Hausa Language Academic Website

Saturday, 30 September 2017

Tsarin Wasula A Cikin Sunayen K’wari

A

DAGA
Muhammad Mustapha Umar
Department of Nigerian Languages
Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
Email: mustaphahausa@yahoo.com GSM: 08065466400


DA
Nazir Ibrahim Abbas
Department of Nigerian Languages
Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
Email: ibrahimabbasnazir@gmail.com GSM: 08060431934



TSAKURE


Wannan bincike yana da zimmar gano daidaituwar wasulan Hausa a cikin sunayen ƙwari masu gaƂa biyu, musamma domin bayyana yadda wasulan ke shirye a dukkanin kalmomin ƙwari da za mu nazarta. Domin cim ma wannan manufa mun tanadi jerin kalmomi talatin da biyar (35) waɗanda za mu duba tsare-tsaren da ake iya samu a cikinsu na wasulan Hausa. Da kuma fayyace wasulan da ke zuwa a kowace gaƂar kalmar ƙwari.

1.0 GABATARWA


Kamar sauran kalmomin Hausa sunayen ƙwari sun ƙumshi tsare-tsare daban-daban na wasulan da suke zuwa a cikin gaƂoƂin kalmominsu. Babban musabbabin gina wannan aiki shi ne kundin Maikanti (2012) mai taken “Tsarin Wasula a Cikin Sunayen Itatuwa da Tsirrai na Hausa.” Wannan aiki nasa ya fito da tsarin wasulan Hausa a cikin wasu rukunan kalmomin itatuwa da tsirrai masu gaƂa bibbiyu. Wannan ne ya sa muka ɗauki hannu domin gudanar da aiki kwatankwacin nasa, amma namu zai duba tsarin wasula ne a cikin sunayen ƙwari na Hausa. Sai dai za mu yi amfani da siga ko salon da ya yi amfani da shi wajen gano tsare-tsaren wasulan Hausa a cikin kalmomi. Haka kuma, mun samu ƙarin ƙwarin guiwa daga aikin Sakina (2011) mai taken “Gurbin Ƙwari a Magungunan Gargajiya” wanda ya tattara wasu sunayen ƙwarin ƙasar Hausa.

2.0 MA’ANAR ƘWARI


A ilmin ƙirar kalma ƙwaro na matsayin tilo kuma namiji, sai jam’i da ke ɗaukar sigar ƙwari. Ga wasu taƙaitattun ra’ayoyin masana a kan bayanin ƙwari da sunayensu. Sa’idu (2006: 292-293) Ƙwaro wata ƙanƙanuwar halitta danginsu kiyashi ko cinnaka. Shi kuma Wehmeier (2006:770-771) a cikin ƙamusun Oxford ya ce ƙwaro ƙaramin halitta ne mai ƙafa shida, wanda jikinsa yake da sassa uku. Wani ƙwaro kan kasance da fikafikai. A faɗar Bergery (1934: 691) ƙwaro ƙaramin halitta ne wanda ba ya da ƙashin baya, musamman dangin kunama.

Ƙwarin ƙasar Hausa suna da nau’o’in dangi da yawa kamar sauran halittu. Yawan gaƂoƂin kalmomin ƙwari kan fara ne daga gaƂa ɗaya zuwa gaƂa biyar , ko a ce masu hawa biyu ko uku tamkar dai adon magana. Amma mu a nan masu gaƂa biyu kawai za mu ɗauka domin nazarta. Har ila yau, bambancin wurin zama ya haddasa bambancin gundarin kalmomin ƙwari a tsakanin Hausawa, sai dai wannan bincike ya yi ƙoƙarin amfani da daidaitattun kalmomi daga ƙamus-ƙamus da littafai.

3.0 TSARIN WASULA A CIKIN KALMOMIN ƘWARI MASU GAƁA BIYU


A wannan fasali za mu dubi kalmomin ƙwari masu yawan gaƂoƂi biyu, don gano irin tsarin da suke da shi na wasula. Don gudanar da bincike mai tsari za mu yi amfani da jadawaloli, domin nuna tsarin wasula da kuma nuna gaƂar kalma a ƙarƙashin kowane wasali. Sannan za mu ɗauki wasulan ɗaya bayan ɗaya ta hanyar farawa da wasalin /a/, da /e/, da /i/, da /o/, da /u/ da kuma tagwan wasalin /au/.

3.1 Tsarin da ake iya samu ta amfani da wasalin /a/


Wannan bincike ya dubi yadda wasalin /a/ ya fito a cikin kalmomin sunayen ƙwari. Don haka, a ƙarshe ya gano cewa tsarin wasulan waɗannan kalmomi kan kasance ne kamar haka:

3.1.1 Jadawali na ɗaya mai nuna tsarin wasula


GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu Sunan ƙwari

i /a/ /a/ dárƂá
ii /a/ /aa/ gálláá, gàráá, káskàà, tsányàà, zárràà
iii /a/ /oo/ sámɗóó, tsándóó, zágóó
iv /a/ /uu/ ƙyàllúú
v /aa/ /aa/ ááláá, fààráá, táánáá
vi /aa/ /ee/ Gyààréé
vii /aa/ /oo/ Gwáánóó

Tsarin wasulan /a-a/, /a-aa/, /a-oo/, /a-uu/, /aa-aa/, /aa-ee/ da /aa-oo/ = 7

3.1.2 Jadawali na biyu mai nuna gaƂar kalma


GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu
i /a/ /a/
d/á/r Ƃ/á/
ii /a/ /aa/
g/á/l
g/à/
k/á/s
ts/á/n
z/á/r l/áá/
r/áá/
k/àà/
y/àà/
r/àà/
iii /a/ /oo/
s/á/m
ts/á/n
z/á/ ɗ/óó/
d/óó/
g/óó/
iv /a/ /uu/
ƙy/à/l l/úú/
v /aa/ /aa/
?/áá/
f/àà/
t/áá/ l/áá/
r/áá/
n/áá/
vi /aa/ /ee/
gy/àà/ r/éé/
vii /aa/ /oo/
gw/áá/ n/óó/

Waɗannan misalai sun nuna ana samun gajere ko dogon wasalin a/aa a gaƂar farko ta sunayen ƙwari. Sai gaƂa ta biyu mai ƙarewa da gajeren wasalin /a/ da dogayen wasula kamar haka: /aa/, /ee/, /oo/ da /uu/.

3.2 Tsarin da ake iya samu ta amfani da wasalin /e/


A wannan ƙaramin fasali an gano cewa a ƙarƙashin wasalin /e/, akwai tsari guda biyu (2) kamar haka: /ee-ee/ da /ee-ii/.

3.2.1 Jadawali na ɗaya mai nuna tsarin wasula


GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu Sunan ƙwari

i /ee/ /ee/ Jééjéè
ii /ee/ /ii/ Jééjìì
Tsarin wasulan /ee-ee/ da /ee-ii/ = 2

3.2.2 Jadawali na biyu mai nuna gaƂar kalma
GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu
i /ee/ /ee/
J/éé/ j/éè/
ii /ee/ /ii/
j/éé/
j/ìì/

Dogon wasalin /ee/ ake samu a gaƂar farko, sannan a gaƂa ta biyu dogayen wasulan /ee/ da /ii/

3.3 Tsarin da ake iya samu ta amfani da wasalin /i/
A ƙarƙashin wasalin /i/, akwai tsari guda uku (3) da ake samu kamar haka: /i-a/, /i-aa/ da /ii-oo/.

3.3.1 Jadawali na ɗaya mai nuna tsarin wasula
GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu Sunan ƙwari

1 /i/ /a/ Jìgá
2 /i/ /aa/ Ríínáá
3 /ii/ /oo/ Jììróó
Tsarin wasulan /i-a/, /i-aa/ da /ii-oo/ = 3

3.3.2 Jadawali na biyu mai nuna gaƂar kalma


GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu
i /i/ /a/
j/ì/ g/á/
ii /i/ /aa/
r/íí/ n/áá/
iii /ii/ /oo/
j/ìì/ r/óó/

Misalan nan sun nuna gaƂar farko ta ƙumshi gajere da dogon wasalin /i/ da /ii/, ita kuma gaƂa ta biyu tana da tsarin gajeren wasalin /a/, da dogayen wasulan /aa/ da /oo/.

3.4 Tsarin da ake iya samu ta amfani da wasalin /o/


A ƙarƙashin wasalin /o/, akwai tsari guda uku (3) da ake samu kamar haka: /oo-i/, /oo-o/ da /oo-u/.

3.4.1 Jadawali na ɗaya mai nuna tsarin wasula


GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu Sunan ƙwari

i /oo/ /i/ Sóókì
ii /oo/ /o/ Bòòbó
iii /oo/ /u/ Kóótù
Tsarin wasulan: /oo-i/, /oo-o/ da /oo-u/ = 3

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/09/30/mene-ne-bori-fashin-ba%c6%99in-maanarsa-cikin-taskar-harshe-adabi-da-alada/

3.4.2 Jadawali na biyu mai nuna gaƂar kalma


GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu
i /oo/ /i/
s/óó/ k/ì/
ii /oo/ /o/
b/óó/ b/ò/
iii /oo/ /u/
k/óó/ t/ù/

GaƂar farko a wannan misali tana da dogayen wasulan /oo/, sannan a gaƂa ta biyu an samu gajerun wasulan /i/, /o/ da /u/.

3.5 Tsarin da ake iya samu ta amfani da wasalin /u/


A ƙarƙashin wasalin /u/, akwai tsari guda takwas (8) da ake samu kamar haka: /u-u/, /u-aa/, /u-ee/, /u-ii/, /u-uu/, /u-au/, /uu-aa/ da /uu-uu/.

3.5.1 Jadawali na ɗaya mai nuna tsarin wasula


GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu Sunan ƙwari

i /u/ /u/ Kùmbút
ii /u/ /aa/ ƙúdáá, ƙùmáá, gúmɗàà, ƙùndáá, zúmàà
iii /u/ /ee/ Sùngéé
iv /u/ /ii/ Kùlíí
v /u/ /uu/ ƙúrnúú
vi /u/ /au/ kùɗáú, kùyáú
vii /uu/ /aa/ Tsúútsàà
viii /uu/ /uu/ Tùùlúú

Tsarin wasulan: /u-u/, /u-aa/, /u-ee/, /u-ii/, /u-uu/, /u-au/, /uu-aa/ da /uu-uu/ = 8

4.5.2 Jadawali na biyu mai nuna gaƂar kalma


GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu
i /u/ /u/
k/ù/m b/ú/t
ii /u/ /aa/
ƙ/ú/
g/ú/m
ƙ/ù/n
z/ú/ d/áá/
ɗ/àà/
d/áá/
m/àà/
iii /u/ /ee/
s/ù/n g/éé/
iv /u/ /ii/
k/ù/ l/íí/
v /u/ /uu/
ƙ/ú/r n/úú/
vi /u/ /au/
k/ù/ ɗ/áú/
vii /uu/ /aa/
ts/úú/ ts/àà/
viii /uu/ /uu/
t/ùù/ l/úú/

Misalan da ake iya samu ta amfani da wasalin /u/ ya nuna gaƂar farko kan ƙumshi gajeren wasalin /u/ da dogon wasalin /uu/, sannan a gaƂa ta biyu ana samun zuwan gajeren wasalin /u/, da dogayen wasulan : /aa/, /ee/, /ii/ da /uu/ da kuma tagwan wasalin /au/.

3.6 Tsarin da ake iya samu ta amfani da wasalin /au/


A ƙarƙashin wasalin /au/, akwai tsarin wasali guda ɗaya (1) da ake samu kamar haka: /au-oo/.

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/09/30/zumuntar-bahaushe-a-zamanin-gsm/

3.6.1 Jadawali na ɗaya mai nuna tsarin wasula


GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu
i /au/ /oo/ Sáúróó
Tsarin wasulan: /au-oo/ = 1

3.6.2 Jadawali na biyu mai nuna gaƂar kalma


GaƂa ta ɗaya GaƂa ta biyu
i /au/ /oo/
s/áú/ r/óó/
A nan gaƂar farko tana ɗauke da tagwan wasalin /au/ kana gaƂar wannan tsari ta biyu tana da dogon wasalin /oo/.

4.0 KAMMALAWA


Tabbas ra’in tsarin sautin tsira wanda ya ƙumshi bayanai a kan sautuka ya taimaka ainun, wajen gano hikimomi masu tarin yawa da ake samu a cikin kalmomin harshe. Saboda haka, nazarin tsarin wasula a cikin kalmomin ƙwari babbar hoƂƂasa ce kuma gagarumar madogara, musamman ta fuskar ƙoƙarin da ake kai na daidaita rabe-raben tagwayen wasulan Hausa. Har ila yau, mun fahimci cewa; kowane wasali yana da keƂaƂƂun gaƂoƂin da yake iya zama, tare da adadin wasulan da wannan tsarin ya samar, da ma waɗanda aka kasa samu. A taƙaice, kowace kalmar Hausa na da tsarin wasulan da take zuwa tare da su.

Sakamakon wannan bincike ya nuna an gano tsarin wasulan Hausa a cikin sunayen wasu ƙwari masu ɗauke da gaƂoƂi biyu. Daga bayanan da suka gabata, mun ga irin zumuncin da ake samu tsakanin wasula a cikin sunayen ƙwari na Hausa, inda muka ga salon zuwan gajere da gajeren wasali, ko gajere da dogo, ko gajere da tagwan wasali, ko a sami haɗuwar dogayen wasula a cikin kalma ɗaya, ko kuma tagwai ya zauna tare da dogon wasali ba tare da wata tsangwama ba. Ga tsarin wasulan da wannan bincike ya samar:

• Wasalin /a/ ya samar da: Tsarin wasulan /a-a/, /a-aa/, /a-oo/, /a-uu/, /aa-aa/, /aa-ee/ da /aa-oo/ = 7
• Wasalin /e/ ya samar da: Tsarin wasulan /ee-ee/ da /ee-ii/ = 2
• Wasalin /i/ ya samar da: Tsarin wasulan /i-a/, /i-aa/ da /ii-oo/ = 3
• Wasalin /o/ ya samar da: Tsarin wasulan: /oo-i/, /oo-o/ da /oo-u/ = 3
• Wasalin /u/ ya samar da: Tsarin wasulan: /u-u/, /u-aa/, /u-ee/, /u-ii/, /u-uu/, /u-au/, /uu-aa/ da /uu-uu/ = 8
• Wasalin /au/ ya samar da: Tsarin wasulan: /au-oo/ = 1

MANAZARTA


Ahmed, S.A. 2011. Gurbin Ƙwari a Magungunan Gargajiya na Hausawa. Kundin Digiri na Biyu, Sakkwato: Jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo.

Amfani, A.H. 1984. Abstract Nouns Of Games In Hausa. Masters Dissertation, London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University Of London.

Bagari, D.M. 1986. Bayanin Hausa: Jagora Ga Mai Koyon Ilmin Bayanin Harshe. Rabat, Moroc: Impremerie Elm’arif Aljadida.

Bargery, G.P. 1934. A Hausa-English Dictionary And English-Hausa. London: Oxford University Press.

Clark, J. et al. 2007. An Introduction to Phonetics And Phonology Third Edition, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.

Egbokhare, F.O. 1994. Introductory Phonetics: A Course Book on Articulartory Phonetics, Ibadan: Sam Bookman Educational And Communication Services (Publishing Consultants)

Junaidu, I. Da ‘Yar’aduwa, T.M. 2007. Harshe Da Adabin Hausa a Kammale: Don Manyan Makarantun Sakandare. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.

Maikanti, S. 2012. Tsarin Wasula a Cikin Sunayen Itatuwa da Tsirrai na Hausa. Kundin Digiri na Biyu, Sakkwato: Jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo.

Muhammad D. (ed.) 1990. Hausa Metalanguage. Ibadan: University Press Limited.
Newman, P. and Newman, R.M. 1977. A Modern Hausa-English Dictionary. Ibadan: Oxford University Press.

Sa’id, B.2006. Ƙamusun Hausa Na Jami’ar Bayero. Kano: Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero.

Sani, M.A.Z. 1989. An Introductory Phonology of Hausa (with exercises), Kano: Triumph Publishing Co. (Nig) Ltd. Gidan Sa’adu Zungur.

Sani, M.A.Z. 1999. Tsarin Sauti da Nahawu Hausa. Ibadan: University Press.

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RATAYE


Jerin Sunayen Ƙwari da Aka yi Amfani da su
Lamba Ƙwaro Lamba Ƙwaro
1 Ááláá: 19 Ƙùmáá
2 Bòòbó 20 Ƙùndáá
3 DárƂá: 21 Ƙúrnúú
4 Fààráá: 22 Ƙyàllúú
5 Gálláá: 23 Ríínáá
6 Gàráá: 24 Sámɗóó
7 Gwáánóó 25 Sáúróó
8 Gúmɗàà: 26 Sóókì
9 Gyààréé: 27 Sùngéé
10 Jééjìì: 28 Táánáá
11 Jìgá: 29 Tsándóó
12 Jììróó 30 Tsányàà
13 Káskàà 31 Tsúútsàà
14 Kùɗáú: 32 Tùùlúú
15 Kùlíí 33 Zágóó
16 Kùmbút 34 Zárràà
17 Kùyáú 35 Zúmàà
18 Ƙúdáá

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