Thursday, 20 July 2017

Mamayar Harshe A Nijeriya: Tsokaci Daga Harshen Hausa Da Na Janji

Daga


Professor Salisu Ahmed Yakasai
Department of Nigerian Languages
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
profyakasai@gmail.com
(+234) 08035073537


Being a Festschrift Paper, submitted to the Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Maiduguri, in Honour of Professor B. R. Badejo: LANGUAGE, COMMUNICATION AND SOCIETY



TSAKURE


Wani muhimmin lamarin Walwalar harshe a Nijeriya da bai samu ranar shanya ba, shi ne na matsalar mamayar harshe. Wannan maƘala ta yi tsokaci ne a kan wannan matsala ta mamayar harshe, kamar yadda Hausa ta mamaye Janji (ďaya daga cikin harsuna ‘yan tsiraru a jihar Kaduna). Manufar wannan maƘala ita ce samar da dalilai masu nasaba da harshe (Ilimin Walwalar Harshe) da kuma masu nasaba da zamantakewa da suka taimaka wajen aukuwar wannan lamari. Domin cim ma wannan manufa, an karkasa maƘalar zuwa sassa biyar. Sashe na farko da na biyu gabatarwa ce da kuma waiwayen zubi da tsarin al’ummar Janji a tarihance. Daga nan kuma sai bayanan dalilan da suka haifar da mamayar harshe a sashe na uku, da kuma tasirin mamayar harshe a kan ci gaba da haďin kan Nijeriya a sashe na huďu. Akwai jawabin kammalawa a sashe na biyar.

1.0 Gabatarwa


Gaskiya ne cewa harshe shi ne babbar kafa ta bayyana rayuwa da ci gaban al’umma. Saboda haka, tsarin Ƙumshiyar ci gaban al’ummar yana nan ďamfare ga harshe, Sapir (1921) a rawaitowar Lado (1976). Wannan ya Ƙara bayyana muhimmancin harshe ga al’ummar da suke amfani da shi a matsayin kafa ta bunƘasa al’adunsu. Tarihi ya nuna cewa harshen al’ummar Janji da ci gabansu yana samun koma baya, wato yana Ƙara karkata ga al’adun al’ummu maƘwabta. Lamarin ya taƂarƂare ta yadda har an kai ga yara a yanzu ba sa iya magana da harshensu na gida wato Janji.

Sannu a hankali Hausa ta mamaye Janji a matsayin kafa ta sadarwa. Wannan maƘala tsokaci ce kan al’ummar Janji, waďanda suka fifita amfani da Hausa fiye da harshensu na gida. Dalilai daban-daban ne (masu nasaba da harshe da kuma masu nasaba da zamantakewa) suka taimaka wajen aukuwar mamayar da Hausa ta yi wa Janji. Wannan yanayi na mamayar harshen Hausa a kan Janji, ya haifar da Ƙalubale ga ci gaba da kuma haďin kan Nijeriya, a matsayinta na Ƙasa ďaya mai al’umma ďaya.

2.0 Yanayi da Tsari da Tarihin Al’ummar Janji


Al’ummar Janji (waďanda kuma ake kira da wasu sunaye irin su Jenji da Tijanji da Ajanji da kuma Anafijanzi) suna zaune ne a Ƙaramar hukumar Bassa ta Jihar Filato. Sai dai kuma rikicin siyasa cikin rigar yaƘi ya tarwatsa su zuwa wasu sassa daban-daban. Daga nan sai suka koma kan tsaunuka da kuma garuruwan maƘwabta domin ci gaba da rayuwa. A yanzu ana samun su a Yadin Garu na Ƙaramar hukumar Leren Jihar Kaduna, da kuma Ƙaramar hukumar Obi ta Jihar Nassarawa. Daga baya ne Hausawa suka zo suka zauna tare da su a waďannan wuraren. Duk da cewa ana danganta asalin waďannan al’umma ne da tarihin kunne ya girmi kaka, Deba (1984) ya danganta asalin al’ummar Basharawa da Ƙauyen Bashar da ke Borno. Da alama daga nan ne duka sauran al’ummun suka samo asalinsu. An ce sun yi Ƙaura ne daga wurin da suke a dauri zuwa wurin da suke a yanzu. Sai dai kuma ya Ƙara da cewa irin wannan batu na asali ya fi zama tarihihi fiye da tarihi na gaskiya. Sai dai kuma a wasu lokuta, ta irin wannan hanya ce kawai za a iya bayyana abubuwan da suka faru a tsakanin al’ummu daban-daban.

Dangane da al’adun mutanen kuwa, suna tafiyar da rayuwarsu ne tare da sana’o’insu. Galibi mafi yawansu suna noma da farauta da saƘa da Ƙira, a inda sukan sayar da kayayyakin da suka samar ga maƘwabtansu da kuma ‘yan kasuwa matafiya musamman Hausawa. Kafin zuwan addinin Musulunci da na Kiristanci, al’ummar Janji suna bautar Dodo (tsafe-tsafe) ne, to amma kuma sun yarda da Allah ďaya ne. Sukan gabatar da bukukuwa na girbe amfanin gona a kowace shekara (Waza), da kuma na bunne matattu (Kanusu) da kuma na aure. A lokutan waďannan bukukuwa, kowa yakan sha giya ya bugu, daga nan kuma sai a yi ta tiƘar rawa tun daga safiya har dare. Suna Ƙera kayan kiďa da waƘa, kuma sukan rera waƘoƘi da kuma tatsuniyoyi domin nishaďantarwa. Kayan kiďansu sun haďa da (Sarewa) da ganguna na (Kalangu) da kuma uwar ganguna (Ganga). Tatsuniyoyinsu da waƘoƘinsu suna bayyana rayuwarsu ne cikin nishaďi.

Daga abin da ya gabata, a fili take cewa akwai alaƘa makusanciya tsakanin Hausa da Janji, to amma babu mai iya cewa ga tsawon lokacin da wannan hulďa ta fara, musamman ma da yake babu wani abu da aka adana (Adamu, 1978). Ita irin wannan hulďa tsakanin al’ummu guda biyu ana yin ta ne ta har abada kuma mai ďorewa. Saboda haka, babu wani lokaci da sojojin Hausawa ba sa kai hari ga al’ummun da ke kudancinsu. Wata hanya kuma ta hulďa (kuma har gobe akwai ta) ita ce ta ciniki ko kasuwanci. A da can akwai kasuwanci na cikin gida tsakanin Hausawa (Yankoli) da al’ummu mazauna kudancin Ƙasar Hausa. Wannan ne ya ba da dama ta shimfiďa hulďar kasuwanci da musaya na kayayyaki daban-daban. A labarin kunne ya girmi kaka, Hausawa ‘yan kasuwa sukan kawo tufafi da ‘yan kunnaye ga al’ummar Janji, su kuma su sayi wasu kayayyaki na daban a matsayin musaya.

Hulďa mai tsawo irin wannan tsakanin al’ummu guda biyu majiya harsuna daban-daban, tana da tasiri. Wato ta hannu guda al’ummun na amfani da wannan dama a matsayin wata kafa ta sadarwa tsakanin al’ummun guda biyu. A ďaya Ƃangaen kuma al’ummun na iya koyon harshen junansu, kuma a nan ‘yan tsiraru ne za su koyi harshen manyan harsuna. Daga nan kuma Ƙofar mamaye harshen ta buďe cikin al’adun al’ummu mafi rinjaye, Reineke (1964) a rawaitowar Kiyawa (1983). Sauran maganar ita ce, wani kaso mafi yawa na iya koyon harshen masu rinjaye, kamar dai yadda ya faru da Swahili ga mafi yawan harsunan Afirka kamar Gikuyu da Luo da sauransu, (Whitley, (1969).

3.0 Me Lamarin Mamayar Harshe Ya Ƙunsa?


Manufar wannan maƘala ita ce nazarin lamarin mamayar harshe a wannan al’umma ta Janji, saboda haka tana Ƙunshe da bayanai irin waďanda suka ja hankalin manazarta harshe. Don haka, alƘiblar dai ita ce lamarin mamayar harshe da kuma irin tasirinsa ga ci gaba da haďin kan Nijeriya, a matsayinta na Ƙasa ďaya mai al’umma ďaya. Bayanin tasire-tasiren suna ďamfare ne ga dalilai (masu nasaba da harshe da kuma masu nasaba da zamantakewa) da suka taimaka wajen aukuwar lamarin. Haka kuma, waiwayen bitar ayyukan da suka gabata a fagen Walwalar harshe za su Ƙara haske dangane da bayanan da aka tanada. Hakan ne kuma zai ba mu dama ta yin matsaya game da sakamakon bayanan da aka samu a nazarce. Bayanan sharar fage da aka samu daga masu amsa tambayoyi ya nuna cewa, al’ummar da aka nazarta majiya harsuna ne tuli. Babbar matsalar wannan yanayi ita ce, waďannan harsuna da al’ummun suke amfani da su domin sadarwa (a matakai daban-daban) suna takara da juna domin yin mamaya. Domin da zarar an samu sauyi ta fuskar al’ada ko tattalin arziƘi, to nan da nan sai harshe guda (ko karuruwan harshen) su mamaye junansu a tsakanin majiya harshen, musamman a wasu muhimman al’amuran rayuwa (Fishman, 1972).

Daga bayanan da muke da su a Ƙasa, mamayar da Hausa ta yi wa sauran harsuna a fili take. Ga misali, kimanin kashi ďari (100%) na waďanda aka tattauna da su, sun yi iƘirarin suna jin Hausa, kashi arba’in da biyar (45%) suna jin Janji, kuma kashi ashiri da biyar (25%) suna jin Ingilishi. Ta fuskar harsunan da ake amfani da su, a fili take cewa sannu a hankali Hausa tana mamaye sauran harsunan (wato Janji da Ingilishi). Bugu da Ƙari kuma, ana amfani da Hausa a sauran al’amuran rayuwar mutanen da aka tambaya. Hasali ma, ai da cewa ana amfani da Hausa a gida da kasuwa da hanya yana nufin nan ba da daďewa ba Hausa za ta zamo harshen al’ummar. Duk yaron da aka haifa kuwa, to da ita zai tashi a bakinsa.

Tasirin addini a yunƘurin yaďa (da kafa) Hausa a matsayin harshen hulďa ya nuna ra’ayin masu amsa tambayoyi cewa addinin Musulunci da na Kiristanci, sun taka rawa a gina harshen da suke amfani da shi wajen sadarwa. Wannan ya nuna irin muhimmancin da al’ummar Janji suka ta’allaƘa ga masu wa’azi a addinan guda biyu cikin Hausa. A ra’ayin Le Page (1964), al’amuran addini da ake yaďawa a sassa daban-daban na duniya, sune sanadin muhimman sauye-sauye da ake samu a al’ummun da abin ya shafa. Ta fuskar aiki kuwa, masu bayar da bayanan sun nuna cewa aikinsu ba shi da wani cikakken tasiri ga harshen da suke amfani da shi wajen sadarwa. Da yake mafi yawan masu bayar da bayanan manoma ne, to muna iya cewa noma ba shi da wani tasiri ga harshen da ake amfani da shi wajen mu’amala. Wani muhimmin al’amari kuma shi ne batun harshen mamayar kansa. Kimanin kashi saba’in da biyu (72%) na masu ba da bayani sun tabbatar da cewa Hausa ta mamaye Janji. Dalilai da yawa ne ake dangantawa da aukuwar wannan lamari. A daidai lokacin da wasu ke ganin mafi yawan matasa ne ke amfani da Hausa, wasu kuma na ganin cewa amfani da Hausa a coci-coci ne ya haifar da mamayar.

Daga waďannan bayanai, muna iya fahimtar cewa duk da zamowar Kiristanci addinin da mafi yawan al’ummar suka runguma a matsayin hanyar bauta, to kuma masu wa’azi sun yi tasiri a kansu da har suka yi watsi da harshensu na Janji suka rungumi Hausa. Saboda haka, rungumar da matasa suka yi wa Hausa batu ne mai ban sha’awa a wannan nazari, kamar dai yadda sakamakon bayanai ya nuna. Yanayin ya kuma so ya yi kama da wanda Ruth Johnson ta bayyana dangane da Polish ‘yan gudun hijira, inda tsofaffin da ke Australia suka fi ba da goyon baya ga Ingilishi, duk da cewa ba su faye amfani da shi ko ma fahimtarsa sosai ba, a tsawon shekaru da yawa kafin a samu daidaitawa. Ta ďaya Ƃangaren kuma, matasan na amfani da Ingilishi sama-sama amma kuma sun fi ba da goyon baya ga amfani da harshen Polish (Fishman, 1972).

Dangane da ra’ayoyin masu ba da bayanai kan Hausa kuwa, sakamakon ya sa mun gano cewa mafi yawan al’ummar sun fi son Hausa fiye da Janji saboda waďannan dalilai: (a) suna ganin Hausa a matsayin wata kafa ta sadarwa da maƘwabta (b) Hausa ta taimaka masu wajen samun aikin gwamnati (c) Hausa na taimaka masu a wajen harkokin kasuwancinsu (d) Ƙima da martabar Hausa da kuma burinsu na kasancewa Hausawa. Waďanda suka ďauki Hausa a matsayin harshen kasuwanci da hulďa da maƘwabta, sun jaddada muhimmancin hulďar kasuwancin a tsakanin Hausawa da kuma al’ummun da ke kudancin Ƙasar Hausa. A ra’ayin Kiyawa (1983), akwai kuma batun tattalin arziƘi, inda ake amfani da Hausa a harkokin kasuwancin. Haka dai lamarin yake musamman a inda ‘yan asalin majiya harshen Janji suka samu bunƘasa a harkokin kasuwanci. A irin wannan yanayi, akwai yiwuwar majiya Ƙananan harsuna su ko yi harshen mafi rinjaye, kuma su yi amfani da harshen wajen kasuwanci, matuƘar suna so a yi da su.

Daga abin da ya gabata, a fili yake cewa harshen Janji a matsayinsa na kafa ta sadarwa yana bisa hanyar mutuwa, a sanadiyar mamayar Hausa da kuma Ingilishi (a ‘yan shekarun nan). Akwai alamun harshen zai Ƃace, musamman idan aka yi la’akari da yawan macewar tsofaffi majiya harshen. Hasali ma, ana iya cewa harshen yana samun koma baya da hanzari, ta yadda ana iya hasashen nan da wasu Ƙarni-Ƙarni masu zuwa zai mace gaba ďaya.

4.0 Dalilan Da Ke Kawo Mamayar Harshe


Waiwayen bayanan da aka samu daga wannan nazari, haďakar dalilai daban-daban ne suka taimaka wajen koyo da kuma rungumar harshe guda ďaya, a matsayin hanyar sadarwa ta al’umma. Waďannan dalilai sun bambanta, wato kama daga sakamakon wata hulďa ko mu’amala zuwa wata. Ga misali, suna iya kasancewa na soji ko kasuwanci ko gudun hijira ko siyasa ko addini ko kuma zamantakewa. A kowace irin hulďar kasuwanci mai tsawo, galibi harshen al’ummar da ta fi rinjaye ne ke zamowa harshen sadarwa. KarƂuwa da rungumar harshen Swahili (harshen ‘yan tsiraru) da al’ummar gabashin Afirka suka yi a matsayin harshen kasuwanci, kuma daga baya harshen Ƙasa abin izina ne (Whitely, 1969). Saboda haka, wannan shaida ce cikin hulďar kasuwanci tsakanin al’ummar Hausa da na Janji. Al’ummar Hausawa sune mafi Ƙarfin tattalin arziƘi, kuma saboda Ƙarfin tasirinsu sun kasance majiya harshe ďaya. Su kuma al’ummar Janji da arziƘinsu ba shi da Ƙarfi, suna komawa majiya harsuna biyu. Idan wannan yanayin ya ci gaba, to harshen da aka fifita ne zai kai matsayin zamowa harshen sadarwa ko kuma harshen hulďa ga al’umma gaba ďaya.

Bugu da Ƙari a al’umma majiya harsuna tuli, idan ana aiwatar da al’amuran siyasa a cikin harshe guda, to ba shakka sauran al’umma za su koya kuma nan da nan harshen ya yaďu a ko’ina. Saboda haka, duk wani ďan takarar siyasa zai yi ƘoƘarin koyon harshen domin gabatar da jawabi na neman goyon baya ga mutane (Kiyawa, 1983). Haka kuma, samuwar harshen gudanar da mulki, lamari ne na shawarar ‘yan siyasa. A arewacin Nijeriya, an yi amfani da Hausa domin wannan aiki a lokacin Turawan mulkin mallaka. Daga baya kuma martabar Hausa ta bunƘasa a jamhuriya ta farko da ta biyu.

A lokacin mulkin Turawa, an Ƙarfafawa Razdan-Razdan da Di’o-Di’o gwiwa da su koyi harsunan mutanen da suke jagoranta. Domin samun nasarar ayyukan da aka Ƙudurta, an tanadi Ƙamus-Ƙamus na kalmomin gudanar da mulki a sassa daban-daban har da wuraren da ba na Hausawa ba (Paden,1968). Haka kuma an amince da amfani da harshen wajen aiwatar da ayyukan majalisa. Wannan yanayi ya ďore har a jamhuriya ta biyu a wasu jihohin arewa. Sakamakon wannan aiki shi ne Ƙarin martaba ta harshen, da kuma Ƙarin yawan mutane da za su koya. Idan kuma aka danganta addini da harshen al’adar al’umma, to akwai yiwuwar sababbin shiga daga wasu al’adun ko harsunan, za su koya kuma su runguma a matsayin harshen hulďa da sadarwa. Lamarin yakan zo da sauƘi idan ya kasance harshen da aka runguma kuma da shi ake yaďa al’amuran addini. Ga misali, Kiristanci da ya fi Ƙarfi a wannan wurin nazari, ana amfani da Hausa a Coci-coci domin wa’azi. Bayan wannan kuma, batun soji ma yana da matuƘar muhimmanci, wato yanayin hulďa tsakanin wanda ya yi kamu (soji) da kuma waďanda aka kama (bayi). A irin wannan yanayi, dole ne waďanda aka kama (bayi) su koyi harshen wanda ya kama su (soji). Yawan yaƘe-yaƘen da aka yi tsakanin Hausawa da al’ummun kudancin Ƙasar Hausa a Ƙarni na goma sha uku zuwa na sha takwas, kyawawan misalai ne na karƂuwa da kuma bunƘasar Hausa a matsayin harshen hulďa.

Wani babban dalili kuma shi ne na shige da fice. A irin wannan yanayin kuma, harshen da za a runguma kuma a koya shi ne na ‘yan Ƙasa. Sai dai kuma idan baƘi sun kasance masu Ƙarfi ta fuskar al’ada da siyasa da kuma tattalin arziƘi fiye da na ‘yan gida, to akwai yiwuwar nasu harshen ne zai samu karƂuwa a wannan al’umma (Kiyawa, 1983). Hausawan da ke da zama a wajen gida suna da masaniyar lamarin, saboda haka sukan yi ƘoƘarin riƘe harshensu, har ma su koyar da shi ga al’ummar da suka sami kansu a cikinsu, ba tare da sun koyi harshen waďancan baƘi ba.

Haka abin yake ma, matuƘar an gina tsarin karatun wata jiha a bisa wani harshe na daban, to wajibi ne mutum ko’ina ne asali ko tushensa ya koyi wannan harshen domin samun nasarar manufar ilimi ta gaba ďaya. A wani sharhi da Paden ya yi kan tsarin ilimin arewacin Nijeriya a shekarun 1950 zuwa 1960 yana cewa “Ilimi a wannan yanki yana nufin yin karatu cikin Hausa (na boko ko ajami) amma ba Ingilishi ba”. Gaskiyar maganar ita ce, an tilasta yara koyon Hausa a wuraren da ba na Hausawa ba ne.

Daga abin da ya gabata, babu wata tantama haďakar waďannan dalilai masu nasaba da addini da kasuwanci da siyasa da shige da fice da kuma zamantakewa, sun taimaka wajen yaďawa da kuma karƂuwar harshen da aka fifita, wanda kuma ya samar da dama ta mamaye Ƙananan harsuna da suke a wurin. Batun zamantakewa kuwa, tsari ne da mutum yakan naƘalci yadda ake hulďa da mu’amala da sauran al’umma. A kimiyyar harshe kuwa, wannan yana nufin cewa kowane yaro zai koyi harshen al’ummar da ya samu kansa a cikinta. Saboda haka, idan al’ummar Janji sun zamo majiya Hausa, to yaransu za su taso suna yin Hausa tunda harshensu na gida ya mutu.

5.0 Tasirin Mamayar Harshe ga Haďin Kan Nijeriya


Dangane da tasirin lamarin mamayar harshe ga haďin kan Nijeriya, abu na farko ga waďanda harshensu ya salwanta shi ne kasancewarsu cikin al’ummar da ta rungumi sabuwar kafa ta sadarwa. Wannan sabon yanayi ya haďa kansu a matsayinsu na majiya harshe guda. Sai dai kuma duk da haka ana iya rarrabewa, domin abu ne mai wuya mutum ya koyi harshen wata al’umma kuma a ce ya Ƙware kamar saura. Irin wannan bambanci ka iya haifar da matsananciyar gaba.

Sau da yawa, masana ilimin walwalar harshe da ‘yan siyasa sukan goyi bayan yunƘurin samuwar harshen Ƙasa, domin haďin kai da ďorewar Ƙasa mai al’umma ďaya. Fargabar masana da ma’abuta amfani da harsuna na iya tabbata, wato goyon baya ga harshe na iya Ƙarfi ta yadda za a yi amfani da wannan dama a sarrafa Ƙasa ba ta yadda yakamata ba. A mafi yawan lokuta, harsuna ‘yan tsiraru sukan sami kansu cikin wariya da tsangwama. Ga misali, irin haka ce ta samu Macedon a Greece ko German a France da Italy, Catalan a Spain da kuma Scots da Gaelic da Welsh a Burtaniya (Trudgil, 1974). Babbar tambayar a nan ita ce, shin ko dole ne Ƙasa mai martaba ta kasance mai al’umma ďaya? Gaskiyar maganar ita ce, ci gaba da bunƘasar Ƙasa ba sakamakon kasancewa mai al’umma guda ba ne. Wato adalci cikin rabon dukiyar Ƙasa ga dukkan al’ummu da ďaiďaikun mutane, shi ne mafi dacewa. Saboda haka, bambancin jagoranci lamari ne na akasi cikin yanayin jin harsuna tuli. Idan wannan magana ta tabbata, to akwai yiwuwar rarrabuwa da rikici a tsakanin al’ummu daban-daban saboda dalilan mamaya (Inglehart da Woodward, 1967). Haka lamarin ya kasance ga Belgium da Canada.

A Nijeriya ma, rikicin al’ummar Tiv na shekarun 1964 zuwa 1966 yana ďamfare da Ƙorafe-Ƙorafe na Ƙabilanci cikin nuna fifiko a yankin arewa. Ko a yau ma, al’ummu ‘yan tsiraru sukan furta Ƙorafe-Ƙorafe dangane da al’amuran tattalin arziƘi da kuma muƘamai na siyasa, a tsakaninsu da manyan al’ummu (Yakasai, 2012). Idan lamarin mamaya ya auku a sanadiyar dalilai masu nasaba da hulďa, to lamarin yana da sauƘin fahimta. To amma idan aka danganta lamarin da mamayar wata al’umma bisa saura da sunan harshen Ƙasa da kuma haďin kai, to lamarin ya yi tsanani. Hasali ma, ai yunƘurin musanya wani harshe da wani lamari ne da yake bukatar himma da Ƙwazo na sabunta al’ada (Trudgill, 1974).

Ana iya sake yin tambaya kwatankwacin ta baya, wato ko Ƙasashe masu harshen Ƙasa suna da cikakken tsari fiye da masu harsuna tuli? Ga misali, a Indiya ana amfani da harshen Hindi a matsayin harshen hulďa ko kuma harshen Ƙasa, fiye da saura (waďanda sai sun koye shi a matsayin harshe na biyu). To amma ko Indiya ta samu nutsuwa fiye da yadda take ďamfare da mabambantan harsuna? Amsar wannan tambaya ita ce a’a domin tsohuwar Ƙiyayyar nan tsakanin mabiya Sikhs da Musulmi a jihohin Punjab na Ƙara amo da munanan raunuka daga sassan biyu. Shin ko rungumar Amharic da gwamnatin Ethiopia ta yi a matsayin harshen Ƙasa ya kawo Ƙarshen tsohon yaƘin nan tsakanin Ethiopia da kuma lardin Ogden?

6.0 Kammalawa


Abin da ya gabata a cikin wannan maƘala, nazari ne kan lamarin mamayar harshe a Nijeriya, tare da tsokaci kan al’ummar Janji a matsayin zakaran gwajin-dafi. An samu bayanai daga sassa daban-daban na hulďar al’umma kamar kotu da gida da kasuwa da fada da Masallaci/Coci da gona da sauransu. An tantance dalilai (masu nasaba da harshe da kuma masu nasaba da zamantakewa) da aka yi ittifaƘin sune suke kawo mamayar harshe, aka kuma kawo tasirin lamarin mamayar harshe ga haďin kai da ci gaban Ƙasa, a matsayinta na Ƙasa ďaya mai al’umma ďaya.

Idan aka yi la’akari da kasancewar Nijeriya Ƙasa ce mai al’ummu daban-daban, kuma mai jin harsuna tuli, to tsarin amfani da harshen da zai fi dacewa shi ne na ba da dama ga harsunan Nijeriya da su zamo na hukuma a wuraren da suka fi Ƙarfi. Irin wannan tsari ne aka yi amfani da shi a Switzerland da USSR da kuma Canada. Daga abubuwan da suka gudana a waďannan Ƙasashe, bai kamata a ce yawaitar harsuna yana kawo rarrabuwa ta siyasa ba.

Duba wani

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/19/ashe-harshe-yana-mutuwa/

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