Humanities and the Challenges of the 21st Century Internet Community: Hausa Studies in Struggle

You can cite this article as: Sani, A-U. & Bakura, A.R. (2023). Humanities and the Challenges of the 21st Century Internet Community: Hausa Studies in Struggle.Cross-Currents: An International Peer-Reviewed Journal on Humanities & Social Sciences, (9)10, 224-231. www.doi.org/10.36344/ccijhss.2023.v09i10.004.

Humanities and the Challenges of the 21st Century Internet Community: Hausa Studies in Struggle


Abu-Ubaida SANI
Department of Languages and Cultures,
Federal University, Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria
Email: abu-ubaidallah@fugusau.edu.ng, abuubaidasani5@gmail.com 


Adamu Rabi’u BAKURA
Department of Languages and Cultures,
Federal University, Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria
Email: adamubakura@fugusau.edu.ng,  arbakura62@gmail.com


This research aims to identify and analyze the inadequacies and shortcomings within both active and inactive Hausa websites and blogs. The employed research methodologies included interviews, involving direct contact with operators of Hausa internet media to gather pertinent information. Simultaneously, a direct analysis of internet content was conducted to extract information at its source. The study revealed primary shortcomings associated with Hausa internet platforms, namely (i) cultural insensitivity, (ii) orthographic errors, and (iii) subpar information quality. These challenges are identified as stemming from various factors, including the limited involvement of language, literature, and Hausa cultural experts in managing internet platforms, as well as inadequate support, among other issues. In conclusion, the study proposes recommendations to enhance the presence of Hausa within the online sphere, emphasizing the necessity for the active engagement of experts in language, literature, and Hausa culture within the internet domain to ensure its success.

Keywords: Internet, Hausa Websites, Hausa Blogs, Hausa Language, Hausa Studies

1.0 Introduction

The internet has ushered in a profound transformation across various facets of life, with academia being a notable beneficiary. The significance of the internet in academic pursuits cannot be overstated. According to Clement (2020, p. 1), By now, a world without the internet is unimaginable.Consequently, envisioning academia without the internet today is equally unthinkable. The integration of e-libraries is now a standard feature in developed institutions, and numerous academic online platforms, such as Academia (https://www.academia.edu), Orcid (https://orcid.org), Google Scholar (https://scholar.google.com), and Research Gate (https://www.researchgate.net), allows institutions, organizations, scholars, and researchers to disseminate their academic outputs, including books, articles, and reports.

Despite these advancements, there remains a significant dearth of Hausa materials online. As of October 2023, only six indexed journals were found to publish Hausa articles. The visibility of Hausa scholars' activities and research is remarkably limited on the internet. Information regarding Hausa departments and resource persons is scant, and the online visibility of Hausa scholars and their academic works is also notably low. This underscores the urgency of research to investigate the root causes of this setback and propose effective solutions. Improving the online presence of Hausa materials and relevant information is synonymous with enhancing the Hausa academia as a whole.

This research aims to address three primary objectives: (i) identify the inadequacies of existing Hausa websites and blogs, (ii) ascertain the causes of these inadequacies, and (iii) propose strategies to enhance Hausa websites and blogs.

1.1 Methodology

The focus of this study is dedicated to a thorough examination of existing Hausa websites and blogs, aiming to shed light on their current statuses and the challenges they confront. To gather insightful data, a proactive approach was taken by establishing direct communication with the operators of these Hausa online platforms. Key contact details, including phone numbers and email addresses, were meticulously sourced from the 'About Us' pages prominently featured on the respective websites. Others were obtained through connections.

The investigative process involved conducting interviews with the operators, employing versatile communication channels such as social media platforms like WhatsApp and Facebook for the purpose. For operators who expressed a preference for alternative means of contact, email communication was seamlessly integrated into the investigative approach. In addition to virtual interactions, a series of physical visits were made to engage with operators of some of the most active Hausa websites. These face-to-face encounters were instrumental in obtaining comprehensive insights into the underlying causes of the identified weaknesses within these digital spaces.

This multi-faceted methodology was designed to ensure a holistic understanding of the challenges faced by Hausa websites and blogs, offering a nuanced perspective that combines virtual and in-person interactions for a more comprehensive and insightful analysis.

2.0 Challenges of Hausa Internet Media Development

The obstacles hindering the advancement of Hausa internet media are clear. Out of the forty-four (44) websites scrutinized, merely two site owners have a foundation in Hausa studies. These platforms are amsoshi.com (Answers) and makarantarhausa.com (Hausa School). As a result, the findings reveal significant concerns regarding content quality and safety within the Hausa internet sphere. Chiefly, the pressing issues affecting the Hausa online landscape include:

i. Cultural Insensitivity

ii. Orthographic Errors

iii. Subpar Information Quality[1]

2.1 Cultural Disregard

The disregard of Hausa culture is evident within certain Hausa internet sites, notably the notorious Batsa Post. True to its name ("obscene" in Hausa), this platform predominantly shares explicit images and videos, directly conflicting with Hausa cultural and religious values. Its primary focus revolves around showcasing nudity through visuals. Batsa Post attempts to replicate nude images of Hausa women, extending to videos. While the content features Hausa across its menus, written in the Hausa language, it's discernible that the site isn't operated by Hausa individuals. This conclusion is drawn from several reasons, including:

a. Frequent typographical errors in almost every sentence (violating writing conventions).

b. Disparities between the dialect of Hausa used and the authentic Hausa language, and instances where the learner's language (L2) can be directly observed.

Batsa Post

Image 1 is directly extracted from the Batsa Post website. Although the text is brief, numerous errors are apparent within it. These mistakes include:

a. Instead of "taunawa," the correct form should be "tona wa."

b. The incorrect rendition of "kamashi" is "kama shi."

c. The portion "akace" should be corrected to "aka ce."

d. The term "dauki" should be revised to its accurate form "ɗauki."

e. "Vidiyan" should be rectified to the correct form "bidiyon."

Moreover, various parts of the text indicate that the site isn't managed by Hausa speakers. Certain sections exhibit evident signs of machine translation, notably where an attempt to articulate the page's purpose resulted in the phrase:

Batsa Post

In Image 2 above, it's evident that machine translation was employed. This is noticeable in:

i. The text initially began in Hausa, transitioned to English, and later reverted to Hausa.

ii. The word "ba'a" was written instead of "ba a.”

iii. The word “fada” was wrongly written instead of the correct form “faɗa.”

After this page, numerous pages upload pictures that contradict Hausa culture. These typically include images of women within the context of Hausa religion and culture, often featuring:

1- Portraits of Hausa female actors (Hausa movie stars)

2- Images of overseas women involved in the film industry and public relations

3- Photographs of other Hausa women or women from different countries[2]

2.2 Numerous Orthographic Errors

While the adage "Nobody is above mistake" and the notion that "Perfection is divine" are commonly acknowledged, the prevalence of typographical errors on specific Hausa internet sites is notably high. This can be attributed primarily to the lack of proficiency in Hausa writing among site the administrators. Some operators of these Hausa internet sites have candidly disclosed their motivations for establishing and maintaining these platforms. However, it becomes evident that in each response, issues concerning adherence to writing conventions are present. The primary challenges arise from mishandling and improper use of hooked consonants. Furthermore, instances of violating orthographic conventions are widespread across various Hausa internet platforms. Here are a few examples:

Dan Allah kira ga mafi yawancin ku yan uwan mu mawakan Hausa Hip Hop ma su tasowa, ku daina turancin da ba daidai ba ne ko ku rage inya zama dole ku yi turancin da ba daidai ba ne a wakar ku, kuna bada Arewa da ma jihar Kano ne, domin babu anfanin ka yi yaran da ba ka iya ba daidai a waka bayan ga na ka yaran na asali wanda ka kware a kai. San nan sama da kashi 70% na wannan turancin da su ke yi ba daidai ba ne, gashi kuma sama da kashi 80% na ma su sauraron wakokin ku ba sosai su ke jin turancin nan ba, kunga asara biyu kenan, ka yi waka amma kai kan ka ba ka san abun da kake fada ba a ciki, kuma ga sakon ka bai kai ga wadan da su ya kamata ya kaiwa ba (Dabo, 2019: 1).

From the excerpt above, we can deduce that:

i.           The entire length of the text was written as a single sentence. It is appropriate to divide it into several sentences.

ii.         Hooked letters are not used.

iii.      Some words are inappropriately joined together.

iv.      Some words are separated where it's unsuitable, like short possessives in Hausa.

On the Qalubale page, there's a similar example. Here's what the text looks like:

Shidai wannan matashi yasamu nasarar kammala tattakinsa lafiya ya kuma isa kano tangaram inda kai tsaye yawuche ofishin ABBA KABIR YUSUF dake a nasarawa shikadai batare da yan tarba ko rakiya ba inda ya,isa office din amma ko ruwa ba,abashi ba, hasalima bai samu ganin kowa ba chikin jagororin kwankwasiyar inda aka shaida masa wai sunyi tafiya zuwa ABUJA (Ahmed, 2020: 1).

From the text above, we can infer the following:

a. The entire text is written as a single sentence.

b. There are instances where words are combined instead of being separated when appropriate.

c. "ch" is used as "c," for instance, "yawuche" instead of "ya wuce."

In addition to these examples, numerous Hausa internet sites display similar typographical errors. Almost every Hausa internet site reviewed showcases instances of such errors. However, two notable exceptions stand out for their adherence to the rules of writing. The first is the Amsoshi website (https://www.amsoshi.com), and the second is Makarantar Hausa (https://makarantarhausa.com).

2.3 False Information (Misinformation)

Misinformation is rampant on the internet. In 2017, the renowned Professor Abdullahi I. S. S. addressed the issue of encountering inaccurate online information about Maguzawa da Maguzanci (Pagans and Paganism) within the cultural realm. As long as individuals unfamiliar with Hausa culture continue to helm the Hausa internet, the persistence of these errors remains inevitable.

A notable example is the lack of knowledge about Hausa culture among the Hausa sites’ administrators. This deficiency in expertise compromises the authenticity of the cultural information they provide. Cultural education stands as an independent field, pursued and studied similarly to other fields of sciences, warranting serious consideration. The same principle applies to the fields of Hausa literature and the Hausa language. When individuals lacking sufficient knowledge guide the Hausa internet domains, it can result in detrimental consequences, akin to hindering progress.

3.0 The Reasons Behind the Decline of Hausa Internet Sites

Several factors pose challenges to the development of the Hausa internet sites. Below, you'll find detailed information about these challenges:

3.1 Infrastructure

The online operation of Hausa websites and blogs is significantly hindered by the frequent power outages experienced in the region. The reliability of these digital platforms is compromised as interruptions caused by power failures pose a substantial obstacle to their seamless functioning. The inconsistency in the electricity supply adversely affects the business continuity of these online entities, leading to disruptions in content creation, updates, and overall user experience. The struggle to maintain a consistent online presence becomes pronounced in the face of persistent power challenges, impacting the accessibility and reliability of Hausa websites and blogs.

3.2 Limited Support and Encouragement

Supporting technology innovators is a very significant concept in developed nations. This is the major reason that prompts many brands to integrate donation buttons on their platforms, allowing users to contribute. While browsing various internet sites, one often encounters these donation buttons, a trend observed even on renowned platforms like Wikipedia.

Displayed below is an image depicting a donation button:


In the realm of Hausa websites and blogs, administrators face a notable lack of support and donations. The absence of financial backing and community support has a discouraging effect on these individuals who invest their time and effort into maintaining and enriching online platforms. Lawal Dalha, administrator of the Bakandamiya site, highlighted this challenge, emphasizing, “The significant challenge remains the absence of a sustainable income source for fund management, potentially impacting its future maintenance.” The dearth of financial contributions places a significant strain on the sustainability of these websites, impacting their ability to cover operational costs and invest in improvements. Without adequate support, administrators find themselves discouraged, hindering their enthusiasm and capacity to contribute effectively to the online Hausa community. Bashir Ahmed, the Director of Hutu Dole, remarked on the scarcity of commentators addressing daily issues, similar to those found in English newspaper pages.

3.3 Nature of the Internet

The inherent nature of the internet significantly influences the growth of Hausa internet dealings. It's a multifaceted and intricate platform that demands specialized knowledge and skills. Operating within the realm of the internet involves navigating various programming languages, including but not limited to:

a. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)[3]

b. PHP (Personal Home Page Tools)[4]

c. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)[5]

d. Javascript[6]

Effectively managing internet affairs necessitates proficiency in these languages to navigate and succeed within this complex digital landscape.

The lack of proficiency in these internet languages poses a significant hurdle to managing internet-based sites. These languages serve as the foundational elements of the internet; without them, the internet as we know it would not exist. The Hausas face various challenges in mastering these languages, including:

a. Insufficient availability of instructors to teach internet and computer languages.

b. Absence of schools specialized in internet and computer language education

c. Limited societal emphasis on this facet of education among Hausa communities

d.  The necessity of paying for training to learn computer languages and the internet, restricting access for many interested individuals who lack financial means

Moreover, the management of an internet site is a time-intensive endeavor. Learning these languages, as mentioned above (refer to points "a", "b", and "c" under 3.3), demands significant time investment, presenting a notable challenge. Having such time proves to be no small feat.

Extending support to administrators of Hausa websites and blogs is crucial for enhancing their effectiveness. Adequate support provides them with the means to manage their platforms more efficiently, allowing a dedicated focus on their work without the distraction of essential needs. This backing empowers administrators to concentrate on improving and maintaining their websites, contributing positively to the development of the Hausa online community.

3.4 Resistance to Change

Humans inherently struggle with embracing life changes, leading to the concepts of "resistance to change" and "cultural lag." These notions underline the doubts and hesitations individuals experience when confronted with life-altering changes. People tend to perceive the familiar path they follow as the correct one, while viewing new paths as fraught with challenges and limitations, hindering their development.

Individuals tend to overcome this resistance to change when they adopt a mindset focused on embracing it. Often, once they accept new concepts, they realize that the newfound path offers greater benefits than their current trajectory. Gradually, they adapt to these changes, discovering that what initially seemed unfamiliar eventually becomes part of their routine. [7]

Creators of Hausa internet sites encounter similar challenges. Interviews conducted as part of this research with Hausa internet owners reveal:

a. Lack of support when approaching Hausa studies institutions or departments[8]

b. Insufficient support and attention when engaging Hausa language experts[9]

c. Absence of anticipated support from Hausa students[10]

In essence, aligning with the Hausa popular saying: "modernity comes in era," emphasizes the importance of recognizing the current era. It echoes the sentiment that "Time is companion," signifying the need to acknowledge and adapt to the present times.

3.5 Insufficient Hausa Text Editing Tools

The absence of proficient Hausa text editing tools remains a significant hurdle in its internet development. In comparison to the English language, which boasts robust text editing engines, Hausa lacks adequate editing mechanisms. For instance, renowned software like Microsoft Word promptly highlights errors by underlining incorrect words in red or sentences in blue, aiding the writer in identifying mistakes.

On the internet, including social media, there are available text editing tools. An excellent illustration is Grammarly, installable on computers and phones. This tool promptly identifies errors as the user types, providing correction suggestions. At times, it even autonomously corrects the text without requiring the author's direct intervention or decision-making process.


In the picture 4 above, all the words in the written message are underlined, except for five ("of," “in,” “it,” “all,” and "of") which were correctly written. This underscores the utility of the Grammarly correction engine, aiding writers in identifying errors in their English writing.

However, in the case of Hausa, the scenario is different. Instead of rectifying mistakes, machines often misconstrue texts, sometimes completely altering it. For instance, when using Microsoft Word for Hausa writing, if a word resembles an English word, the machine might automatically replace it. For instance:

a. “bara” (begging) can change to “bar a”

b. “boko” (formal education) can change to “book”

c. “buga” (hit) can change to “bugs”

d. “daya”  (one) can change to “days”

e. “ita ce” (she is the one) can change to “it ace”

f. “waje” (place) can change to “wake”

g. “yamma” (east) can change to “gamma”

h. “yawo” (movement) can change to “yawl”

This issue leads to numerous spelling-related problems, necessitating dual efforts from writers. They must rectify their original errors and address text alterations caused by machines. Consequently, Hausa writings on the internet often contain errors related to writing standards.[11]

This isn't the sole reason for the prevalence of writing standard mistakes in Hausa internet media. Many errors arise when administrators disregard the rules of Hausa writing. Essentially, they write in Hausa based on personal expectations, unhindered by laws preventing individuals unfamiliar with the language and culture from participating in internet activities.

As a result, it falls upon Hausa experts and analysts to advocate for the establishment of quality internet sites, combating the breach of Hausa writing rules in the online sphere.

3.6 Hausa Hooked Consonants

Hausa language includes distinct consonants, often referred to as "hooked letters." These unique characters include /Ƙ/, /ƙ/, /Ɗ/, /ɗ/, /Ɓ/, /ɓ/. Incorporating these letters in Hausa writing is similar to seasoning a dish, adding essential flavor. However, due to the complexities in typing these characters, many internet platforms opt for similar, more accessible alternatives. This practice extends to various devices like cell phones and other internet-enabled gadgets, resulting in substitutions like:

a- Using /K/ instead of /Ƙ/

b- Utilizing /k/ instead of /ƙ/

c- Employing /D/ instead of /Ɗ/

d- Applying /d/ instead of /ɗ/

e- Opting for /B/ instead of /Ɓ/

f- Choosing /b/ instead of /ɓ/

In some instances, there are slight modifications where these letters are represented with an apostrophe, such as:

i- Using /K'/ instead of /Ƙ/

ii- Employing /k'/ instead of /ƙ/

iii- Representing /'D/ instead of /Ɗ/

iv- Displaying /d'/ instead of /ɗ/

v- Incorporating /'B/ instead of /Ɓ/

vi- Utilizing /'b/ instead of /ɓ/

Although this practice is commonly employed, it doesn't fully address the issue. Subsequently, font styles like Rabi'at and Abdalla[12] emerged, specifically designed to include these hooked letters. Moreover, advancements in technology led to the creation of software programs accommodating these specific characters. In 2019, Microsoft introduced Hausa fonts featuring these hooked letters, compatible with various computer systems.[13]

3.7: Lack of Familiarity with Internet Usage Among the Hausa Community

A prevalent issue within the Hausa community is the lack of proficiency in navigating the internet. This encompasses challenges in (i) accessing internet sites and (ii) effectively searching for necessary information, videos, or audio content. Lawal Dalha, the site manager of the Bakandamiya, articulated this concern by stating, "Many of our Hausa people, particularly those without extensive education, struggle with the ease of using this valuable resource."

4.0 Findings and Discussions

To date, there exist a substantial count of forty-four (44) primary Hausa internet sites, marking a significant presence compared to counterparts in Nigeria and Niger languages. However, this number pales in comparison to the vast global internet landscape, which hosts over 1.7 billion websites. The challenges faced by Hausa internet platforms profoundly impact not only the cyberspace but also Hausaland and the integrity of the Hausa language itself. These issues are intertwined with the limited internet literacy among Hausa individuals and the insufficient support provided to internet operators.

Internet sites wield considerable influence over societal norms and cultural fabric. Visitors encountering articles, videos, and audios on these platforms can inadvertently adopt foreign attitudes and behaviors, thus impacting the broader community. Alarmingly, the study revealed the presence of Hausa internet sites posing a threat to traditional Hausa culture. This threat emanates from rampant errors in content and the dissemination of material conflicting with Hausa tradition and religious values. Among the reported challenges faced by Hausa internet media are:

i- Clashes with Hausa cultural norms

ii- Presence of numerous orthographic errors

iii- Frequent dissemination of inaccurate information

Hausa youth and children naturally engage with the internet world, inevitably being influenced by its content. To address this, the most viable solution for the Hausa community is to establish and promote Hausa-centric internet sites. Providing access and encouragement in such spaces becomes crucial, offering choices and discounts for individuals rooted in the Hausa culture.

The study highlights various challenges faced by Hausa internet networks, encompassing:

i. Environmental challenges within the Hausa region, including electricity and internet service issues

ii. Lack of support and guidance from experts and authorities

iii. Complexities in learning the internet related skills

iv. Resistance to embracing changes

v. Absence of reliable Hausa text editing tools, hindering adherence to writing rules

vi. Insufficient methods for easily writing cursive letters in Hausa

vii. Limited knowledge among Hausas about internet systems and their usage

Acknowledging the impactful presence of certain Hausa internet sites, empowering their managers becomes crucial to maintaining quality across cultural content. A steady supply of high-quality Hausa internet media can significantly influence and enhance the online community, diminishing fewer desirable elements.

Considering the advantages and disadvantages of social media, the responsibility lies with informed decision-making. Collaboration among authorities, parents, experts, and analysts is pivotal. Collective efforts should aim to maximize the benefits of the internet for young individuals while mitigating potential drawbacks

To confront these hurdles effectively, this study proposes the following recommendations:

i. Establish a dedicated infrastructure for Hausa internet operators. This could include backup power options like generators and ensure reliable internet services. Collaborations with institutes and language departments in Nigeria can aid in implementing such plans.

ii. Foster collaboration between institutions and Hausa studies departments to bolster internet support. Strengthening the Hausa cultural presence in the online sphere is vital.

iii. Offer specialized courses, training, and workshops exclusively tailored for individuals with existing knowledge in the computer industry and those seeking to join, fostering meaningful contributions.

iv. Undertake concerted efforts to educate and raise awareness about contemporary internet usage, especially among Hausa teachers and students. Embracing internet usage is imperative, and neglecting it may result in a skewed representation of reality. As the saying goes, "When the wall cracks, the lizard finds refuge." Preventing these cracks in Hausa internet media and addressing their negative impacts on Hausa culture is paramount.

v. Recognize and encourage innovators like Muhammad Bello, the creator of the website Makarantar Hausa, Abu-Ubaidah Sani, the creator of Amsoshi website and Prof. Abdalla Uba Adamu, who pioneered Rabi'at and Abdalla writing systems. Supporting them in developing high-quality text editors is crucial.

vi. The issue of hooked letters has been resolved with Microsoft's provision of common hooked consonants. The focus should now be on educating individuals on effectively utilizing these tools.

vii. Employ appropriate channels like radio programs, songs, and informational gatherings to sensitize Hausa communities about safe and beneficial internet practices. Such methods can effectively caution and guide individuals in navigating the online sphere.

5.0 Conclusion

The major problem with the Hausa websites is their inability to be relevant to students, researchers, and scholars in Hausa academia. This issue persists largely because many running Hausa internet sites lack a foundational understanding of the Hausa language, literature, and culture. Consequently, the contents available on these platforms often suffers from weak quality and inadequate substance. Hausa's inherent nature, coupled with the challenging environment of the Hausa region encompassing electricity shortages, poverty, weak internet infrastructure, and similar issues, further exacerbates the predicaments faced by Hausa in the digital realm.

The imperative solution lies in fostering a robust alliance and collaboration among Hausa language experts, academic departments teaching Hausa, research centers dedicated to Hausa studies, and internet specialists. This alliance is crucial not only to surmount these challenges but also to uplift Hausa internet platforms and enhance Hausa's presence in the online domain. Building a strong internet infrastructure is fundamental to reforming the digital landscape, enabling a more accurate and positive representation of Hausa culture and its people.


Adamu, A. U. (2000). “Hausa Language and Culture on the Internet.” An article published in the Weekly Trust of 20th November.

Adamu, A. U. (2004). “Hausa Information and Communication (ICTs).” A paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Studies in Hausa Language, Literature and Culture at Beyero University, Kano.

Ahmad, A.A. (2013). Tasirin Wayar Salula a Kan Tarbiyyar ‘Ya’yan Hausawa. In Bunza, A.M. da wasu (editoci). Excerpts of International Seminar on The Deterioration of Hausa Culture (Taɓarɓarewar Al’adun Hausawa), Pp 743-758. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press Ltd.

Ahmed, I. A. (2020). Comrade AAT ya yi tattaki daga Katsina domin ta ya Kwankwasiyya alhinin faɗuwa zaɓe. https://qalubale.news.blog/2020/02/09/comrade-aat-yayi-tattaki-daga-katsina-domin-ta-ya-kwankwasiyya-alhinin-faduwa-zabe/.

Almajir, T. S. (2008). “Hausa da Sadarwar Intanet.” A cikin Harsunan Nijeriya, Vol. XXI. Kano: Northwestern University Press.

Ashiru, H. M. (2012). “Gudummuwar Intanet ga Bunƙasa Adabin Hausa.” Kundin digiri na farko wanda aka gabatar a Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Ummaru Musa ‘Yar’aduwa, Katsina.

Climent, J. (2020). Worldwide digital population as of January 2020. https://www.statista.com/statistics/617136/digital-population-worldwide/.

Dabo, D. (2019). Shawara a kan Turanci ga mawaƙan Hausa hiphop masu tasowa – Daga Dabo Daprof. http://www.hausatop.com/shawara-akan-turanci-ga-mawakan-hausa-hiphop-masu-tasowa-daga-dabo-daprof/.

Sani, A-U. (2020). How to use “The Universal Hausa Hooked-Letters”. https://www.amsoshi.com/2020/02/how-to-use-universal-hausa-hooked.html.

Sani, A-U. (2022). Zamani zo mu tafi: Al’adun Hausawa a duniyar intanet. [Kundin digiri na biyu da ba a wallafa ba]. Jami'ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato, Nijeriya. www.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.24862.61764.

Sani, A-U. (2022). Yadda za ku yi amfani da baƙaƙe masu ƙugiya da ke aiki a kan kowace kwamfuta. https://www.amsoshi.com/2022/09/yadda-za-ku-yi-amfani-da-baaen-hausa.html.

[1] This has to do with the historical aspects and other information related to Hausa culture, literature, and the language.

[2] On the impact of the internet in general on the Hausa culture and language, see Adamu, (2000); Adamu, (2004); Almajir, (2008); Ashiru, (2012); and Ahmad, (2013).

[3] Internet Architecture Language

[4] Internet Configuration Language

[5] Internet Command Prompts.

[6] Internet Software Configuration Language.

[7] As of 2020, numerous individuals still rely on Microsoft Office 2007 and resist transitioning to newer versions released after 2007. This resistance to change echoes in various facets of life, aligning with the Hausa popualr saying: "Sai an gwada akan san na warai" (the taste of the pudding is in the eating).

[8] Contrary to developed nations where nearly every university department is typically equipped with an internet site, the Hausa study departments present a different scenario. Up until 2020, this research found no Hausa teaching department in Nigeria or Niger equipped with its internet sites. This disparity signifies a significant gap, akin to having "wata miyar sai a maƙwabta” (a better soup is only found at the neighborhood).

[9] In a conversation with Bunza, (2019) following his return from an international awareness conference in Poland, he emphasized the necessity of internet connectivity for educators in developed nations, contrasting with the situation in the Hausa region. The research reveals a paucity of Hausa scholars with a notable internet presence.

[10] Additionally, Hausa students exhibit proficiency in social media platforms like Facebook and WhatsApp, investing considerable time on these sites. Encouraging them to focus on following Hausa websites, as Bunza suggested, might lead to more extensive engagement, eliminating potential disinterest, or as he put it, "there would be much gains.”

[11] This information stems from an analysis of 44 Hausa internet sites.

[12] Prof. Abdalla Uba Adamu is credited with pioneering the Rabi'at and Abdalla Hausa writing styles. He introduced these writing styles for the first time, demonstrating innovation and creativity in the field. Since 2019, they had consistently being utilized contributing significantly to the diversity and richness of the written Hausa language, until the emergence of the universal Hausa hooked letters.

[13] Detail about these hooked letters can be obtained through: https://www.amsoshi.com/2020/02/how-to-use-universal-hausa-hooked.html

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