tamkar jini da tsoka ce a jikin mutum, domin  mutum ba ya rayuwa ba tare da su ba. Don haka, al’ada ita ce ginshik’in rayuwar al’umma baki d’aya, kuma al’ada tamkar fitila ce mai hasken gaske da za a haska, don gano sahihan hanyoyin da za a bi don bunk’asa tattalin arzikin k’asa. Ita dai al’ada  rumbun kowane irin tunani ce da fasaha da basira da dukkan sauran ginshik’an rayuwar d’an Adam, wadda ke yin jagoranci ga yadda shi d’an Adam d’in zai gudanar da rayuwarsa ta duniya baki d’aya.

Don haka, nazarin  sana’ar sassak’a a matsayin wani ‘bangare na al’adar Bahaushe, zai taimaka wajen gane yadda rukunin wad’annan jama’a ke gudanar da rayuwarsu a cikin al’umma. A nan za a ga cewa, masassak’a sun bayar da gagarumar gudun mawa wajen bunk’asa tattalin arzikin Hausawa. Misali sana’ar ta samar da aikin yi ga al’umma da samar kud’in shiga ga hukuma da samar da kayayyakin aiki na gida da sufuri da aikin gona da kid’a da sauransu. Haka sana’ar ta samar da muhimman kayan aiki ga wasu sana’o’in Hausawa kamar k’ira da rini da su (kamun kifi) da dakau da wanzanci da sauransu. Duk wad’annan kuwa, wasu bangarori ne da suka shafi al’ada, nazarinsu zai bayar da haske ga fahimtar yadda ake aiwatar da sana’ar baki d’aya.

3.1 Muhimmancin Shirin Game Duniya a Fagen Binciken Sana’ar Sassak’a  A  K’arni na Ashirin da ‘Daya Domin Cigaban K’asa

3.1.1 Amfani da Na’urorin Zamani

Yakasai, (2014:385) yana ganin amfani da na’urorin zamani masu aiki da hasken wutar lantarki sun taimaka sosai wajen adana harshe da al’adu ga masana. Abin nufi a nan shi ne, a yanzu ana amfani da wad’annan na’urori wajen adana d’imbin al’adun Hausawa. Adana wad’annan al’adu kuwa suna taimaka wa mai bincike wajen sauk’in gudanar da bincikensa.  Yin nazarin wad’annan al’adu yana taimakawa wajen kawo ci gaban k’asa cikin sauri. Misali al’adu irin su bukukuwa da sana’o’i da tsarin zamantakewa na gargajiyar Bahaushe tattare suke da manufofin  bunk’asa tattalin arzikin k’asa.  A yau za a ga cewa, duk wad’annan an shigar da su a cikin faifan CD ko DVD ko VCD ko Flash drive ko Intanet . Misali, ana iya samun wad’annan a shirye-shiryen gidajen rediyo ko talebijin ko yanar gizo. Samuwar wad’annan bayanai ta wannan fuskar, zai taimaka wa mai bincike wajen fahintar sana’ar cikin sauk’i da sauri. Haka mai binciken wannan fanni zai samu sauk’in tatsar bayanai ta amfani da wad’annan na’urorin da shirin ya samar.

Ita kuwa sana’ar sassak’a, damfare take da nau’ukan bukukuwa da tsarin zamantakewa mai karsashi a cikin al’ummar Hausawa. Misali masassak’a na gudanar da wasu bukukuwa na musamman a lokacin nad’in sarkin masassak’a ko lokacin bubukuwan aurensu da na suna. Ta fuskar zamantakewa kuwa, masassak’a sun tanadi wani tsari na musamman wanda ke inganta tarbiya da taimakon juna a tsakanin su, musamman idan wata lalura ko wani abin farin ciki ya samu d’an uwa , akan had’u a taya shi murna ko a jajanta masa. Duk ire-iren wad’annan bayanai ana iya bincikensu ta amfani da na’urorin zamani da wannan shirin ya samar. A yau wannan shirin ya samar da yanan sadarwa da aka gina su don yad’a adabi da al’adun Hausawa wanda sana’ar sassak’a ma ba a bar ta a baya ba. Ire-iren wad’annan sun had’a da shafukan www.dandali.com da www.gumel.com da www.abubakarimam.com da www.gamji.com da www.amanaonline.com da www.kanoonline.com da sauransu.

3.1.2 Sauk’i da Saurin Bincike

A nan, za a fahinci cewa, shirin game duniya ya taimaka wajen haifar da samun sauk’i da saurin binciken ‘bangarorin al’adun  masassak’a daban-daban a k’asar Hausa. Domin a yanzu, ana iya amfani da kayayyakin zamani da shirin ya samar wajen tattaro bayanai daga na’urar kwamfuta da ake yi wa lak’ani da suna “sha yanzu magani yanzu”. A nan mai bincike na iya shiga cikin yanar gizo ya binciki abubuwan da yake buk’ata, kuma nan take a samar masa da bayanan  da yake buk’ata. Ba kamar a baya ba, a wajajen shekarun 1950s zuwa 1960s da sai mai bincike ya d’auki dogon lokaci yana yawon binciken littafai a d’akunan karatu daban-daban kafin ya iya gano abin da yake bincike a kai. Wannan kuwa nuni yake da cewa, idan aka kwatanta yadda ake amfani da hanyoyi ko dabarun bincike ta amfani da tambayoyi ko intabiyu (interview) wanda za a d’auki dogon lakaci ana shiryawa, wannan shirin ya fi sauk’in samar da bayanai cikin hanzari. Don haka, a nan shirin ya taimakawa wajen samar da bayanai da za su bunk’asa sana’ar sassak’a  a cikin al’ummar Hausawa da ma wad’anda ba Hausawa ba, wanda a k’arshe zai haifar da ci gaban k’asa.

Misali, ga mai binciken sana’ar sassak’a, yana samun sauk’i da saurin gudanar da bincinsa ta amfani da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani (internet) wurin tattaro bayanai masu yawa kai tsaye. Haka mai binciken na iya tatsar bayanai ya adana a cikin DVD ko Flash drive ko CD ko VCD da sauransu. (Rambo, 2017) ya yi amfani da wannan dabarar a cikin mak’alarsa. Haka (Gummi, 2015) shi ma ya yi amfani da wannan dabarar a kundinsa na digiri na uku.

3.1.3 Sauk’in kashin kud’i (less cost)

A wannan k’arni na zamanin shirin game duniya, bincike yana da sauk’in kashin kud’i sosai. Wannan kuwa a fili yake idan aka dubi yadda shirin ya haifar da rage yawan tafiye-tafiye zuwa wasu garuruwa domin neman bayanai na wani ‘bangaren al’adar Bahaushe (sassak’a). A yanzu ana zaune wuri d’aya za a iya tattara bayanai masu dangantaka da aikin mai bincike masu yawa ba tare da wahalar da kai ba. Ahmadu, (2013:6) ya bayyana cewa, a yau ana da shafukan yanar gizo biliyon tamanin (80 billion web pages). Wannan manazarcin ya gano cewa, akwai mafi ingancin hanyoyin bincike na burauzin (browser) ya zuwa 2012 kamar haka: “Chrome da Firefox da Opera da I E 9. Duk wad’annan hanyoyi ana amfani da su ne domin zak’ulo bayanai daga intanet. Don haka, kud’in da za a yi amfani da su wajen yawace -yawacen neman bayanai, ana iya juya su zuwa wani ‘bangare na bunk’asa tattalin arzikin al’umma domin samun ci gaban k’asa.

3.1.4 Shirin ya Haifar da Sauk’in Ajiya ga Mai Bincike

A nan za a ga cewa, abubuwan da mai bincike ya binciko suna da sauk’in adanawa a wannan zamani na shirin game duniya. Ba kamar a baya ba, da ake yawaita amfani da takardu da failulluka ko wani kundi domin adana bayanan mai bincike. Wanda wani lokaci kan iya lalacewa cikin k’aramin lokaci. A yanzu an samar da wasu ababe masu d’auke da wani Maganad’isu wanda za a iya ajiye bayanai masu d’imbin yawa a cikinsa. Misali layar- zana (flash) da memori da faifan disc (CD) da ma’adanar bayanai na waje (external disc) da sauransu. Wad’annan ababe ana iya ajiye littafai na kayan jaki a cikinsu; amma za a iya d’aukar su da yatsa biyu a sanya aljihu ana yawo tamkar babu komai cikin aljihun. Kuma duk lokacin da aka buk’aci wani abu, sai a sanya cikin kwamfuta, ita kuwa ta kawo bayanan da aka adana. Wannan ya k’ara tabbatar muna irin taimakon da shirin dunk’ule duniya ya haifar a fannin dabarun binciken sana’ar sassak’a a k’asar  Hausa, wanda ko shakka babu, fahintar wannan sana’ar zai taimaka wajen ci gaban al’umma,  domin sai ka san al’adun al’umma ne za ka iya daidaita lamurran rayuwarsu domin samun ci gabansu.

Misali a gidan adana kayan tarihi na Kanta da ke Argungu ta jihar Kebbi, da RTV Sokoto da gidan rediyon Vission FM 92.1 Sokoto, duk sun  samu  adana kayan aikin sassak’a da kayayyakin da masassak’an kan samar a cikin fayafan bidiyo da na VCD, ta yadda mai binciken wannan fanni na sana’ar sassak’a zai iya nazarinsu ido-da-ido a cikin wad’annan fayafai. Domin kuwa Hausawa na cewa, “Gani ya kori ji”. Don haka, ganin wad’annan kayayyaki ido –da ido zai taimaka wajen fahintarsu sosai a lokacin da ake nazarinsu.

3.1.5 Sauk’in Gabatarwa

A k’arshen kowane irin bincike, mai bincike zai gabatar da abin da ya binciko, ma’ana gabatar da abin da ya yi bincike a kai. A misali, ga mai binciken sana’ar sassak’a, wannan shirin na game duniya na iya taimaka masa wajen sauwak’a gabatar da aikinsa. Wannan a fili yake idan aka dubi yadda ake sanya hotuna da zane zane iri daban-daban a kundayen bincike a wannan zamani.  Samuwar wannan ya faru ne saboda amfani da kwamfuta da na’urar d’aukan hoto da mai bincike ke amfani da su a wannan k’arni na ashirin da d’aya. Misali mai bincike kan sana’ar sassak’a, yana iya samun hotunan kayan aikin, ya kuma bayyana su k’arara kowa ya gani a cikin kundin bincikensa. Misali a aikin (Gummi, 2015) an kawo sunaye da hotunan nau’o’in kifaye da kayan aikin sana’ar kamun kifi a lardin sakkwato.  Haka (Labaran, 2016) ya kawo hoton nau’ukan jiragen ruwa na itace (kwale-kwale) da masassak’a kan samar a k’asar Yauri. Wannan tsarin kan taimaka a fahinci yadda ake aiwatar da sana’ar soasi. Haka nan bunk’asarsu na iya haifar da bunk’asar tattalin arzikin k’asa.

Wani nau’in sauk’i da aka samu wajen gabatar da aikin binciken sana’ar sassak’a a wannan k’arni shi ne, ta amfani da majigi (projector), wannan ya taimaka wajen bayar da bayani k’arara ta yadda za a fahinci abinda aka binciko cikin sauk’i da sauri. Misali mai binciken sana’ar sassak’a na iya amfani da na’urorin sadarwa na zamani kamar “projecter” ko “power point” majigi wajen gabatar da abin da ya binciko ga al’umma. Yin haka kuwa, zai taimaka wajen fahimtar sak’on da yake so ya isar ga al’umma cikin sauk’i da sauri.  A (Rambo, 2017) an kawo hotunan kayan aikin sassak’a da kayayyakin da masassak’a kan samar  daban-daban a k’asar Hausa ta amfani da wannan dabarar.

Haka, mai bincike kan samu sauk’i wajen rage yawan kura-kuran da yake yi a lokacin rubutunsa, domin a yanzu an riga an tsara kwamfutar ta yadda da zarar ka yi kuskuren rubuta wasu kalmomi ko nahawun harshe za ta sanar da kai, idan kuwa ka buk’aci ta gyara sai ta gyara maka kai tsaye.Wannan kuwa ya taimaka wajen samar da sakamakon bincike mai rangwamen kura- kurai da kan haifar da ci gaban k’asa cikin sauri.

3.1.6   Ta fuskar Shiye Shiryen Gidajen Yad’a Labarai

Shirin game duniya ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a wannan haujin. A nan a fili yake cewa, gidajen yad’a labarai suna da tasiri sosai a fagen binciken al’adun Hausawa musamman sana’ar sassak’a.Yakasai, (2013:386) ya bayyana cewa, a yau mai binciken al’adun Hausawa yana iya samun bayanai na al’adun Hausawa masu d’imbin yawa a gidajen yad’a labarai wad’anda aka nad’a a faifan CD ko DVD ko VCD da sauransu, wanda wannan shirin na game duniya ne ya samar da su. Misali akwai shirye-shiryen gidajen rediyo da na talebijin da aka nad’a wad’anda ke bayanin yadda ake aiwatar da sana’ar sassak’a a k’asar Hausa. Haka a rahoton, BBCS, (2012)  k’ididdiga ta nuna sassan Ingilishi da Larabci ne kawai suka fi sashen Hausa yawan masu saurare daga cikin sassan harsunan duniya 27 da Rediyon BBC ke yad’a labarai da su. A wad’annan gidajen Rediyo ana gabatar da shirye-shirye da suka shafi al’adun Hausawa wanda sana’ar sassak’a na daga cikinsu. A yau, zamani ya kawo ko da an gama gabatar da wani shiri ba ka nan, kana iya danna wasu nambobi a wayarka ko kwamfutarka, sai a maimaita maka duk abinda aka yi ba ka nan. Wannan tsari kuwa, ba k’aramin ci gaba ba ne ga mai aikin binciken sana’ar sassak’a.

Haka, ana iya fahintar sana’ar ta yin nazarin irin shirye-shiryen da wad’annan hukumomin kan shirya kamar: Shirin ‘Aiki da Hankali’ da muryar jama’ar Kano ke shiryawa da ‘Rai Dangin Goro’ na Rima Rediyo da ‘Daga Al’adumu’ na Rediyo Kebbi da sauransu. A nan mai bincike na iya amfani da wad’annan kafar yad’a labarai ta sauraren wasu shirye-shirye da aka nad’a ta hanyar yin hirarraki da masana sana’ar domin cimma muradinsa. Haka, duk wad’annan gidajen rediyon da talebijin kuwa shirin game duniya ne ya haifar da su, kuma gan gaba wajen samar da bayanai a wannan zamani.

Bisa ga bayanan da suka gabata, an gano cewa, sha’anin bincike musammam na al’adun masassak’a  Hausawa da shirin game duniya (globalization) suna tafiya kafad’a da kafad’a da juna a wannan k’arni na ashirin da d’aya. A hannu d’aya kuwa, akwai fannoni da dama da suka shafi sana’ar sassak’a da nazarinsu kan haifar da ci gaban tattalin arzikinsu da Bukukuwansu da tsarin shugabancinsu da wasanninsu da tsarin zamantakewarsu da tsarin tsaronsu da dai sauransu da dama.   Bisa ga misalan da aka tattauna a baya, akwai tabbacin cewa, shirin game duniya ya yi tasiri sosai ga sauk’ak’a bincike-binciken da mai aikin bincike kan aiwatar a ‘bangaren al’adar sana’ar sassak’a a k’asar Hausa domin samar da al’umma nagartacciya da za ta taimaka wajen bunk’asar tattalin arzikin k’asa.

4.0. Illolin Shirin Game Duniya a Fagen Binciken Sana’ar Sassak’a

Duk da irin muhimmancin da shirin game duniya ya haifar ga mai aikin binciken sana’ar sassak’a  domin samun ci gaban k’asa, mai binciken sana’ar  a wannan k’arni na ashirin da d’aya musamman a k’asar Hausa, yana iya fuskantar wasu matsaloli da za su iya yi wa aikin tarnak’i wajen  gudanar da shi. Kuma wannan shirin  game duniya ne ya haifar da su. Daga cikin wad’annan matsaloli  da mai binciken sana’ar sassak’a kan iya fuskanta a wannan k’arni akwai:

  • Matsalar d’aukewar wutar lantarki


Duk da yake wannan matsalar ba mai bincike ya haifar da ita ba, babu yadda zai yi dole ta dama masa lissafi a lokacin gudanar da bincikensa. A wannan k’arni da aka mayar da duniya tamkar wani d’an k’auye, mafi yawan bayanan da mai bincike zai samo musamman ta amfani da kwamfuta ko shiga yanar gizo, yana amfani ne da wutar lantarki. A nan da zarar an d’auke wutar, to shi ke nan mai binciken na iya shiga cikin matsala, idan ba a yi hankali ba, bayanan da ya samo da ke cikin kwamfutar duk sai su ‘bata idan bai  adana (saving ) su ba. Idan kuwa haka ta kasance, dole ya jira har lokacin da aka sake kawo wutar, ko ya yi amfani da (generator) injun ya dasa sabon aiki. Wannan kuwa ba wani sabon abu ne ba,  domin ko a lokacin da ake gudanar da wannan bincike mun fuskanci irin wannan matsalar. Wannan kuwa yana faruwa ne saboda rashin wadataccen wutar lantarki a k’asa.Wannan kuwa na iya kawo cikas ga d’imbin binciken da ake so a gudanar domin ciyar da k’asa gaba, domin da yawa daga cikin na’urorin sun dogara ne ga wutar lantarki.

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/11/09/gudunmawar-sassaka-ga-bunkasa-tattalin-arzikin-kasar-kabi/

 

  • Bayar da Kafar Satar Fasahar Wasu


A https://www.ox.ac.uk/students/acadamic/guidance/skills/plagiarism?wssl=1  an bayyana satar fasahar wani da cewa:“Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own, with or without their consent,by incorporating it into your work without full acknowledgment.”

Bisa ga wannan ma’anar, a yau za a ga cewa, wannan tsarin ya haifar da matsalar yawan satar fasahar wasu, domin sou da yawa za a tarar wasu masu bincike sun zama cima-kwance ba su iya gudanar sahihin bincike sai dai su rink’a satar fasahar wasu ba tare da izininsu ba. Misali a shafin yanar gizo na http://www.premiumtimes.com/news/headlines/210515-nigeria-president an kawo irin wannan satar fasahar wani, inda shugaban k’asar Nigeria Muhammau Buhari  a lokacin da yake k’addamar da kamfen  mai taken “Chance Bigins With Me” (Canji ya fara daga kai na)  ya wanko jawabin shugaban k’asar Amurka wanda ya gabatar a taron murnar nasarar cin za’be ranar 4-11-2008 inda Obama ke cewa: “Let’s resist the temptation to fall back on the same partnership and pattiness and immaturity that has poisoned our politiccs for so long…”  Ba shakka, irin wannan kuwa yana haifar da cikas ga samar da sabbin bincike a fannin sana’ar sassak’a, wad’anda kan taimaka wajen ciyar da k’asa gaba.

  • Rage Himma da Shagaltuwa ga K’ok’arin Binciken Wasu Littafai


Wannan a bayyane yake idan aka yi la’akari da yadda aka rage shiga d’akunan karatu domin aiwatar da bincike-binciken ilimi. Wannan yana faruwa ne domin a yanzu an samu hanya mafi sauk’i ta yin bincike inda kai tsaye kwamfuta za ta nemo maka dukkanin nau’in matsalar da ka umurce ta da shi. Idan aka lura, za a ga wannan tsarin ya taimaka wajen kawo raggwanci ga d’alibai da manazarta sana’o’in al’adun Hausawa. Misali a k’ok’arin aiwatar da wannan bincike, an yi k’ok’arin tuntu’bar wasu jami’an kula da d’akunan karatu na Jami’ar Umaru Musa Yar adua da ke Katsina da jami’ar Usmanu Danfoiyo, Sakkwato. Bisa ga tattaunawar da aka yi da su, sun tabbatar da cewa, a yanzu d’alibai sun rage shiga d’akunan karatu domin nazarin littattafai, a maimakon haka sai dai su yi amfani da yanar gizo (internet). Haka shugaban wuccin gadi na kwalejin ilimi ta Shehu Shagari da ke Sakkwato Dr Muhammadu Wadata Hakimi shi ma ya yi wannan k’orafin na rashin amfani da d’akunan karatu daga d’alibai a cikin tattaunawar da aka yi da shi a gidan rediyon “Vission FM 92.1 Sokoto”  a ranar 15-5-2017. Wannan rashin hu’b’basa da rashin k’wazo ga zak’ulo sabbin nazarce-nazarcen al’adun  masassak’a Hausawa kan kawo nak’asu ga ci gaban al’umma ta wannan haujin.

  • Rashin Sahihancin Wasu Bayanan intanet


Wannan shirin na game duniya har wa   yau, ya yi illa wajen rashin  samo sahihan bayanai na asali (originality ). Misali yadda ake amfani da faya-fayan CD ko vidio a d’auki hotunan wasu kayayyakin aikin sassak’a ko kayayyakin da masassak’an kan samar a cikin kwamfuta, sannan kwamfutar ta sanya masu kala kafin a sakar wa duniya. Wannan na raunana yadda mai bincike zai iya tantance kalar kayan sassak’an na ainihi da wanda kwanfutar ta sauya wa kala. Don haka, a nan mai bincike zai samu wahalar tantance kalar ainihi da ta kwanfuta. Bunza, (2012:45) ta nuna cewa, “Intanet tana da mutane wad’anda suke da ak’idoji da halaye da d’abi’u marar kyau da dama, wad’anda ba su da iyaka suna kuma yad’a manufofinsu a duniyar gizo..”. Irin wad’annan mutane marasa gaskiya kan iya amfani da wannan damar wajen yad’a wasu bayanai da ba na gaskiya ba, wanda wani lokaci kan haifar da samun bayanan k’arya a cikin intanet,  idan kuwa mai bincike ya yi amfani da su, suna iya yi masa jagorancin da zai haifar masa da samar da sakamakon bincike mai rauni, wanda a k’arshe zai iya kawo cikas ga ci gaban k’asa.

 

 

5.0 Kammalawa


Bisa ga bayanan da suka gabata an gano cewa, aikin binciken sana’ar sassak’a  a wannan k’arni na ashirin da d’aya, watau zamanin shirin game duniya (globalization) cike yake da nasarori masu d’imbin yawa da suka taimaka wajen ci gaban k’asa. Nasarorin sune amfani da na’urorin zamani wajen gudanar da bincike da samar da sauk’i da saurin bincike da sauk’in kashin kud’i (less cost) da sauk’in ajiya ga mai bincike da saukin gabatarwa da amfani da shirye-shiryen gidajen yad’a labarai da sauransu kamar yadda aka kawo su tare da misalai a baya.  Haka kuma, duk da irin rawar da wannan shirin ya taka wajen ha’baka sha’anin binciken sana’ar sassak’a  da kawo ci gaban k’asa, shirin ya haifar da wasu illoli ga mai binciken wannan fannin sana’o’in  Hausawa kamar dai yadda bayani ya gabata. Don haka, akwai buk’atar gwamnati da hukumomin da abin ya shafa su himmatu wajen ganin an k’ara bunk’asa wannan shirin musamman wajen samar da wadatar hasken wutar lantarki domin wad’annan na’urori ba su yi sai da lantarki. Sannan a k’arfafa dokokin satar fasahar wani a cusa himma da k’wazo wajen bincike a d’akunan karatu da bayar da tallafi na musamman ga masu bincike da dai duk wata hanya da ake ganin za ta taimaka wajen inganta wannan shiri na game duniya. Shirin game duniya, k’alubale ne a gare mu baki d’aya matuk’ar muna da burin ganin al’umma ta ci gaba da wanzuwa a kan nagartaccen tafarki na rayuwa domin samar da ci gaban k’asa.

 

 

 

 

Manazarta


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Yanar Gizo

http://www.premiumtimes.com/news/headlines/210515-nigeria-president.

https://www.ox.ac.uk.students/acadamic/guidance/skills/plagiarism?wss=1

www.dandali.com

www.gumel.com

www.abubakarimam.com

www.gamji.com

www.amanaonline.com

www.kanoonline.com

 

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