K’wayoyin Ma’anar -nne da -ayye da kuma -a A K’irar Wasu Kalmomin Jam’I Da Kuma Jinsi A Karin Harshen Sakwkatanci

 Amsoshi

Daga


Nazir Ibrahim Abbas


Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya


Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sokoto


email: ibrahimabbasnazir@gmail.com


Gsm: +2348060431934


    Da


 


Muhammad Mustapha Umar


Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya


Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sokoto


email: mustaphahausa@yahoo.com


Gsm: +2348065466400


A paper presented at the 1st Annual International Conference on The Hausa People, Language and History: Past, Present and Future, Organized by Department of Nigerian Languages and Linguistics, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, held between 23rd -25th March 2015


 

Tsakure


 

Ginin kalma wani ‘bangare ne na nazarin kimiyyar harshe wanda ke samar da kalmomi a harshe, wanda shi ne mataki na biyu ba ya ga ilimin furuci ko tsarin  sauti. A nazarin karin harshen Hausa kuwa ana iya ganin wuraren da kare-karen harshen suka sha bamban tun daga matakin furuci/tsarin sauti har zuwa ga ginin jumla da kuma ma’ana. Wannan mak’ala za ta yi k’ok’arin fito da wani bambancin da ake samu tsakanin karin harshen Sakkwatanci wajen amfani da wasu d’afe-d’afe da kuma daidaitacciyar Hausa. Mak’alar za ta fito da wad’annan d’afe-d’afen da ake samu a cikin karin harshen Sakkwatanci a wajen gina wasu kalmomin jam’i da kuma jinsi sa’banin yadda suke a bisa tsarin daidaitacciyar Hausa.

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/09/27/nahawun-ke%c6%83a%c6%83%c6%83un-kalmomin-intanet-na-hausa/

 Gabatarwa

 

Harshe wata baiwa ce da mahalicci ya hore wa bayinsa domin gudanar da sadarwa tsakaninsu, wannan sadarwa kuwa ta fi gudana ne, ta hanyar furta sautuka da ke samar da kalmomi da jumloli. Ilimin kimiyyar harshe kuwa wani muhimmin fage ne a wajen nazarin harsuna, wanda ke nazarin harshe a kimiyyance tun daga matakin furuci da tsarin sauti da k’irar kalma da ginin jumla da kuma ma’ana.

Ilimin k’irar kalma kuwa har wa yau, ‘bangare ne da ke nazarin yadda harsuna suke samar da kalmominsu ta hanyoyi dabam-dabam daidai da tsari ko tanadin harshe. A harshe kamar Hausa hanyar da ta fi shahara wajen ginin kalma ita ce, ta amfani da k’wayoyin ma’ana na kalmomin da, da ma can harshen yana da su sai ya k’era wasu daga gare su.

Wannan takardar bincike mai taken: ‘K’wayoyin ma’anar –inne da -ayye da –a, a ginin wasu kalmomin jam’i da jinsi a karin harshen Sakkwatanci’ za ta yi k’ok’arin nazarin wad’annan k’wayoyin ma’ana a ilimin tasarifin Hausa da kuma ganin yadda suke taka muhimmiyar rawa a wajen samar da wasu kalmomin jam’i a karin harshen Sakkwatanci ba kamar yadda lamarin yake a daidaitacciyar Hausa ba. Sakkwatanci kuwa wani babban karin harshe ne, da ke cikin rukunin kare-karen harshen Hausa na yamma, wanda ke da siffofin da suka bambanta shi da kare-karen harshen Hausa na gabas, kamar yadda malamai dam asana suka bayyana.

 

  • K’irar Kalma/Tasarifi


 

Kamar yadda malamai daban-daban suka bayyana ilimin k’irar kalma, shi ne mataki na biyu bayan ilimin furuci/tsarin sauti, bayan an samar da sautuka da rarraba su da kuma ganin irin sauye-sauyen da ke gudana a cikinsu, mataki na gaba shi ne yadda ake amfani da k’wayoyin ma’ana a k’era wasu sababbin kalmomi domin biyan buk’atu na sadarwa tsakanin al’umma.

 

Duk da yake akwai mabambantan siffofin kalmomi daban-daban da nau’o’in k’irar kalmar ke samarwa daidai da irin kalmar da aka samar ko kuma k’wayar ma’anar da aka yi amfani da ita akwai mai aiki irin na nahawu kawai, wanda ya shafi, bayyana lokatak’ ko adadi da jinsi, akwai kuma mai nuna k’arin ma’ana da samar da wata kalma mai ajin nahawu day a bambanta da sasalin Kalmar farko, akwai kuma mai hard’antawa (wanda ya k’unshi had’a kalmomi biyu ko fiye don su samar da wata kalma mai ma’ana d’aya).

 

Abubakar (2001:01) ya bayyana ma’anar k’irar kalma (morphology), a matsayin wani ‘bangaren da ke nazarin k’irar kalma ko tsira (ilimin k’irar kalma ko tsirar kalma). Wannan ya k’unshi hanyoyin k’irk’ira ko hard’antawa (had’a kalmomi).

Fagge (2013:03) ya ce k’irar kalma: ‘nazari ne da ya had’a k’wayoyin ma’ana a harshe da tushen kalmomi da k’a’idojin kumbura kalmomi da na tsirar kalmomi da kuma li’irabin kalmomin. Wannan ya k’unshi: (a) li’irabin kalmomin da ke cikin harshe (b) k’era sababbin kalmomi.

Amfani (2011:147) ya bayar da ma’anar ‘k’irar kalma (morphology) a matsayin sashen kimiyyar harshe wanda ke nazarin tsari ko samar da kalmomi, musamman ta amfani da k’wayoyin ma’ana’.

Yule (1985:60) ya bayyana, ginin kalma da: ‘nazari ne na tsarin kalma a cikin harshe.

Singleton (2000: 35) kuwa a nasa ra’ayin ‘k’irar kalma gaba d’aya ya danganci tsarin kalmomi, saboda haka ana iya cewa k’irar kalmomi nazari ne na tsarin kalmomi kawai’.

 


  • K’wayar Ma’ana (Morpheme)




 

K’irar kalma  wani al’amari ne wanda ba zai yi yu ba mafi yawa sai an yi amfani da k’wayoyin ma’ana. K’wayar ma’ana kuwa kamar yadda malamai irinsu; Jinju (1980) da Abubakar (2001) da Sani (2002), Amfani (2011) da Fagge (2012, 2013) da Singleton (2000) suka bayyana ita ce, sashen magana mafi k’aranci wanda ke d’auke da ma’ana. K’wayar ma’anar tana iya zama da kanta da bayar da ma’ana (‘yantacciyar k’wayar ma’ana) ko kuma ta kasance ba ta iya zama da kanta ta bayar da ma’ana (wato d’aurarriya k’wayar ma’ana).

A fahimtar mai gudanar da wannan binciken saiwa/tushen kalma da d’afe-d’afen da suke tafiya da su, wajen k’irar kalma duka k’wayoyin ma’ana ne, sai dai kowace da irin sifar ta da kuma irin aikin da take yi. Sashen kalma wanda ke iya zama da kansa, ya bayar da ma’ana, shi ne saiwar kalma. Saiwa/tushen kalma kamar yadda Jinju (1980:05) ya bayyana, ita ce: ‘gangar kalma ita kad’ai ba game da wani k’ari a gabanni ko k’arshen kalmar ba’.

Yayin da shi kuwa d’afi k’ari ne da ake yiwa kalma/tushen kalma domin a samar da wata kalma sabuwa mai ma’anar da ta bambanta da asalin kalmar. A Hausa akwai irin wannan k’arin ma’ana ko d’afi guda uku: k’arin ma’ana a gaban saiwa (d’afa goshi) da k’arin ma’ana a k’arshen saiwa (d’afi k’eya) da kuma k’arin ma’ana a tsakiyar saiwa (d’afa ciki).

Dukkan wad’annan muhimman abubuwa biyu wato; saiwa/tushen kalma da d’afe-d’afen, da su ne ake mafi yawan gine-gine ko k’ere-k’eren kalmomin Hausa daga jikin wasu kalmomin. Saiwa/tushen kalma da k’are-k’aren ma’anonin da ake yi su ne, k’wayoyin ma’ana na ginin kalma. Wannan nazarin zai ta’allak’a ne a kan wad’annan abubuwa guda biyu na ginin kalma da yadda ake samun sauye-sauye cikinsu wanda ya danganci karin harshen Sakkwatanci da kuma yadda yake a tsarin daidaitacciyar Hausa.

 

 

 


  • Karin Harshe




 

Karin harshe wani ‘bangare ne na harshe. Harshe ya fi karin harshe girma da fad’i, wasu malamai sun bayyana cewa duk lokacin da harshe ya bunk’asa ba zai rasa karin harshe a cikinsa ba. Karin harshe kuwa yana nufin nau’in magana na wasu al’umma a cikin harshe d’aya wanda ke samuwa ko dai don dalilin yanki ko rukuni.

A Hausa kuwa akwai kare-karen harshe da dama, wad’anda masana suka kalla ta fuskoki daban-daban, kaso mafi kar’buwa wanda aka yi ta la’akari da siffofin kare-karen harshen ta ‘bangaren nazarin harshe, shi ne na yankin Gabas da Yamma wanda Bergery (1934) ya yi. Wannan kason ya rarraba karin harshen gida biyu: rukunin gabas, wad’anda suka had’a da: Kananci da Bausanci da Zazzaganci da Guduranci da Damagaranci (Zinder). Kare-karen harshen yamma kuwa su ne: Sakkwatanci da Katsinanci da Dauranci da Arewanci da Kurfayanci da Gobiranci.

Dukkan wad’annan kare-karen harsuna suna da siffofin da ake iya gane su da su, wad’anda suka shafi nazarin kimiyyar harshe tun daga furuci da k’irar kalma da ginin jumla da kuma ma’ana. Wannan binciken zai ta’allak’a ne ga karin harshen sakkwatanci da yadda yake aiki wajen samar da wasu kalmomin jam’i da kuma jinsi tare da yin kwatance da daidaitacciyar Hausa. A nan za mu ga yadda wasu k’wayoyin ma’ana (na d’afi) ke bambanta wajen ginin kalmomi.

Karin harshen sakkwatanci kuwa karin harshe ne, na yamma a cikin rabe-raben karin harshen Hausa, wanda ake samu a yankin k’asar Sakkwato da kewayenta, wanda kuma ake iya bambantawa ta siffofi da dama na kare-karen harshen Hausa.

 


  • Gamayyar Karin Harshe Da Tasarifi




 

Daga cikin matakan da ake iya auna bambancin karin harshen Hausa kamar yadda masana suka bayyana akwai furuci da k’irar kalma/tasarifi da ginin kalma da kuma ma’anar kalmomi. Wannan kawai zai iya tabbatar muna da cewa akwai alak’a tsakanin tasarifi/k’irar kalma da karin harshe a Hausa. Karin harshe yana iya bambanta da d’anuwansa ta yadda suke k’era kalmominsu daban-daban.

Muhimmin abin lura a nan, shi ne karin harshen sakkwatanci yana da wasu bambance-bambance da sauran kare-karen harshen Hausa na gabas da ma ‘yanuwansa na yamma ta yadda yake k’era wasu kalmominsu na jam’i da kuma jinsin mace daga namiji ta amfani da tushen kalma d’aya amma d’afi mabambanta. Wannan kuwa wani bambanci ne wanda za a iya siffanta karin harshen da shi kai tsaye a cikin sauran kare-karen harshen Hausa gaba d’aya. Ga yadda al’amarin yake gudana a cikin k’irar kalma a Sakkwatanci.

 

 

1.3.1. Ginin kalmomin jam’i ta amfani da k’wayar ma’anar –inne a karin     harshen Sakkwatanci

 

K’wayar ma’ana kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, tubali ce daga cikin tubalan k’irar kalma. K’wayar ma’ana na iya kasancewa d’afi ko tushen kalma, wad’an da, da su ne ake muhimman ayyukan ginin kalma a Hausa. Binciken da za mu gudanar ya danganci k’wayar ma’ana ta d’afa k’eyan –inne da ake amfani a karin harshen Sakkwatanci wajen gina wasu kalmomin jam’i na Hausa, a maimakon d’afa k’eya –u, wanda ake amfani da shi a daidaitacciyar Hausa da wasu kare-karen harsuna wajen k’era wasu kalmomi. Karin sautin d’afin ginannun kalmomin kuwa ya kan canza daga karin sautin sama zuwa karin sautin sama k’asa. Ga misali:

 

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                                     Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci

 

Tilo                      Jam’i                                       Jam’i

Makaranta             Makarant-ú                              Makarant-ínnè

Ma’aikata              Ma’aikat-ú                               Ma’aikat-ínnè

Mak’abarta            Mak’abart-ú                             Mak’abart-ínnè

Jami’a                   Jami’-ú                                     Jami’-ínnè

Buk’ata                 Buk’at-ú                                  Buk’at-ínnè

Maza’ba                Maza’b-ú                                 Maza’b-ínnè

 

Al’ada                   Al’ad-ú                                    Al’ad-ínnè

Kwarkwad’-a        Kwarkwad’-u                           Kwarkwad’-ínnè

Kalangu                Kalang-ú                                  Kalang-ínnè

Shaida                  Shaid-ú                                    Shaid-ínnè

Masa’anta             Masa’ant-ú                               Masana’nt-ínnè

Magudana             Magudan-ú                              Magudan-ínnè

 

A dukkan wad’annan misalan kalmomin jam’i da muka kawo, za a ga yadda aka samu bambancin d’afa k’eyan –ú na Daidaitacciyar Hausa inda ya canza zuwa zuwa d’afin – a k ínnè a karin harshen Sakkwatanci. Sa’annan aka samu sauyin karin sautin sama k’asa, a d’afin maimakon karin sautin sama kawai a asali na Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Wannan kuwa wata sifa ce ta kai tsaye da ake iya ganin bambancin karin harshen Sakkwatanci a fagen k’irar kalma.

 

1.3.2. Ginin kalmomin jam’i ta amfani da k’wayar ma’anar –iyye a karin     harshen Sakkwatanci

 

A irin wannan halin, ana amfani da d’afa k’eyan –ayye a karin harshen Sakkwatanci wajen gina wasu kalmomin Hausa, wanda ya sha bamban da sauran kare-karen harshen da kuma Daidaitacciyar Hausa, kamar yadda za mu gani a wad’annan misalan da ke tafe:

 

Daidaitacciyar Hausa             Sakkwatanci

 

Tilo                  Jam’i                                  Jam’i

Masallaci               Masallat-ái                                Masallat-áyyè

Kwalbati               Kwalbat-ái                               Kwalbat-áyyè

Magudana             Magudan-ái                              Magudan-áyyè

Mataki                  Matak-ái                                   Matak-áyyè

A nan ma karin sautin ya kan sauya daga karin sautin sama a jam’in na daidaitaccoyar Hausa zuwa karin sautin sama k’asa a k’irar wasu kalmomin karin harshen Sakkwatanci.

 

1.3.3 Ginin Kalmomin Jinsin Sunayen Asali Ko K’abila Ta Amfani Da ‘Dafin –a    

       A Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci

 

A wajen ginin kalmomin jinsin mace daga jinsin namiji a cikin sunayen da ke nuna asalin mutum ko k’abilarsa, ana samun sauye-sauyen a wajen k’wayar ma’ana da ke zuwa a matsayin d’afa k’eya da sauyin karin sauti tsakanin karin harshen Sakkwatanci da Daidatacciyar Hausa. A nan maimakon yin amfani da d’afa k’eyan –iyaa na daidaitacciyar Hausa, karin harshen Sakkwatanci yana amfani da d’afa k’eyan -a. Ga misali:

 

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                             Sakkwatanci

 

Jinsin namiji               Jinsin Ta mata     Jinsin Ta mata

 

Bàgòobírí                       Bàgòobírìyáa        Bàgòobír-àa

Bàhád’éejèe                    Bàhád’éej-ìyáa      Bàhád’éej-àa

Bàkábèe                         Bàkábìiy-yàa         Bàkáb-àa

Bàsákkwácèe                  Bàsákkwàc-ìyáa    Bàsákkwát-àa

Bàzámfárèe                     Bàzámfár-ìyáa       Bàzàmfár-àa

Bà’árèe                           Bà’ár-ìyáa             Bà’ár-àa

 

A wad’annan misalan mun lura da yadda d’afa k’eyan –iya wanda ake amfani da shi wajen ginin jinsin tamata a sunayen asali ko k’abila a daidaitacciyar Hausa ya sauya zuwa d’afa k’eyan –aa kawai. Sa’annan karin sautin ga’bo’bi biyu na k’arshen kowace daga cikin kalmomin ya sauya daga karin K’S a daidaitacciyar Hausa zuwa SK’ a karin harshen Sakkwatanci.

 

 


  • Kammalawa




 

Wannan muk’ala mai taken: ‘Amfani da ‘Dafin –inne da -ayye da –a, a k’irar wasu kalmomin jam’i da kuma jinsi a karin harshen Sakkwatanci’ ta yi k’ok’arin nazarin tasarifin ko k’irar kalma a cikin karin harshen Sakkwatanci tare da fitowa da yadda karin harshen Sakkwatanci tare da fitowa da yadda karin harshen Sakkwatanci yake amfani da wasu k’wayoyin ma’ana na d’afau da suka bambanta da daidaitacciyar Hausa a wajen k’era kalmomin ko dai jam’i ko kuma na wasu kalmomin jinsin mace daga namiji. Binciken ya yi k’ok’arin fitowa da misalai don kariyar bayanan da aka kawo. Wannan ya k’ara tabbatar da cewa ana iya ganin bambance-bambancen karin harshe a dukkan matakan da ake iya nazarin bambancin kare-karen harshe harshen Hausa ba kawai a ‘bangaren tasarifi ba.

 

 

 

 

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/09/27/jagora-ga-amfani-da-intanet-don-bunkasa-harshen-hausa/

 

 

 

 

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