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Daga


Muhammad Mustapha Umar
Department of Nigerian Languages Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto Email: mustaphahausa@yahoo.com GSM: 08065466400


Da


Nazir Ibrahim Abbas
Department of Nigerian Languages Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto Email: ibrahimabbasnazir@gmail.com GSM: 08060431934


 

ABSTRACT


Mobile phones have become the primary form of telecommunications. The increased popularity of mobile phones today led to the gradual abandoning of the traditional (oral) culture, especially in urban areas. This paper will concentrate on the use of some abbreviations in SMS text messages on Hausa mobile phones. It was noticed that Hausa SMS composers in Sokoto metropolis use different styles of shortening of a word or phrase to be used to represent the full form on their mobile phones in order to communicate in their daily activities.

GABATARWA


Hausawa kamar sauran ƙabilun duniya sun karƂi dabarar shirya saƙon GSM a wayoyinsu na salula, domin su ma a dama da su cikin al’amurran zamani. Saboda haka ne ma ya sa suke amfani da wasu alamomi da hikimomi wajen shirya saƙon GSM, waɗanda ke ƙara wa saƙo armashin amsa sunansa. Kuma irin waɗannan saƙonni da suke shiryawa suna da siffofi fitattu da ke bayyanar da ainihin Hausar saƙon GSM da ke shawagi tsakanin wayoyin hannu. Wannan bincike zai yi ƙoƙarin duba babban musabbabin gajarta saƙon GSM a wayar salula, domin ganin irin yadda wasu saƙonnin GSM ba su cikin sigar daidaitaccen rubutu, amma masu amfani suna daɗa ba da ƙaimi wajen bayyana rubutattun sautuka, da suke son masu karanta saƙonnin su fahimta, ta wannan sabuwar rubutacciyar zantawa ta aika gajeren saƙon GSM. A taƙaice, masu tura saƙonni sun ƙirƙiro hanyar rubuta sautuka, waɗanda ke ba da damar karanta abin da aka faɗa da baki.


TAƘAITAWA


Taƙaitawa salon rubutu ne na rage tsawon kalmomi domin su kasance gajeru da sauƙin sarrafawa. Taƙaitawa na nufin gajerar sigar kalma. Haka kuma taƙaitawa ita ce tsaga kalma, ko ganga ko suna gajere ta hanyar watsi da wasu haruffa ko yin amfani da harafin farko na kowace kalma kawai (Wehmeier, 2006:2) Ke nan taƙaitawa sigar kalma ce ko ganga a gajarce, wannan sigar kan ƙumshi harafi ko gungun haruffa da ake tsagowa ko cirowa daga kalma ko yankin jimla.
Haka kuma, taƙaitawa na nufin salon gajarta rubutacciyar kalma, wadda ake amfani da ita don maye gurbin ta asali. Taƙaitawar kan ƙumshi harafi ne ko gungun haruffa waɗanda aka tsago daga kalma ko ganga. Taƙaitawa harafi ne ko gungun haruffa da ake amfani da su wajen rubutu, ko ta hanyar gurzawa da magana don wakiltar kalma ko ganga a cikin siga gajera.

RABE-RABEN TAƘAITAWA


Akwai rabe-raben taƙaitawa kamar haka; gajartawa, da shafewa, da akronim (acronym) da kuma inishiyalizim (initialisms) da sauransu. A taƙaice, waɗannan kason taƙaitawa na bayyana yadda ake cire wasali ko baƙi daga kalma don taƙaita lafazinta. Ko kuma mu kira su sigogi waɗanda ake taƙaitawa inda ake cire haruffan da ke zuwa tsakiyar cikakkiyar sigar kalma.

• Sigar gajarta kalma ko ganga, hanya ce ta gajarta kalma ko ganga domin a yi amfani da ita wajen wakiltar cikakkiyar siga, kamar yadda za a gani a sauran hanyoyin taƙaitawa irinsu: Shafewa, da akronim (acronym), da kuma inishiyalizim (initialism).

• Salon shafewa shi ne taƙaita kalmomin mafayyaci mai nuna lokaci na gaba da loka-taƙ (tense-aspect). (Mai nuna kammala ko rashin kammalar aiki.) A tsarin rubutun Hausa a rabe ake rubuta su, amma saboda uzurin gajartawa akan haɗe mafayyacin da loka-taƙ (tense-aspect) bayan an shafe wasalin da ke zuwa tare da loka-taƙ (tense-aspect). Ana amfani da wannan salon shafewa a wurin magana da kuma a hanyar rubutu. Haka kuma wannan salon shafewa kan faruwa ne ta hanyar jefar da wasalin ƙarshe na kowace kalma a lafazi ko a rubuce. Misali:- Za ni = zan; Ba ni = ban. A doguwar mallaka ma sau da yawa a wasu karorin harshen Hausa akan shafe wasalin ƙarshen kowacce kalma wajen lafazi. Sai wasu kalmomi na daban da shafewa ke shafuwar wasulan ƙarshen waɗannan kalmomi. Akwai wasu kalmomi da aka ƙago daga sassan wasu kalmomi. Akan furta su a matsayin kalmomi maimakon ɗaiɗaikun haruffa. Dubi waɗannan misalai:- nawa = naw; duka = duk ; kwana = kwan.

• Akronim (Acronym) hanya ce ta amfani da haruffan farko na kalmomi biyu ko fiye masu bayar da ma’anar abu ɗaya, kuma akan furta su ne a matsayin haruffa daban-daban a cikin sigarsu gajera. Haka kuma, wasu na amfani da aya ko alamar aya (.) domin rabewa tsakanin haruffan farko da aka ciro daga kowace kalma, wannan shi zai ƙara tabbatar da cewa daban ake faɗin kowane harafi mai wakiltar cikakkiyar sigar kalmar asali. Misali: Da sauransu = d.s; Assalamu Alaikum = a.a; Subhanahu Wa Ta’allah = SWT; Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallama = SAW.

• Inishiyalizim (Initialism) haruffa ne da aka tsago daga wasu kalmomi tamkar yadda suke a akronim (acronym), sai dai haruffan farkon kan dunƙule su zama kalma ɗaya mai cin gashin kanta, wadda ake furtawa a matsayin wata sabuwar kalma mai wakiltar kalmomin asali da aka ciro haruffansu na farko. A taƙaice, waɗannan kalmomi da aka ƙago daga sassan wasu kalmomi akan furta su a matsayin kalmomi maimakon ɗaiɗaikun haruffa. A sau da yawa kalmomin da aka samar daga wannan laƙabin kalma sukan zamo karƂaƂƂu a cikin tsarin rubutu, kuma ana amfani da cikakkiyar sigarsu a fagen bayani ko domin ƙarin haske. Ga misalin kalmomin da wannan hanyar ta samar a harshen Ingilishi:- National Electric Power Authority=NEPA; Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto= UDUS; Academic Staff Union of Universities= ASUU;

DALILAN TAƘAITAWA A SAƘON GSM


Wannan sashe zai duba ainihin sanadin da ya haddasa taƙaita rubutu a shafin wayar salula.

• Ƙarancin wurin rubuta saƙon GSM hujja ce da ta ingiza jama’a gajarta rubuce-rubucensu, domin a wayar salula an tanadi wani shafi da ake shirya saƙon GSM, wanda ke da damar rubuta haruffa 160 a kowane shafi. Saboda haka, duk saƙon da ya wuce haruffan da aka ayyana zai kai matsayin shafi biyu ko fiye. Kuma wurin da ake ƙirƙira saƙon GSM ya nuna akwai rashin wadatar wurin rubuta saƙon GSM a wayar salula.

• Rashin isasshen lokaci ga jama’a kan taimaka wajen tabbatar da taƙaita rubutu a yayin shirya saƙon GSM. Saboda haka, babu lokacin tsayawa rubuta saƙon GSM ta hanyar cika kalmomi, ko yin amfani da daidaitacciyar hanyar rubutu wajen tura saƙonni. Idan aka ƙiyasta lokacin da mutum kan ɗauka idan zai shirya saƙon GSM kamar yadda ake rubutu na yau da kullum, amma zaƂar taƙaita rubutu ba zai Ƃata lokaci mai yawa ba.

• Ana hasashen tsada da kaucewa Ƃatar da kuɗi masu yawa su suka tilasta masu amfani da wayar salula taƙaita rubutu a saƙon GSM, musamman a farko-farkon shigowar waya. Misali a tsarin GSM kowane shafi da ake shirya saƙon GSM yana da kuɗin da ake cajin mai amfani da damar aika gajeren saƙon. Idan saƙo ya kasance na tsawon shafi ɗaya ne kuɗinsa za a caje ka, idan kuwa shafi biyu ne ko fiye akan caje ka kuɗin shafukan da ka yi amfani da su.

• Tsawon lokacin da al’umma ta yi tana amfani da hanyar rubutu ya samar da ire-iren waɗannan sauye-sauye da ci gaba cikin tsarin rubutu. Ke nan daɗewa ana tu’ammali da rubutu da yawan karance-karance ya haifar da tunanin taƙaitawa a cikin rubutu na yau da kullum, kafin ma a kai ga tsarma shi a shafin rubutu na wayar salula. Taƙaita rubutun saƙon GSM ba ya rasa nasaba da nuna ƙwarewa da son burgewa da ake samu musamman tsakanin ‘yan boko. Kowane ɗan boko a wannan zamani yakan so ya fito da wani al’amari, wanda zai sa ya yi suna ko fice a cikin al’umma.

TAƘAITAWA A RUBUTUN HAUSA


• A cikin ƙamus akwai shafi na musamman da ake keƂewa mai suna jagorar amfani da ƙamus. Wato, akan bayyana yadda ake taƙaita wasu kalmomi a cikin ƙamusun, domin mai amfani da shi ya san makama, ko yadda aka sarrafa nahawun ma’ana a littafin. A wasu ƙamusoshi da littafai akan nuna yadda aka yi amfani da alamomi da taƙaitattun kalmomin da aka yi amfani da su, akasari akan nuna haruffan da ke wakiltar sigar kalma tare da kawo cikakkiyar ma’anarta a jimlace. Dubi waɗannan misalai:- Ƙasa-ƙ (low); Sifa-sif. (adjective); Baƙi wasali-bw (consonant vowel); Bayanin fi’ili-b-fi (verb information); Aikatau-akt (verb).

Idan muka nazarci misalan kalmomin da aka gabatar za mu fahimci cewa fitattun hanyoyin da ake bi wajen taƙaita kalma su ne: akan ɗauki gaƂar farko ta wasu kalmomi sannan a yi watsi da sauran gaƂoƂi. Kuma ana amfani da salon cire duk wasalun da kalma ta ƙunsa sai a bar baƙaƙen kalma. Sannan akwai dabaran cire wa gaƂar ƙarshe ta kalmomi wasali a kuma riƙa sarrafa ragowar gaƂoƂin. Su kuma wasu kalmomi ana ɗaukar harafin farko ne kawai, wanda zai tsaya matsayin kalmar asali. A taƙaice, taƙaita kalma kan ta’allaƙa ne a kan adadi ko yawan gaƂoƂin kalma.

• Hausawa kan yi amfani da salon gajarta sunayensu a sadarwarsu ta yau da kullum, wanda hakan ya taimaki Hausawa wajen taƙaita rubutun Hausa, musamman ganin irin yadda suke amfani da waɗannan sunaye a saƙonsu na GSM. Ga misalin wasu sunaye da yadda suke taƙaita su a magana ko a rubuce. Abubakar-Abu, Buba, Bukar; da Aisha-A’i, Shatu; da Aliyu-Ali; da Almustafa-Almu; da Balarabe-Bala; da Hadizatu-Hadi; Dija, Dije; da Isma’ila-Ila; Maimuna-Muna; Zainabu-Abu.

Waɗannan misalai sun nuna irin yadda suna mai yawan gaƂoƂi uku ko huɗu ke fuskantar watsar da gaƂoƂin ƙarshe, sannan a riƙa amfani da gaƂoƂi biyu na farko a matsayin gajeren sunan da ake kiran mai shi. Haka kuma, akwai sunayen da ake amfani da gaƂoƂi biyu na ƙarshe bayan an shafe gaƂoƂin farko.

• Ana taƙaita rubutu a lambobin abubuwan hawa irinsu babur, mota da sauransu. Ƙarancin wurin rubutu ne da kasancewar faifan da ake amfani da shi ƙarami wanda ke dacewa da inda ake maƙala shi a jikin abin hawa. Waɗannan dalilai su ke tilasta gajarta kalmomi waɗanda haruffa ke wakilta. Hausawa kan taƙaita sunayen jahohi da dukkannin ƙananan hukumomi a saƙonninsu na GSM. Misali:- Abuja-ABJ; da Birnin Kebbi-BRK; da Fage-FGE; da Ilorin-LRN; da Sakkwato-SKK; da Port Harcourt-PHC; da Enugu-ENU.

• A tsarin mánázártá akan rubuta sunan wanda ya rubuta littafi ko wata maƙala, da shekarar da gabatar da binciken, da kuma garin da aka buga binciken, sai sunan kamfanin da ya buga littafin ko duk wata ƙasida da aka gabatar. A tsarin shirya manazarta akwai salon taƙaita sunan wanda ya rubuta littafi. Wannan wata hanya ce da Hausawa suka koyi taƙaita kalmomi ko sunayen Hausa, wanda ke nuna irin yadda taƙaita rubutu ya mamaye ilahirin rayuwar al’umma har suke sarrafa saninsu da suka nema daga wannan tsari na ilmi. Misali, idan mawallafi na da suna kamar haka; ‘Muhammad Mustapha Umar’ wannan launin rubutu zai mayar da sunan ‘Umar, M. M.’ Wato, za a fara rubutu sunan mahaifin mawallafi, sai a sa waƙafi sannan a saka aya tsakanin haruffan da ke wakiltar sunaye biyu na farko da aka taƙaita. Ko kuma ‘Harisu K.’ mai nufin ‘Kabiru Harisu’.

• Wayewar zamani da tsunduma cikin karatun boko sun sa al’ummar Hausawa amfani da salon taƙaitawa wajen gajarta cikakken sunan yanka da ake ambaton mutum, da sunan mahaifinsa da sunan garinsu ko ƙaramar hukumarsu in har yana amfani da shi. Misali:- ‘Abdullahi Garba Goronyo’ kan ɗauki laƙabin ‘A.G.G.’ Wani lokaci ma akan yi watsi da sunayen mutum na farko sai a riƙa kiransa da sunan garinsu. ‘Yusuf Mustapha Dange’ sai ka ji ana ambatonsa da ‘Dange.’

• A makarantu musamman jami’o’i malamai da ɗalibai sun rungumi wannan hanya ta taƙaitawa, musamman sunayen mutum na farko ko gajarta suna na tsakiya ko na ƙarshe. Hausawa suna amfani da wannan salon rubutu da fagen ilmi ya samar wajen shirya gajeren saƙon GSM. A fagen malanta an fi taƙaita suna ko sunaye biyu na farko don rashin lokaci da kuma tunanin burgewa. Misali, malamin da ke amfani da suna uku kamar ‘Farfesa Salisu Ahmad Yakasai’ za a taƙaita shi zuwa ‘Farfesa S.A Yaksai.’

• Su kuma ɗalibai tsarin ya fi burge su, domin sukan taƙaita suna na tsakiya da na ƙarshe wanda ya yi tasiri ga tsarin rubutun Hausa, musamman wanda ake shiryawa a shafin wayar hannu. Mai suna ‘Naziru Ibrahim Abbas’ kan taƙaita zuwa ‘Naziru I. Abbas.’ Shi kuma ‘Umar Abubakar Sarkin Fada’ kan ɗauki wannan launi na ‘Umar Abubakar S/Fada.’ Wannan salon gajarta suna zuwa harafin farko na suna da aka gutsure ya faru ne saboda kasancewarsa yayi ko don burgewa da kuma rashin isasshen wurin da za a rubuta cikakken suna.

TAƘAITAWA A SAƘON GSM


A Hausa akwai kalmomi na gama-gari da ake sauyawa, musamman yayin tura wani saƙo da ake son ya sadu ga wani ko wasu cikin ƙanƙanin lokaci, kuma ba tare da an kashe maƙudan kuɗaɗe ba. Sai dai ya kamata mu san cewa; bayan fitattun kalmomin da aka fi taƙaitawa akwai waɗanda sai an danganta su da bayanin da saƙon ya ƙunsa kafin a fahimce su. Saboda haka, akwai bambancin salon taƙaitawa a tsakanin masu amfani da gajeren saƙon GSM na wayar hannu wadda iskarta ke kaɗawa. Sai dai ana samun saurin yaɗuwar taƙaitattun kalmomi daga wani mutum zuwa wani, musamman irin yadda ake saduwa da sabbin kalmomi yayin karanta wani saƙon GSM. A taƙaice wannan sashe zai bayyana yadda masu amfani da wayar salula ke riƙa tsarma gajerun kalmomi cikin saƙonsu na GSM, domin wasu dalilai da muka ambata daga sama. Dubi waɗannan saƙonnin GSM waɗanda za mu nazarci salon taƙaitawa da suka ƙunsa.

1. ‘Za a yi taron LAN a BUK Kn, dg 5-9 g wtn Dsmb, 2011. Ke nan y kmt mu isa ranar Ass./Lah. ISA. Ina ftr k rbt maƙalar d z k tura, ni kam n kusa hɗ tawa. Km k san zw d kai………………..’(Almu Getso)

2. ‘Gb d ƙrf 3 n rn zan aiko m kɗ #10,000 k hɗ d saurn kɗn d k tara sai k kai bnk, d su za a sy w tshw ragont n layya. Km don Allah k b Yusif #500 kfn in zo y ce akw mtsll. N gode.’ (Kamal A. Bello)

3. ‘Wai k san jy jum’a d dare sai d Abba y rbt wsƙ zw g iyyns wai don a kawo masa abc. Ita km Rabi yau t dawo dg mkrnt don bata d lfy. Allah y nuna mn amry t tare ɗakin mjnta. Kai ang z k sh mai.’ (Muhammad Nasir Sidi)

4. ‘Akw mitin gobe Lrb sbd hk k tnd ruwa & maltina, km k sa a shry kjr cikin lkc. K gurzo bynin taron baya d bynin ydd aka kashe #200,000. Meet me @ UDUS clinic d ƙrf 10 n sf. Sai n gan k.’ (Salim Sama’ila)

5. ‘An yi wa Mal. Ali haihuwa, an sami ɗa nmj km hr an yi sn jy. K sa muna lkc mu je mu yi brk. Amma k sani sai mun b jrr wani abu, don hk k shg d ‘yan kɗ mu hɗ. Sai n ji wyrk.’ (Musa Shehu)

6. ‘Tabbas k zam wanzam bk so g jknka to, g abin d k shuka nan z k girba. N yi t roƙnka don Allah d k riƙa sr kn duban bakin gtr. K tuna asirinmu da makitsiya, zan b Alh. hƙr a kashe mgn. Allah y tsr gb.’ (Maryam Naziru)

7. ‘Ina taya k murnar samun ɗ nmj Allah SWT y ry muna sh bisa hnyr mslnci. Ita km madam Allah y bt lfy. Kai km madugu Allah y ƙr hore m abin llr. Wallahi N y farin ck mtƙ. Sai n zo ganin baby boy.’ (Yusuf Mustapha)

8. ‘Hi, y kake, y gd, y iyl? I hope komai yn tfy nomal. Wai bros y zancen auren Tima baby ne, amma y kmt a y sh b4 azumi man. Pls. k turo man credit ko n #100 garin ne y yi zafi. N gd. Allah y bar zmnc.’ (Abdulhakim Gusau)

Waɗannan saƙonnin GSM da aka kawo daga sama sun nuna yadda Hausawa ke cukuɗa alamomin rubutu , masu wakiltar sautuka ko kalmomi da zimmar gajarta rubutu yayin shirya saƙonnin GSM. Wani bi ma sukan yi amfani da lambobin ƙidaya ko lambobin da ake lissafi da su wajen fassara lambobin da ke cikin kalmomi, domin kawai rage tsawon kalmomin da saƙo zai ƙunsa. Sannan kuma, an lura da cewa dukkanin kalmomi masu gaƂa ɗaya sukan gajarta su ne ta hanyar shafe wasulan da suka ƙunsa, kuma mai karanta saƙo zai gane kalmomin ta la’akari da abin da ake magana a kai, musamman abin da ya shafi yin surkin harafin baƙi ba tare da wasalinsa ba. Haka kuma, Hausawa na amfani da alamomi na musamman da ake samun a cikin kwamfuta ko a wayar salula, waɗanda aka tanada don ƙara wa rubutu armashi. Amma yau ga shi ana sarrafa su a matsayin alamar wani abu da ke wakiltar wani abu daban, kamar abubuwan da ba su da rai, ko wakiltar wani tunani ko ra’i. Misali, ana iya kwatanta su da zane-zane, da layuka, da hotuna, da jadawali da kuma alamomin lissafi kamar haka: &, da #, da @, da /, da %, da -, da + da sauransu.

KAMMALAWA


Hausawa na la’akari da tsarin adadin gaƂoƂin kowace kalma wajen dabarun taƙaitawa. A kalmomi masu gaƂa ɗaya akan watsar da wasalinsu ne don barin baƙi ko harafin farko, musamman a kalmomin masu tafiya da wasalin ‘a’. Wasu mutane kuma ba su taƙaita kalmomi masu gaƂa ɗaya, domin rarrabewa tsakanin kalmomin da ke tafiya da mabambantan wasula. Misali; ya = yi, da su = so, ni = ne da kuma ta = to. Wasu kan yi amfani da hanya biyu ce su taƙaita wasu kalmomi masu gaƂa ɗaya, sannan su bar wasu ba tare da sun gajarta su ba. Su kuma kalmomi masu gaƂoƂi biyu, da uku, da huɗu, da biyar har zuwa masu shida ana watsar da dukkanin wasulan da suka ƙunsa domin amfani da ragowar baƙaƙen. Wani lokaci ma raba kalma ake yi gida biyu inda sashen farko ke kasance taƙaitacciyar siga. Ana kuma shafe wasalin ƙarshe na waɗannan kalmomi da zimmar ƙera sabbin gajerun kalmomi. Haka kuma, ana amfani da wasu lambobin ƙidaya ko lissafi a Hausa, musamman 2 da 4 wajen wakiltar wasu gaƂoƂin kalmomin da ake son a taƙaita. A nan ana la’akari ne da dacewar lafazin gaƂoƂin da lambobin da ke maye gurbinsu. Misali:- Fodiyo=4diyo; Baturiya=Ba2riya.

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