Hausa Language Academic Website

Wednesday, 19 July 2017

Makomar Harshen Hausa Cikin Matsayi da Ƙalubalen Harsunan Afirka A Fagen Ilimi

Daga


Salisu Ahmad Yakasai (PhD)
Department of Nigerian Languages
Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo University, Sokoto
syakasai2013@gmail.com
(+234) 08035073537


Being a paper presented at the 3RD Annual International Conference on HAUSA LANGUAGE, LITERATURE AND CULTURE IN THE 21st CENTURY: CURRENT TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES, Organized by Department of Nigerian Languages and Linguistics, Kaduna State University Thursday 17th - 19th May 2017, at the Faculty of Science Lecture Theatre by 10:00 am.



TSAKURE


Wannan maƘala ta yi tsokaci ne a kan makomar harshen Hausa cikin matsayi da Ƙalubalen harsunan Afirka a fagen ilimi. Harshen Hausa shi ne na bakwai a duniya, cikin harsunan da aka fi amfani da su. Haka kuma harshen Hausa ne na uku (baya ga Kiswahili) cikin harsunan da aka fi amfani da su a tsakanin harsunan Afirka, kuma harshe na ďaya da aka fi amfani da shi tsakanin harsuna ‘yan gidan Afro-asiatic. Domin cimma wannan manufa, an karkasa maƘalar zuwa kashi shida. Kashi na farko gabatarwa ce. Daga nan kuma sai yanayi da tsarin harsuna a Afirka, da kuma matsayin Hausa a kashi na uku. Kashi na huďu kuwa waiwaye ne na tasirin musayar basira da ilimi da al’adu tsakanin al’ummu na Ƙasashen duniya, cikin shirin amfanin da harshe a Afirka. A kashi na biyar shawarwari ne dangane da mafita cikin matsayi da Ƙalubalen harsunan Afirka. Akwai jawabin kammalawa.

1.0 Gabatarwa


A babban taron majalisar zartarwa ta Ƙungiyar Tarayyar Afirka (AU), da aka gabatar a Sudan a watan Janairun 2006 ne aka tsaida shekarar 2006 a matsayin shekarar harsunan Afirka. Wannan matsayi da aka cimma, wata matasaya ce ga ma fi yawan harsunan Afirka, dangane da manufar haƂaka su da aka tanada a shekara ta 1960. Fa’idar wannan manufa ita ce, domin a tantance matsayin da zai share fagen bunƘasa ci gaban siyasa da tattalin arziƘi da al’adu da kuma tsarin zamantakewar al’ummar wannan nahiya. Saboda haka, Afirka na buƘatar jajircewa domin ďorewar wannan manufa da kuma fuskantar Ƙalubalen irin gudummawar da za ta bayar a duniya gaba ďaya. Sauran batutuwan da ake fatan a dube su da idon basira sun haďa da tasirin tarihin mulkin mallaka a Afirka, musamman ma abin da ya shafi shirin amfani da harshe da kuma gwagwarmayar samar da kyawawan tsare-tsare da suka dace da ci gaban ilimi bayan samuwar ‘yancin kai.

Afirka ita ce nahiya mai ma fi yawan harsuna ‘yan gida da suke tasowa, musamman ma idan aka yi la’akari da yaďuwarsu a sassa daban-daban. A wannan maƘala, mun gabatar da Hausa a matsayin zakaran gwajin-dafi. Wato harsunan Afirka za su iya taka muhimmiyar raya a fagen ilimi, matuƘar dai an samar masu da yanayin da ya dace kuma ya keƂanta ga fasalta harshe. Wannan wani Ƙalubale ne na abin da ake danganta harsunan Afirka da shi na rashin bunƘasa da kuma gazawa wajen bayyana lamuran fasaha da kimiyya, don haka ba su cancanci a yi amfani da su a fagen ilimi ba. Duk da irin wannan hoƂƂasa dangane da makomar harsunan Afirka da kuma Ƙaruwar kulawa da suke samu, har yanzu akwai sauran aiki. Ta laa’akari da Afirka a matsayin alƘibla, wannan maƘala za ta yi tsokaci kan makoma cikin matsayin Hausa, da fatan hakan zai taimaka wajen bunƘasa harsuna a Afirka cikin tsarin zamantakewa da harsuna da yawa.

1.0 Yanayi da Tsarin Harsuna a Afirka


Akwai mabambantan Ƙiyasi dangane da adadin harsunan Afirka. Sai dai kuma nazarce-nazarce sun tabbatar da cewa akwai kimanin harsuna dubu biyu da talatin da biyar a Afirka. Idan aka yi la’akari da bayanayin jin harsuna da yawa da ya mamaye Afirka, to sai a ga wannan Ƙiyasin yana caccanzawa. Wannan batu haka yake, musamman idan aka yi la’akari da cewa ana Ƙara gano harsuna masu majiya da yawa, a yayin da a ďaya Ƃangaren kuma, wasu masu majiya kaďan ke mutuwa (Yakasai, 2012). A Ƙaramin taƘadiri an karkasa harsunan Afirka zuwa manyan gidaje huďu kamar haka: (a) Na Afro-asiatic da ke da adadin harsuna ďari uku da saba’in da ďaya (b) Na Niger-Congo da harsuna dubu ďaya da ďari huďu da talatin da shida (c) Na Saharan da haruna ďari ďaya da casa’in da shida, da kuma (d) Na Khoisan da harsuna talatin da biyar. Wannan Ƙiyasi na fiye da harsuna dubu biyu a Afirka, yana wakiltar kashi ďaya ne cikin uku na yawan harsunan duniya. Duk da cewa nahiyar Afirka na da matsakaicin girma, kuma tana ďauke da kashi goma na yawan al’ummar duniya, to ita ce kuma ta Ƙunshe ma fi yawan harsunan duniya.

Jin harsuna da yawa lamari ne na haďaka ta majiya harsuna daban-daban cikin hulďa da mu’amala. Ana iya nazarin lamarin ta hanyoyi guda uku, wato ta fannin mutuntakar harshe da fannin harshe cikin tarihi da kuma fannin walwalar harshe. Saboda haka, ana iya tantance yanayin jin harsuna da yawa: (a) a matsayin hanya ta bayyana yadda Ƙasashe suke (b) sakamakon jin harsuna da yawa da kuma (c) tasirin jin harsuna da yawa ga ďaiďaikun mutane. Duk da cewa waiwayen shirin amfani da harshe a Afirka ya bayyana yawan harsunan Afirka a tsakanin 1,250 da 2,100 to wannan ya nuna cewa ko da a yanayin majiya harshe guda (musamman idan aka yi la’akari da karin harshe da karin sashe da kuma rajista) ana iya samunn matsala.

Tasirin yanayin jin harsuna da yawa yakan bambanta daga Ƙasa zuwa Ƙasa. Kimanin mutane miliyan 105 ke magana da kusan harsuna 410 a Nijeriya, mutane miliyan 30 a Zaire na amfani da harsuna 206, kuma Ethiopia na da harsuna 97 domin mutane miliyan 45. Bambance-bambance cikin mu’amala, ba yanayi ne na manyan Ƙasashe ba kawai. Mutane miliyan takwas ne ke amfani da harsuna 185 a Cameroon, wato kimanin mutum 50,000 na ďamfare ga harshe guda. Haka kuma mutane miliyan uku a Ƙasar Benin na da harsuna 58, amma kuma mutane miliyan biyu na Congo na da 31. Mauritania na da 4, Niger na da 10. Wannan Ƙiyasi ya samar da muhimman bayanai, kuma adadin ya taimaka wajen fahimtar lamarin da kuma irin Ƙalubalen jin harsuna da yawa a matsayin kafa ta haifar da matsaloli. Ga misali, a Nijeriya harsuna 397 cikin 410 ‘yan tsirarau ne amma yawan masu magana da harsunan sun kai kashi 60%.

Daga cikinsu akwai harsuna masu majiya fiye da miliyan ďaya, yanayin da ya sa wasu ke ganin lokaci ya yi da za a daina la’akari da yawan jama’a a mtsayin matakin shirin amfani da harshe. Saboda haka, harsuna majiya 50.000 ma na da muhimmanci wajen ci gaban Ƙasa (Yakasai, 2012). Galibi tasirin yanayin jin harsuna da yawa ya shafi sassa daban-daban na rayuwa kamar zamantakewa da siyasa da kuma uwa-uba walwalar harshen al’umma (wato cikin dangantakar harshe da rukunin jama’a da jinsi da muhallin magana da harshen Ƙasa da karin harshe/sashe). Dangane da tasirin jin harsuna da yawa ga ďaiďaikun mutane kuwa, kusan lamari ne da ke aukuwa kullum tsakanin manya a Afirka. Wato lamarin ya shafi dukkan harsunan gida 2,000 na Afirka. Ɗaya daga cikin manyan matsalolin nazarin jin harsuana da yawa shi ne auna Ƙwarewar mai magana cikin kowane harshe. A wannan yanayin, akan ba harshe guda fifiko, saura kuma a danganta su ga wasu mutane domin aiwatar da wani amfani na sadarwa. Sai dai kuma a tsawon rayuwa, mutum na iya sauya harshen da ya fifita a sanadiyar matsayi cikin ilimi da zamantakewa da kuma yanayi. Ita kanta basirar majiya harsuna a Afirka takan bambanta saboda dalilai masu nasaba da zamantakewa.

Ga misali, kamar yadda maza suka fi mata, haka ma mutanen birni suka fi na karkara amfani da harsuna daban-daban. Hasali ma ai a karkara ne aka fi samun majiya harshe ďaya. Ilimin zamani ma yakan Ƙara basira a harshen. Hakan yana faruwa ne saboda ma fi yawan makarantu a Afirka, ba da harshen uwa ake koyo ba. Wato kimanin kashi 50% na mutanen da ke zaune a Afirka majiya harshe guda ne. Wani abu kuma da ke da alaƘa da jin harsuna da yawa shi ne hargitsa-balle. Hargitsa-balle ko surki yanayi ne na sassauya amfani a maganar majiya harshe biyu. Galibi, yanayin na kasancewa aro ko kuma surki gaba ďayansa. Ana yin aron ne a magance matsalar Ƙaranci ko rashin isassun kalmomi. Ta wannan fuska, surki ya zama wani alamce mai cin gashin kai domin amfanin majiya harshe biyu. Ganin majiya harshe biyu sun yi na’am da shi ne ma ya sa Carol Myers-Scallon (1993) ke cewa zaƂi ne da ya dace cikin sadarwa.

A ra’ayin Gal (1988), surki wata hikima ce cikin magana da ake amfani da ita domin shimfiďa ko samar da dangantaka mai ďorewa. Dalilai kamar su basira a harshe da muhallin magana da matsayi da maudu’i duk suna taimakawa wajen zaƂin hanyar sadarwa. Dangane da rawar da harshe ke takawa cikin yanayin jin harshe da yawa kuwa, a fili take cewa harshe na biyan buƘatun al’umma ta fannonin rayuwa da yawa. Saboda haka, cikin al’umma majiya harshe da yawa ana amfani da harsuna ne daban-daban. Cikin wannan al’umma dai, akan jingina wasu harsuna na musamman (ďaya ko biyu) ga wasu al’amura kamar dai yadda doka ta tanada. A nan al’umma ce kan keƂe wasu ayyuka ga wasu harsuna a cikin tsarin mulkinsu. Haka kuma ana iya karkasa al’umma dangane da yadda doka ta tanadi matsayin harsuna. A nan kuma ana la’akari ne da yawan harsunan da ke akwai, da kuma irin ayyukan da kowannensu ke yi. Wato ayyukan harsuna na ďamfare da tanadin doka. Ga misali, muhimman sunaye na ayyukan da harsuna ke yi (harshen mama da harshen Ƙasa da harshen hukuma) suna sassaƂawa cikin aiki da fahimta. Masana shirin amfani da fasalta harshe sukan gwama harshen mama da harshen al’umma domin samar da tsarin da zai amfani jama’a. Sauran nau’o’i na ayyuka cikin walwalar harshe sun haďa da harshen farko da harshe na biyu da manyan harsuna da harsuna ‘yan tsiraru da buroka da kuma gargaliyanci. Halayya cikin amfani da harshe a yanayin jin harsuna da yawa tana nufin zaƂin harshe domin amfani daban-daban. An fi samun sakamako mai kyau idan aka gwama harsuna (ko karin harshe) da yawa domin tabbatar da rarrabuwa da kuma tsanin jama’a. A ma fi yawan Ƙasashen Afirka, bambancin harshen hukuma da harshen Ƙasa da kuma sauran Ƙananan harsuna, wata dama ce ta zaƂo harshen fifiko. A Larabci ga misali, ana danganta fifikon ga Larabcin Ƙur’ani, rashin fifikon kuma ga na gargaliya da kuma sauran kare-karen Larabci.

Matsayin harsunan Afirka da mafi yawan mutane suke amfani da su a kowace Ƙasa (har da manyan harsunan hulďa kamar Hausa da Kiswahili da Wolof da Bambara) na hulďa ne kawai. Kaďan ne daga cikinsu suka kai matsayin harsunan Ƙasa ballantana kuma zama harshen hukuma ko harshen ilimi a Ƙasashensu. Dangane da harshen ilimi kuwa, yana da kyau a san cewa matsayin harshe yakan yi tasiri domin ana amfani da harsunan gida ne a makarantun furamare kawai. A mafi yawan Ƙasashen Afika, ana koyar da yara ne a makaranta da harshen uwayensu a shekaru biyu na farko, wato darussan lissafi da karatu da kuma rubutu. A shekara ta uku ne ake koyar da su da harshen da mafi yawan mutane suke amfani da shi cikin al’umma. A nan ne kuma ake gabatar da harsunan ‘yan mulkin mallaka (Ingilishi da French ko Portuguese) domin su maye gurbin harshen ilimi a shekara ta huďu da biyar. Daga nan kuma, da waďannan harsunan za a ci gaba da koyar da su kowane darasi ban da darussan harsunan gida (idan ma ba su mutu ba kenan). Sau da yawa dai harsunan hulďa ne suke ďorewa.

A matakin ilimin sakandare kuwa, ba a fiya jin amon harsunan gida ba illa nadiran, wato inda ake gudanar da nazarce-nazarce na harshe ko adabi a kwalejoji ko jami’o’i. A nan ďin ma akan rage karsashin amfani da harsuna gida a matsayin harsunan ilimi. A nan ne kuma tsarin ilimin yaro da ya fara ta amfani da harsuna biyu ake kawo Ƙarshensa ba da shiri ba. Daga irin wannan yanayi na jin harsuna da yawa a Afirka, fifikon amfani da harsunan ‘yan mulkin mallaka domin ilimi shi ne zaƂi ďaya da zai haďa kan Ƙasa. Gaskiyar maganar ita ce zaƂin harshen da za a yi amfani da shi wajen gudanar da al’amuran ilimi, lamari ne da ke bukatar zuzzurfan nazari tare da la’akari da nau’o’in ilimin da ake da su da kuma yadda za a aiwatar da su. Waďannan ma’aunai guda biyu sune za su share fagen zaƂin harshen da za a yi amfani da shi a fagen ilimi. Ba shakka akwai bukatar Ƙasashen Afirka su kwatanta shirye-shirye da tanade-tanaden iliminsu da kuma na turawan mulkin mallaka domin tantance zaƂin da zai fi alheri gare su.

2.0 Waiwayen Matsayi da Ƙimar Hausa


Ana samun majiya Hausa a Ƙasashen Afirka kamar Nijar da kuma kudancin Nijeriya, to amma kuma harshen ya samu yaďuwa kuma ana amfani da shi a matsayin harshen hulďa (kamar Swahili a gabashin Afirka) a sassa daban-daban na Ƙasashen yammacin Afirka (Accra da Abidjan da Dakar da Lome da Cotonou da Bamako da Conakry da Ooagadougou da sauransu) da kuma Afirka ta tsakiya (Doula da Yaounde da Maroua da Garoua da N’djamena da Bangui da Labreville da sauransu).

Nijeriya Ƙasa ce cikin yanayin jin harsuna da yawa, kuma kimanin mutane kashi 90% ne suke amfani da harshen a Arewacin Nijeria. Idan aka waiwayi tarihi da kuma yanayin faďin Ƙasa na yaďuwar Hausa a Nijeriya da Afirka ta yamma da kuma Afirka ta tsakiya, to Hausa ta laƘume kashi 99% na harshen yau da kullum da ake amfani da shi a wuraren hada-hadar al’umma musamman ma a birane. Harshen Hausa yana kuma ďamfare da daidaitaccen kari da kuma karuruwa daban-daban. Hasali ma, a matsayinsa na ďaya daga cikin harshen hulďa a Nijeriya, ana amfani da daidaitacciyar Hausa a majalisun Arewacin Nijeriya da kotuna da kuma fannin ilimi.

A kotuna, ana amfani da Hausa a birane da Ƙauyuka. Ana sauraren Ƙararraki cikin Hausa, duk da cewa masu shari’a kan ďauki bayanai da kuma yanke hukunci cikin Ingilishi. A fannin ilimi kuwa, Hausa na matsayin darasi da kuma harshen koyarwa a makarantun furamare. Haka kuma da Hausa ake karantar da manyan mutane. A makarantun sakandare kuwa ana koyar da Hausa a matsayin darasi da kuma kasancewa harhen koyar da sauran darussa cikin Ingilishi. Haka lamarin yake ma a manyan makarantu, sai dai Ingilishi ne harshen koyarwa cikin darussan da ake koyawa malamai domin makarantun furamare. Ana koyar da darasin Hausa daga digiri na farko har zuwa na digirgir a sashen koyar da harsunan Nijeriya da ke jami’o’i. A wasu jami’o’in gabashi da yammaci kuwa, ďalibai na samun damar karatun manyan digiri a kimiyar harshen Hausa.

Bugu da Ƙari ana amfani da Hausa a yanayi daban-daban, wato kama daga siyasa da addini zuwa zamantakewa da al’adu da kuma kasuwanci. Haka kuma ana amfani da Hausa a kafafen yaďa labarai na gwamnati da kuma masu zaman kansu. A yau a Nijeriya akwai jaridu da mujallu daban-daban da ake bugawa cikin Hausa.Ta fuskar al’amuran fasaha da kimiyya kuwa, akwai ayyuka da yawa da aka fassara cikin Hausa a cibiyoyin nazarin harsunan Nijeriya da ke jami’ar Bayero da Sakkwato da Zaria da Maiduguri. Akwai kuma bincike-bincike da aka gabatar na fassara kalmomin aikin likitanci, waďanda suka shafi Ebola da HIV/AIDS (wato cututtuka masu karya garkuwar jikin ďan’Adam). Akwai kuma kwatankwacin irin waďannan ayyuka da aka buga cikin littattafai da kuma waďanda ake gabatarwa a talabijin a matsayin shirye-shirye na yau da kullum. An samu Ƙaruwa ta fuskar faďakar da al’umma fiye da yadda ake yi a lokutan baya, wato jama’a na da bukatar sanin abin da doka ta tanada cikin harshen da suke fahimta.

Akwai shirye-shirye da yawa cikin Hausa, a rediyo da talabijin domin amfanin al’umma. An fassara shirye-shiryen gwamnati da dokoki cikin Hausa domin amfani da jagora ga al’umma. A wajen gabashi da yammacin Afirka kuwa, harshen Hausa ne mafi yaďuwa (bayan Kiswahili) a tsakanin harsunan Afirka, kuma na ďaya da ya samu yaďuwa a tsakanin harsuna dangin Afro-asiatic. Hasali ma, yunƘurin koyon Hausa a Ƙasashe na yammaci da na tsakiyar Afirka ya Ƙaru Ƙwarai da gaske. Wannan kuma shi ne ya Ƙara sha’awa ta son koyon Hausa a matakai daban-daban cikin Ƙasashen Afirka musamman ma a Libya. A wajen Afirka, Hausa ta samu yanayi mai kyau da ya share hanya ta ci gaba da yaďuwa. Wannan lamari a fili yake, musamman idan aka yi la’akari da cewa a yau Hausa ta yaďu a kowace nahiya ta duniya. Hakan ya samu ne kuwa ta kafafen yaďa labarai ko kuma koyarwa a makarantu da kwalejoji da jami’o’i. An Ƙiyasta cewa akwai sama da gidajen rediyo talatin da biyar a Ƙasashe daban-daban a ciki da wajen Afirka da ke yaďa shirye-shirye, da kuma manyan makarantu fiye da ďari biyu a wajen Afirka da suke koyar da Hausa ko kuma gudanar da bincike-bincike da nazarce-nazarce a kan Hausa.

3.0 Tasirin Shirin Ƙauyantar da Duniya Cikin Tsarin Harshen Ilimi a Afirka


Tun a shekarun 1960 lokacin da lamarin Ƙauyantar da duniya ya bayyana, masana suke kallon batun ta fuskoki daban-daban. Ga misali, a wani lokaci an yi amfani da lamarin Ƙauyantar da duniya a matsayyin hali ko tsari cikin yanayi a wani zamani. Duk da cewa ana danganta lamarin da haďakar tattalin arziƘin Ƙasashen duniya domin inganta rayuwa, to batun ya kuma tattare musayar basira da ilimi da kuma al’adu tsakanin al’ummu na Ƙasashen duniya. Sai dai kuma abu guda da ya fi bayyana cikin abubuwan da lamarin Ƙauyantar da duniya ya Ƙunsa shi ne na tsarin zamantakewar al’umma. Steger ya rawaito a aikin Adegbola (2003:3) cewa ana Ƙara fahimtar lamarin Ƙauyantar da duniya daga wasu siffofi guda huďu:
(a) Lamarin ya haďe tsari da ayyuka da kuma sabbin dabaru na zamantakewa da suke hana kowace irin togiya ta al’ada ko gusar da ita da siyasa da tattalin arziƘi da kuma yanayi da ka iya kawo cikas.
(b) Batun ya taƂo faďaďa ayyukan zamantakewa cikin dogaro.
(c) Ingantawa da kuma Ƙarfafa taimakekeniya
(d) Damar haƂaka basira da kuma yadda za a iya aiki da basirar

Saboda haka, muna iya cewa Ƙauyantar da duniya yanayi ne da yake bayyana cikin al’amuran tattalin arziƘi da siyasa da fasaha da kimiyya da harsuna da kuma al’adu na duniya, ďamfare da tsari madaidaici a matsayin jagora da manyan Ƙasashen duniya suka assasa domin biyan bukataunsu (Yakasai, 2012). Da wannan ne ma Sweeting (1966) yake ganin cewa duniyar yau ta daidaita ta fuskar zamantakewa da tattalin arziƘi da yanayi da kuma matsalolin rayuwa. Wato wajibi ne al’ummar Ƙasashen duniya (masu Ƙarfin arziƘi da kuma masu tasowa) su yi amanna da cewa suna cikin duniyar nan guda da tsarinta ne kanwa uwar-gami dangane da aukuwar matsaloli da kuma yadda za a magance waďannan matsalolin.

Dangane da irin rawar da ilimi zai taka kuwa a wannan yanayi na Ƙauyantar da duniya, ai ko ba a faďa ba ilimi yana da tasiri ga Ƙwazo da karsashin al’umma na fafatawa a kasuwar duniya. Saboda haka, samun yalwa da wadatuwar al’umma masu ilimi yana da matuƘar fa’ida cikin sabon fasalin tattalin arziƘin duniya. Da wannan ne lamarin Ƙauyantar da duniya ke sakayya ga Ƙasashen da suke da irin mutanen da ake bukata, sannan a kuma yi horo ga waďanda ba su mallaki komai ba. Ta fuskar samuwar ingantaccen ilimi ma, lamarin ya zamo na takara tsakanin masu Ƙarfi da kuma marasa Ƙarfi (lamarin da aka tanada tsarin da ya ba mai Ƙarfu fifiko).To a nan ne Gizo yake saƘar, wato a wannan gaƂar ce lamarin harshen koyon ilimi yake da matuƘar muhimmanci. To amma kuma ta yaya irin wannan ra’i zai tasiri a kan tsarin amfani da harshe a harkokin ilimi a Afirka? Ko shakka babu ilimi yana da matuƘar amfani ga al’umma, kuma shi ne tsani na hawa kowane irin matsayi cikin Ƙima da martaba. Haka kuma da ilimi ake horar da al’umma a wani mataki na ci gaban al’umma. Bugu da Ƙari, ilimi wani mataki ne na cimma matsayi cikin Ƙwazon gina Ƙasa domin fa’idantuwar kowa da kowa. Heine (2000) yana da ra’ayin cewa, kamata ya yi a yi amfani da harshen al’umma wajen koyar da ilimi. Wannan harshe shi ne harshen da al’umma suke da basira kuma suke aiki da basirar (wato wannan harshen da yake ďamfare da zukatan al’umma). Saboda haka, babu yadda za a yi Afirka ta samu ‘yanci har ta bunƘasa ta ci gaba, matuƘar harshen koyar da ilimi ya bambanta da wanda al’umma take amfani da shi a mu’amala ta yau da kullum. Hasali ma, ilimi shi ne gishirin zaman duniya, kuma harshen koyon ilmi shi ne Ƙumshiya wadda zaƂinta ka iya samar da ingantaccen tsari ko kuma akasinsa. Don haka ne ma Muzrui (1997) yake ganin cewa, daga tsare-tsaren Ƙasashen duniya da suka ci gaba, to babau inda alƘiblar Afirka ta dosa face ďamfarewa tsakanin harsunan turai cikin tsarin iliminsu, da kuma bijirewa harsunan Afirka a makarantu.

Ga misali, bankin duniya shi ne yake tanada tsare-tsaren harkokin ilimi a Afirka. Haka kuma duk wasu Ƙungiyoyi masu bayar da agaji ko taimako suna tare ne da bankin duniya wajen faďa da cikawa. Tsarin nasu ya amince da a yi amfani da harsunan Afirka a shekarun farko na karatun furamare kawai, wato wata dabara ce ta share fagen amfani da harsunan turai a matsayin harsunan koyon ilimi gaba ďaya. Haka kuma suna da tasiri wajen tantance irin littattafan da za a buga domin amfanin makarantu da kuma uwa-uba tsarin amfani da harshe a harkokin ilimi a Ƙasashen Afirka. Ɗaiďaikun Ƙasashen turai su ma sun taka rawa wajen ganin harsunansu ne suka mamaye harkokin ilimin Afirka. Ga misali, fiye da kashi 80% na littattafan karatu a Ƙasashe rainon faransa duk a France ake buga su. Akwai kuma misalai na lokutan da Ƙungiyoyin ba da agaji da taimako ke yin barazana ta Ƙin bayar da agajin domin buga littattafai ko kuma wani shiri na ilimi, har sai an bi tsarin amfani da harshen da suke so a harkokin ilimi.

A Tanzaniya ga misali, sharaďin samun agajin inganta karatun Ingilishi a makarantun sakandare (ELTSP) daga Burtaniya, yana ďamfare ne da wajabcin koyarwa cikin Ingilishi a makarantun sakandare da na gaba da sakandare, duk kuwa da cewa binciken da British Council ta gudanar ya nuna rauni da rashin dacewa da kuma rashin ingancin yin hakan (Roy-Campbell, 1992). Wannan sharaďin ya ci gaba da zama tushe ko sababin ďorewar Ingilishi a matsayin harshen koyarwa a makarantun sakandare da na gaba da sakandare a Tanzaniya. To ko yaya lamarin yake a Nijeriya? Daga ďan bayanin da ya gabata, akwai dalilai guda huďu Ƙwarara da suka tabbatar da dacewar Hausa a matsayin harshen koyarwa a arewacin Nijeriya:

(a) Harshen Hausa harshe ne da malamai da ďalibai suke fahimta sosai, saboda haka harshe ne da za su iya mu’amalar sadarwa cikin koyo da koyarwa. Idan ana amfani da Hausa, to ďalibai ba sai sun wahala wajen koyo ba, tun da za su yi bitar abin da suka koya cikin sauƘi, kuma su shirya tunkarar darasi na gaba.
(b) Harshen Hausa harshe ne da za a iya sarrafa ilimin da aka koya a kowane fanni na rayuwar al’umma, har da na fasaha da kimiyya da aka samo daga wasu harsunan daban. Haka kuma shi ne harshen da masu ilimi da Ƙwararru suke ba da gudummawarsu ga al’umma, don haka za a iya yaďa shi a rubuce ko a magance.
(c) Tun da ma’aunin ci gaban Ƙasa yana bukatar gudimmawar kowane ďan Nijeriya, to harshen Hausa zai ba mutane da yawa dama ta wannan haujin cikin zamantakewa da tattalin arziƘi da wayar da kai kamar yaƘi da jahilci da rage raďaďin fatara da talauci da yaƘi da cuta mai karya garkuwar jiki da kyakkyawan shugabanci da kuma dimokuraďiya.
(d) Harshen Hausa yana Ƙara zama wata alama ta martabar Afirka a idanun Ƙasashen duniya. Amfani da Hausa a matsayin harshen koyarwa wata dama ce ta bayyana sani da kuma ba da gudummawa ta yaďa ilimi ga al’ummar Ƙasashen duniya masu yanayi da al’adu kwatankwacin na Afirka. Abin da aka faďa game da Hausa, ana iya faďa ga sauran harsunan pAfirka.

4.0 Shawarwari


Akwai bukatar Ƙasashen Afirka su sake bitar tsarin amfani da harshe ta yadda za a riƘa amfani da harsunan a kafafen yaďa labarai. Ta wannan haujin, akwai bukatar Afirkawa su rungumi yanayin jin harsuna da yawa a matsayin wata baiwa amma ba matsala ba. Domin cimma wannan manufa, ga wasu shawarwari:
(a) Da zarar Ƙasashen Afirka za su amince da matsayin harshe da ilimi na muhimman abubuwa mabambanta, to tsarin amfani da harshe zai samu fifiko ta yadda za a riƘa amfani da harsunan gida. Wannan shi ne tsari mafi karƂuwa, domin harsunan Ƙasashen waje ba sa samar da cikakken bayani da mai koyo yake bukata domin fahimtar aiki da kayan aiki. Tun da yanayin koyo mafi dacewa yana samuwa cikin harshen da malami da ďalibi suke sadarwa, to wajibi ne a inganta harsunan gida a matsayin harsunan koyarwa. Haka kuma a tanadi wasu shirye-shiye da za su bunƘasa dabarun koyarwa da kuma na koyon harsunan Ƙasashen waje.
(b) A lamarin fasalta harshe, akwai bukatar a ba da fifiko ga kafa hukumomin kula da harsuna, waďanda za su Ƙunshi wakilcin mutane daga fannoni daban-daban da suka haďa da masana kimiyar harshe da Ƙwararru a aikin fasalta harshe da masana ilimi da kuma masu tsara amfani da harshe. Waďannan Ƙwararru wajibi ne su naƘalci yawan ayyukan da aka yi a kan al’ummu da kuma amfani da harshe a gida Afirka. Wannan dabara za ta taimakawa waďannan hukumomi wajen yanke shawara da kuma faďa da cikawa. Akwai kuma bukatar taruka na Ƙarawa juna ilimi cikin wakilcin irin waďannan mutane.
(c) Muna da masaniyar cewa haƘƘin irin waďannan hukumomi ne su aiwatar da tsarin amfani da harshe, don haka akwai bukatar gwamnati ta tanadi isassun kuďi da kayan aiki a kowane mataki na wannan aikin. Idan haka ta samu, to ana kyautata zaton dama ta samu ta amfani da harsunan Afirka a matsayin na koyarwa a harkokin ilimi.
(d) Akwai bukatar a baiwa harsunan yanki (da ake amfani da su a duk faďin Ƙasa) fifiko wajen bunƘasawa da kuma amfani a matsayin a kafafen yaďa labarai. Su ma sauran harsunan Afirka a ba su kulawa ta musamman yadda za a bunƘasa su (tunda suna wakiltar al’umma ne).

5.0 Kammalawa


Abin da ya gabata a wannan maƘala, batutuwa ne guda biyu da suke ďamfare da harshe a Afirka, wato yanayi da tsarin harsuna a Afirka da kuma matsayi da Ƙimar Hausa a arewacin Nijeriya (da sauran Ƙasashen Afirka da kuma duniya gaba ďaya). Dukkan waďannan batutuwa sun taimaka wajen tantance matsaloli da suka dabaibaye tsarin amfani da harshe a harkokin ilimi a Airka. Ta wannan haujin ne muka tanadi shawarwari domin samun kyakkyawan yanayi da zai haifar da samuwar ingantaccen ilimi a Afirka. Sauran maganar ita ce, su kansu Afirkawa su kwana da sanin cewa harshen ilimi kuma shi ne harshen mulki da iko. Da yake kuma Ƙasashen Afirka suna Ƙara samun tagomashi a al’amuran Ƙauyantar da duniya, to kuma wajibi ne su darajanta Ƙima da matsayin tsarin amfani da harsunansu a harkokin ilimi ta yadda za su ceto al’ummarsu har su ba da gudummaawa a al’amuran Ƙauyantar da duniya. Sakamakon hakan ne kuma zai kai su ga samuwar ingantacciyar rayuwa cikin ingantaccen ilimi.

Kayan kida

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/10/kayan-kida-banga-kotso-kurukuwaru/

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