Hausa Language Academic Website

Wednesday, 16 August 2017

Nazarin Bambancin Harshen Hausa Da Ingilishi Ta Fuskar Mafayyaci

DAGA
Muhammad Mustapha Umar
Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya
Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sakkwato
Ƙibďau: mustaphahausa@yahoo.com
GSM: +2348065466400



TSAKURE:


Manufar wannan maƙala ita ce yin nazarin kwatanci tsakanin harshen Hausa da na Ingilishi ta fuskar mafayyaci a sassauƙar jimla. Binciken ya gano cewa; Hausa da Ingilishi suna da tsari iri ďaya ta fuskar sassauƙar jimla, wato jimlolinsu kan ƙunshi Fa’ili da Aikatau da Maf’uli. To amma kuma duk da haka, sun bambanta ta fuskar wasu ‘yan ƙare-ƙare da kowane harshe ke buƙata. Kamar taƙi ko ƙwayar ma’ana masu nuna lokacin da aka gudanar da wani aiki ko kuma matakin gama aiki ko rashin kammalarsa. Da yake komai na buƙatar hujja, wannan bincike ya tanadi misalai daga harshen Hausa da Ingilishi, domin tabbatar da ainihin yadda wannan bambanci ke faruwa tsakanin harsunan.

1.0 GABATARWA


Nazari ko bincuke muhimmin abu ne ga harshe, musammna idan aka yi la’akari da irin ci gaba da bunƙasar da harshe ke yi lokaci-lokaci. Akwai fannoni da dama da ake amfani da su wajen nazarin farƙi a kowane harshe. Amma bincikenmu zai yi magana ne a kan abin da ya shafi fannin jimla, domin fito da waďansu abubuwa da ke gudana a cikin harshe. Masana harshe sun gabatar da nazarce-nazarce a kan farƙi da yadda yake faruwa tsakanin harsuna, musamman don zaƙulo irin ƙaimin da masu koyon harshe ke yi wajen naƙaltar baƙon harshe. Saboda haka, yana da matuƙar muhimmanci a nazarci bambanci da tarayyar da ake samu tsakanin harsuna.
A cikin wannan maƙala za a duba ma’anar farƙi da wasu kalmomi. Sannan a duba yadda tsarin kalmomi yake a cikin jimla sassauƙa. Domin duba inda harsunan suka yi tarayya. Haka kuma, za a kawo amfanin mafayyaci a cikin jimla sassauƙa, tare da nuna bambancin Hausa da Ingilishi ta fuskar mafayyaci. Daga ƙarshe akwai jawabin kammalawa.

2.0 MA’ANAR FARƘI


Bambanci na nufin saƂani ko rashin daidaito. (Sa’id, 2006:34) Bambanci tsakanin abubuwa biyu ko fiye wanda ake iya gani ƙarara idan aka kwatanta su ko aka haďa su tare. Farƙi hanya ce ta kwatanta abubuwa biyu ko fiye domin nuna bambancin da ke tsakaninsu. (Wehmeier, 2006:318) Farƙi yana nufin bambanci tsakanin harsuna da ake samu ta fuskar fannoni daban-daban na harshe. Sai dai ba a yin farƙi tsakanin harsuna biyu ko fiye, sai an tabbatar da kowane ďaya daga cikin su yana da fannin da ake son a yi farƙi ďin akai. Wato, a taƙaice dai farƙi na nufin bambancin yadda harsuna ke amfani da wani fanni, wanda yake ya sha bamban da yadda ďan’uwansa ke amfani da shi.
Farƙi yana ďaya daga cikin sassan ilmin harshe wanda ke hasashen kwatanta harsuna biyu, domin nazartar yanayin kowane harshe. A ƙarƙashin wannan fage ne ake lura da irin yadda harsuna ke tarayya a wasu fannoni na nahawu, sannan sukan bambanta kamar dai yadda za mu gani a cikin wannan maƙala.

3.0 TSARIN KALMOMI CIKIN JIMLA


Tsarin kalmomi a cikin jimla hanya ce ta amfani da karƂaƂƂun dokokin harshe wajen shirya kalmomi a cikin jimla. A taƙaice, wannan ƙa’ida ce ta rarraba kalmomi, da ganguna, da yankuna zuwa sassa-sassa a cikin jimla domin a sami lafazi daidai. Kowane harshe yana da takamammen tsarin da yake bi a matakin jimla na jerin gwanon kalmomi da kuma bagiren da kowace kalma ya kamata ta kasance. Bincike na ƙwaƙƙwafi shi akasari ke tabbatar da gaskiyar yadda al’amarin ke faruwa. A fagen tsarin jimla sassauƙa harshen Hausa da na Ingilishi duka suna amfani da tsari iri ďaya ne. Wato, sun yi tarayya ta fuskar tsarin fa’ili, aikatau da kuma maf’uli. A taƙaice, zai ba da (s.v.o) Dubi tsarin kalmomin harsunan a cikin jimloli;
HAUSA: 1. Audu kashe kare
Fa’ili aikatau maf’uli
S V O
INGILISHI: 2. Peter kill a lion
Fa’ili aikatau maf’uli
S V O
Saboda haka, muna iya cewa akwai farƙi tsakanin Hausa da Ingilishi ta fuskar tsarin kalmomi a cikin jimla sassauƙa. Kowane harshe daga cikinsu yana da irin wannan tsari na (s.v.o) haka kuma, dukkanin masu amfani da waďannnan harsuna za su iya fahimtar abin da ake nufi da jimlolin da muka kawo a matsayin misalai. Sai dai majiya harshen za su ce ba haka ya kamata abin ya kasance ba. Saboda kowane daga cikinsu yana da ‘yan ƙare-ƙaren da yake buƙata, domin bayani ya fito sosai. Kamar abin da ya shafi lokacin da aka aikata abin da ya faru a cikin jimla ko kuma kammala ko rashin kammala wani aiki.
HAUSA: 3. (a) Audu kashe kare zai koma
(b) Audu ya a kashe kare

INGILISHI: 4. (a) Peter kill a lion zai koma
(b) Peter killed a lion

Idan aka lura da kyau za a tarar da cewa misalin 3b da na 4b waďanda ke ďauke da kalmomi ko ƙwayoyin ma’ana, waďanda aka ƙara wa duhu su ne suka fito da ire-iren ƙare-ƙaren da kowane harshe ke buƙata. Duk da kasancewar su suna amfani da tsarin kalmomi iri ďaya a cikin jimla sassauƙa.
Akwai tarayya tsakanin waďannan harsuna ta fuskar kalmomi. Aro na ďaya daga cikin manyan dalilan da ke haifar da sauyi a harshe. Wannan na faruwa ne dalilin cuďanyar harsuna da ake samu kullum. Harshen Hausa ya yi cuďanya da Turawa saboda dalilai da dama tun daga kasuwanci, da yaďa addini, da neman ilmi har zuwa mulkin mallaka. Wannan ne yasa Hausawa da suka yi aiki ƙarƙashin ‘yan mulkin mallaka suka aro ďimbin kalmomi daga Ingilishi suka kuma yi musu kwaskwarima, kuma suka zauna daram a cikin harshen Hausa.
Hausawa sun adana kalmomin da suka aro daga Ingilishi tun bayan faďuwar mulkin Turawa. Kuma ana iya cewa waďannan kalmomi da aka aro daga harshen Ingilishi zuwa Hausa, sun samu ne lokacin da harshen Hausa ya fara ďaukar kalma ko ƙwayar ma’ana daga harshen Ingilishi ya kuma saka su cikin rumbun kalmominsa. Dudi yadda aka Hausantar da waďannan kalmomin Ingilishi:

INGILISHI HAUSA INGILISHI HAUSA


Degree digiri Spring sifirin
Dirty datti Bread burodi
Table teburi Fridge firijin
Cup kofi Bucket bokiti
Television talabijin Telegraph tangarahu
Corner kwana Cellular salula
Bundle bandir College kwaleji
Patch faci Sound sauti
Video bidiyo Credit Kiredit

Waďannan kalmomi kan fuskanci kwaskwarima domin su dace da tsarin furuci ko rubutun Hausa. Ana sauya duk wani harafi da Hausa bata shi da kwatankwacinsa ko mai makusanciyar kama da shi. Wasu kalmomin aro kan bambanta ƙwarai da kalmomin Ingilishi na asali, domin ana saƙala wasula tsakanin baƙaƙen da suka yi cunkoso a cikin gaƂa ko kalma. A taƙaice, wannan tarayyar kalmomin tsakanin waďannan harsuna guda biyu, zai sawwaƙa wa Bahaushe ya naƙalci waďannan kalmomi, wajen koyon Ingilishi a matsayin harshe na biyu.

4.0 AMFANIN MAFAYYACI


Babban aikin mafayyaci (kalma mai zuwa bayan fa’ili amma kafin aikatau a cikin jimlar Hausa) shi ne fayyace fa’ali dangane da jinsi da adadi. Saboda haka, kowace jimla sassauƙa ta Hausa tana buƙatar mafayyaci wanda zai gwarigwarin fa’ilin da ya zo cikin jimla.
5. Luba ta naa karanta jarida
A nan dole fa’ili da mafayyaci su yi tarayya ta fuskar rukunin aji ko tsarin nahawu. Kalmar ‘Luba’ wadda ke matsayin fa’ili da kalmar ‘ta’ mai matsayin mafayyaciya suna da tsarin nahawu kamar haka:-
‘Luba’ mutum na uku, mace, tilo (3FS)
‘Ta’ mutum na uku, mace, tilo (3FS)

Don haka, ba kowane mafayyaci ke biyo fa’ili ba, sai wanda suka yi tarayyar tsarin nahawu.
6. Ali ya a sayi mota
Fa’ili mafayyaci

Tsarin nahawu
Ali: Mutum na uku, namiji, tilo (3MS)
Ya: Mutum na uku, namiji, tilo (3MS)

7. Ɗalibi su n faďi jarabawa
Fa’ili mafayyaci

Tsarin nahawu
Ɗalibai: mutum na uku, jam’I (3PL)
Sun: mutum na uku, jam’I (3PL)

Waďannan misalai na 5, 6 da 7 da aka gani sun ƙara tabbatar da aikin mafayyaci a cikin jimlar Hausa sassauƙa. Haka kuma, ba ƙaramin taimako Hausa ta yi ba wajen fayyace fa’ili a cikin jimla da kalmomi mafayyata wajen gane jinsi da adadin fa’ili.
A Ingilishi kuwa ba haka abin yake ba, domin idan har baka san tsarin nahawun fa’ili ba to ba za ka iya tantance jinsi ko adadin fa’ilinsu ba. Dalili kuwa shi ne a Ingilishi babu mafayyaci wanda ke fayyace fa’ili. Misali:-
8. ‘Peter bought a car’ ko ‘Peter has bought a car’
Kalmar ‘Peter’ a nan mutum ba zai iya sanin abin da take nufi ba. Wato, sai dai idan dama mutum ya san ‘Peter’ na nufin mutum na uku, namiji, tilo (3MS), idan ko ba haka ba, dole mutum ya garzaya ya nemi ƙamus na Ingilishi ko Bible domin sanin tsarin nahawun kalmar ‘Peter’

 

Duba wata makala

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/30/sulhun-tankiya-a-cikin-rubutattun-wakoki-da-wakokin-bakan-hausa/

5.0 BAYANI GAME DA FARƘI


Akwai bambance-bambance da ake iya gani tsakanin harsuna. Kuma ana tabbatar da su ne ta hanyar bayani game da farƙi. Saboda haka, akwai bambancin da za a iya hangowa tsakanin Hausa da Ingilishi ta fuskar aikatau da kuma yankin suna ƙarƙashin ilmin ginin jimla.
• Harshen Hausa na buƙatar mafayyaci domin fayyace fa’ili a cikin jimla. Amma harshen Ingilishi ba ya buƙatar yin hakan.
‘Ladi ta na karanta jarida’ Kalmar ‘ta’ ita ce mai fayyace ‘Ladi’ domin suna da aji da tsarin nahawu iri ďaya.
‘Ruth washed her uniform’ na nuna Ingilishi ba ya buƙatar mafayyaci kafin ma’anar jimla ta fito.
• Loka-taƙ a Hausa yana zuwa ne kafin aikatau kuma ba haďe da aikatau ba. Amma loka-taƙ a Ingilishi haďe yake zuwa da aikatau. Wani lokaci ma yakan narke cikin aikatau, har aka kasa ganinsa. A taƙaice, loka-taƙ shi ke bayyana lokacin da aka yi aiki a kowane harshe.
‘Ɗalibai su n firgita da nahawu.’ Ƙwayar ma’anar ‘n’ ita ce loka-taƙ, kuma ta zo ne kafin kalmar aikatau ‘firgita’ Ke nan ta tabbatar mana da lokacin da aka yi aikin shuďaďďen lokaci ne na 1.
‘John is writing a letter.’ Kalmar ‘writing’ ta ƙunshe abu biyu aikatau da ďafin ƙwayar ma’ana ta ‘ing’ mai nuna lokaci na yanzu. Wato, yanzu ake gudanar da aiki ba a kammala ba.
‘John bought a house.’ A nan kalmar ‘bought’ tana matsayin aikatau wanda bai nuna alamar loka-taƙ a zahiri ba. Sai dai lokacin da aka yi aikin kawai ke nuna shuďaďďen lokaci ne na 1.

6.0 KAMMALAWA


Kamar yadda bayanai suka tabbatar akwai aƙalla fannoni uku ko fiye manya na nazarin farƙi a kowane harshe. Fannoni su ne fannin tsarin sauti, da fannin ginin jimla da kuma fannin ma’ana. Saboda wannan dalili muka yi amarnar cewa farƙi kan auku ne tsakanin harsunan da suka yi tarayya ga wani fanni ko tsarin amfani da wani Ƃangare na harshe. Irin wannan hoƂƂasa kan taimaka ainun waje faďaďa nazari da bunƙasar harshe, musamman na Hausa. Don haka, yin bincike na ƙwaƙƙwafi abu ne da ke buƙatar a yawaita yi, domin samun sabbin bayanai ko hujjoji na al’amarin binciken harshe.

RATAYE


HAUSA ENGLISH
Adadi Number
Aikatau Verb
Aji/tsari Grammatical class
Aro Loan
Bambanci Difference
Bayani game da farƙi Statement of contrast
Baƙon harshe Language 2
Cinkoson baƙaƙe Consonants cluster
Ɗafi Affixation
Fa’ili Subject
Fanni Area
Farƙi Contrast
Ganga Clause
Harafi Letter
Ilmin ginin jimla Syntax
Ilmin ma’ana Semantics
Ilmin tsarin sauti Phonology
Ingilishi English
Jam’i Plural
Jimla Sentence
Jimla sassauƙa Simple sentence
Jinsi Gender
Kalma Word
Kwaskwarima Linguistic adjustment
Kwatanci Comparison
Ƙwayoyin ma’ana Morphemes
Lokaci Tense
Loka-taƙ Tense-aspect
Lokaci na yanzu na 1 General continuous tense
Mace Femiline
Mafayyaci Agreement element
Maf’uli Object
Majiya harshe Native speakers
Mutum na biyu Second person singular
Mutum na ďaya First person singular
Mutum na uku Third person singular
Namiji Masculine
Nazarin bambancin harsuna Contrastive Analysis
Shuďaďďen lokaci na 1 General past tense
Taƙi Aspect
Tarayya Similarity
Tsarin kalmomi Typology
Tilo Singular
Yanki Phrase
Yankin suna Noun phrase

MANAZARTA


Amfani, A.H. 2004. Waiwaye Adon Tafiya: Bitar Rabe-raben Azuzuwan Kalmomin Hausa. Takardar Da Aka Gabatar a Wajen Taron Ƙara Wa Juna Ilmi: Sakkwato, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo

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Bargery, G.P. 1934. A Hausa-English Dictionary And English-Hausa. London: Oxford University Press.

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Galadanci, M.K.M. 1976. An Introduction To Hausa Grammar. Ibadan: Longman.

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Muhammad, D. (ed.) 1990. Hausa Metalanguage. Ibadan: University Press Limited.

Newman, P. 2000. The Hausa Language: An Encyclopedic Reference. United State Of America: Yale University Press.

Sa’id, M. 2006. Ƙamusun Hausa Na Jami’ar Bayero. Kano: Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero.

Salehuddin, K. Hua, T.K. da Maros, M. 2006. Definiteness AndIndefiniteness: A Contrastive Analysis Of The Use of Determiners Between The Malay Language And English: GEMA Online Journal Of Language Studies Volume 6 (1).

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Yakasai, S.A. 2009. NLH 4314 (Contrastive Analysis In Hausa) DNL. Katsina: Umaru Musa ‘Yar’aduwa University.

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