Wannan aiki ta yi cikakken bayani ne tare da bayar da gamsassun misalai a kan ilimin gundarin sauti da kuma ilimin tsarin sauti ta yadda aka nuna bambanci a fili (zahiri) tsakaninsu tare da kamancinsu...
Bayani A Kan Ilimin Gundarin Sauti (Phonetics) Da Ilimin Tsarin Sauti (Phonology)


Abdul’aziz Saidu
07066557745

Da

Rabi’u Umar

Gabatarwa
Kimiyyar harshe nazari ne na harshe ta fannin sautinsa, kalmominsa, jumlolinsa da kuma gina kalmomi da sautan abubuwan da suka shafi maana har ma da walwalar harshe. Idan aka dubi wannan sashe ko kuma ɓangare na nazarin harshe a kimiyyance, ana iya cewa wannan nazarin ya kamata ya haɗa da nazarin tsarin kalmomi. Domin dole mai nazarin kimiyyar harshe ya yi amfani da kalmomi da jumloli wajen nazarin sautuka wanda harshe yake taƙama da shi. Kimiyyar harshe na da manyan rassa guda biyar (5). Daga cikinsu akwai:
i.                   Ilimin gundarin sauti (Phonetics)
ii.                 Ilimin tsarin sauti (Phonology)
iii.              Ilimin ƙirar kalma (Morphology)
iv.               Ilimin ma’ana (Semantics)
Wannan jinga zai yi bayani ne a kan biyu (2) daga cikin rassan kimiyyar harshe. Wato ilimin gundarin sauti (phonetics) da ilimin tsarin sauti (phonology). Yawancin manazarta waɗannan ɓngarori (ilimin gundarin sauti da ilimin tsarin sauti) sukan ɗuka cewa abu guda ne. Ma’ana babu wani bambanci da ke tsakaninsu. To a gaskiya, ba haka abin yake ba. Domin kuwa kowane ɗaya daga cikinsu, yana cin gashin kansa ne. Sai dai kuma suna da dangantaka a tsakaninsu. Domin kuwa duk suna magana ne a kan sauti, tare da kuma kasancewar sanin ilimin furuci wani babban ginshƙi ne ko jigo wajen fahimtar ilimin tsarin sautin kansa. Ga yadda bayanin ya kasance filla-filla:
Ilimin Gundarin Sauti (Phonetics)
Masana daban-daban sun bayyana ra’ayoyinsu a kan ma’anar ilimin gundarin sauti kamar haka: Sani, (1999: 2) ya ce: “Wannan ilimi na furuci kamar yadda sunan ya nuna, ya danganci bayani ne na yadda ake furta sautin magana, wato baƙi ko wasali na harshe.”
Zarruƙ da wasu (1979: 10) sun nuna cewa: “Da farko akan gutuntsura muryoyin harshe ne, a mai da duk amonsa ƙwaya-ƙwaya. Na biyu sai a yi wa kowane ƙwaya alama yadda mai karatu zai san inda ta bambanta da ‘yan uwanta. Lalle ne kuma a san inda ƙwayar sauti ta bambanta da harafi irin na rubutun yau da kullum. Na uku in an zo kwatancen kowace ƙwayar sauti akan faɗi gurbin fitarta a bakin ɗan’adam ne, wato furuci.”
Ndimale, (2007: 26) ya ba da ma’anar cikin harshen Ingilishi da cewa: “Phonetics is an aspect of linguistics which studies all the speech sounds that the human ɓocal organs are capable of producing.”
Fassara
“Ilimin furuci shi ne sashen da ke nazarin duk sautukan magana waɗanda gaɓoɓin furucin mutum ke iya furtawa.”
A taƙaice, ilimin gundarin sauti yana bayani ne game da yadda ake samar da sautin magana. Akwai ɓangarori guda uku da ilimin gundarin sauti ya ƙunsa. Waɗannan ɓangarori su ne:
i.                   Fannin jin sauti (Auditory phonetics)
ii.                 Fannin kamannin sauti (Acoustic phonetics)
iii.              Fannin furta sauti (Articulatory phonetics)
Daga cikin ɓangarori guda uku, an fi amfani da fannin furta sauti (Articulatory Phonetics). Saboda babu tsada ga kuma sauƙin fahimta.
Ginshiƙan Gundarin Sauti (Phonetics)
Akwai ginshiƙan ilimin gundarin sauti guda uku waɗanda idan babu su babu ilimin furuci. Wato abin da ake magana a kai shi ne, su ne abubuwan da ilimin furuci ya dogara a kansu. Su ne:
i.                   Gaɓuɓɓa
ii.                 Iska
iii.              Sauti
Gaɓuɓɓa
Gaɓuɓɓa na ɗaya daga cikin ginshiƙan ilimin gundarin sauti inda ake amfani da wasu gaɓoɓi na sassan bakin mutum wajen sa`mar da ko furta sautuka, misali, harshe, haƙora, ganɗa da sauransu.
Rabe-Raben Gaɓuɓɓa
Gaɓuɓɓa sun rabu gida biyu, masu motsi/sakakku da marasa motsi/kafaffu.
Masu Motsi/Sakakku
Waɗannan su ne suke motsawa ta hanayr ɗagawa ko kusanta ko haɗuwa da juna da wasu gaɓoɓi yayin furuci. Misali, leɓɓa (sama da ƙasa), harshe (gaba, ƙirji, tsini, doro), maƙwallato, zakaran wuya.
Marasa Motsi/Kafaffu
Waɗannan kuam su ne ba su motsi. Wato suna kafe ne a waje ɗaya, ta yadda har sai masu motsi sun kusance su ko haɗe da su a samu furuci. Misali haƙoran sama, dasashin sama, hanƙa, ganɗa, hanɗa da sauransu.
Iska
Babu furucin da yake faruwa sai da taimakon iska. Iska ta rabu gida biyu, zirin iska na huhu da zirin iska na maƙwallato.
Zirin Iska na Huhu
Tumullar huhu takan takura huhun kansa yadda zai huro iskar waje, ko kuma ta kumbura huhun yadda za ta faɗa ciki, kamar yadda ake hura wa balan-balan iska a sace shi. Yawancin sautukan da ake furtawa ana amfani ne da iskar huhu ziri waje. Amma kuma na ciki ba a amfani da ita sai dai a hamma.
Zirin Iska na Maƙwallato
Akan rufe maƙwallato ne a datse iskar huhu da ke ƙasa. Daga nan kuma iskar da ke kwararon maganar kanta za ta harfar da wani zirin iska wanda zai iya yin sama ya fita waje ko kuma ya yi ƙasa ya faɗi ciki, gargadon dai motsawar wannan maƙwallato rufaffe.
Sauti
Sauti alama ce mafi ƙanƙanta da akan yi da murya wadda ke haɗuwa da ‘yar uwarta su ba da siga irin ta magana.
Rabe-Raben Sauti
An raba sauti zuwa gida biyu, baƙi da wasali.

Baƙi
Sauti ne wanda yayin furta shi wasu sassan baki kan kusanci juna ko su haɗe da juna. Misali leɓen sama da na ƙasa /b/, /m/, /ɓ/, /f/, tsihin harshe da tsinin hanƙa /t/, /l/, /s/, /z/, /n/ da sauransu. Baƙi ya rabu gida biyu, ƙi-jima da mai goyo. Ƙi-jima shi ne wanda yake da sigar furuci iri guda ɗaya tak. Misali: /k/, /t/, /n/, /s/, /z/ da sauransu. Sannan kuma sai mai goyo, wanda yake da sigar furuci iri biyu. Wato ma’ana a kan fara da furucin wani baƙi ne sannan daga baya a ƙare da furucin wani baƙi daban. Misali: /kw/, /gw/, /ƙw/, /gy/ da sauransu.
Akwai hanyoyi uku (3) da ake bi wajen nazarin baƙi a ilimin gundarin sauti. Su ne:
i.                   Matsayin maƙwallato
ii.                 Gaɓoɓin furuci
iii.              Yanayin furuci
Matsayin Maƙwallato (State of the Glotis)
Maƙwallato yakan kasance har iri uku yayin furucin baƙaƙe:
i.                   A buɗe ta yadda yayin furuci idan iska ta taso daga huhu ba ta samun tangarɗa wajen fita. Saboda tantanin maƙwallaton yakan sake ne sosai ya bar maƙallaton a buɗe kamar wajen furta /s/, /sh/, /t/. /k/, /f/ da sauransu.
ii.                 A tsuke ta yadda a lokacin furuci iskar da ta taso daga huhu za ta sami tantanin maƙwallaton ya ja ya tsuke maƙwallaton kamar wajen furta /d/, /g/, /r/, /l/, /n/, /z/ da sauransu.
iii.              A rufe rif saboda tantanin maƙwallato ya ja sosai ya rufe maƙallaton kamar wajen furta /?/ da /?y/.
A sani cewa, sautukan da aka furta su a maƙwallato buɗe ana ce da su “marasa ziza.” Waɗanda kuma aka furta su a maƙwallato tsuke kuma ana kiransu da “masu ziza,” saboda karkarwar da maƙwallato ke yi. Sannan kuma waɗanda aka furta su a maƙwallato rufe rif kuma ana ce da su “’yan ba ruwanmu.” Saboda ba su kasance daga cikin ziza ba ko marasa ziza.
Gaɓoɓin Furuci (Place of Articulation)
Waɗannan gaɓoɓi ne da suke haɗuwa ko kusantuwa a yayin furuci don samar da sautuka. Misali:
i.                   Leɓɓa
ii.                 Harshe
iii.              Hanƙa
iv.               Ganɗa da sauransu
1.     Leɓɓa: /m/, /b/, /ɓ/, /f/
2.     Ganda: /y/, /sh/
3.     Hanƙa: /t/, /s/, /z/, /n/
4.     Maƙwallato: /h/, /?/
Yanayin Furuci (Manner of Articulation)
Yadda iska ke kasancewa yayin furucin baƙaƙe. Wato ma’ana, abubuwan da ke faruwa da iska yayin furuci:
i.                   Tsayau/’Yan bindiga: Iska kan katse daga bisani ta fice tare da fitar wata ƙara ta harsashi: /k/, /g/, /t/, /gy/.
ii.                 ‘Yan Hanci: Mafurta suke haɗuwa su toshe mafitar iskar sai a yi ƙasa da hanɗa iskar ta fice ta hanci /m/, /n/, /sh/, /n/
iii.              Jirge: Mafurta sukan haɗu ne sai iskar ta fice ta gefen harshe /l/
iv.               Zuza: Mafurta sukan kusanci juna ne su bar wata ‘yar kafa ta yadda iska idan za ta fice sai ta riƙa zuzan gurbin furucin /s/, /z/, /f/, /sh/, /h/, /fy/
v.                 ‘Yan Atishawa: Mafurta sukan katse mafitar iskar ne na ɗan wani lokaci sannan sai su ware sai iskar ta fice a hankali kamar atishawa /d/, /j/
vi.               Ra-gare: Mafurci mai motsi ne yake kaɗa ɗan uwansa maras motsi da saurin gaske sai iskar ta riƙa katsewa /r/
vii.            Haɗiyau: Mafurta ne sukan haɗe sai iskar ta faɗa ƙasan kwararon maganar /ɓ/, /ɗ/
viii.         Tunkuɗau: Mafurta sukan haɗe ne sai iskar ta fice /ƙ/, /ts/, /ƙw/, /ƙy/
Wasali
Akasin baƙi ne. Domin shi wasali yayin furta shi babu wata tangarɗa da iska k samu dai kawai karkarwar da tantanin maƙwallato ke yi. Dukkanin wasula masu ziza ne. Akwai wasula guda goma sha biyu (12) a Hausa. Goma daga ciki, tile ne ko gwauro. Sannan kuma biyu (2) masu aure ko ‘yan tagwai.
1.     Tilo/Gwauraye
i.                   Gajeru /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/
ii.                 Dogaye /aa/, /ee/, /ii/, /oo/, /uu/
2.     Masu aure/’Yan tagwai /ai/ /au/
Akwai hanyoyi guda uku da ake bi wajen nazarin wasali a ilimin furuci:
i.                   Ɓangarorin harshe (gaba, tsakiya, baya)
ii.                 Tasawar harshe (sama, tsakiya, ƙasa)
iii.              Matsayin leɓɓa (mai kewaye da maras kewaye)




Matsayin Harshe Wajen Furucin Wasulan Hausa





            


/ii/ da /i/: Wasalin gaba na sama maras kewaya
/ee/ da /e/: Wasalain gaba na tsakiya maras kewaye
/aa/ da /a/: Wasalin tsakiya na ƙasa maras kewaye
/uu/ da /u/: Wasalin ƙurya na sama mai kewaya
/oo/ da /o/: Wasalin ƙurya na tsakiya mai kewaya
Ilimin Tsarin Sauti (Phonology)
Kamar yadda aka samu masana daban-daban da suka bayar da ma’anar ilimin gundarin sauti, to haka ma ilimin tsarin sauti:
Sani, (1999: 1) ya ce: “Ilimin tsarin sauti ya shafi yadda harshe ne ke harhaɗa sautukansa bisa ƙa’ida ya samar da ma’ana.”
Calford, (2001) ya bayyana cikin Ingilishi cewa: “The study of how sounds are organised into systems and utilized in languages.”
Fassara:
“Ilimi ne na yadda ake shirya sautuka a cikin tsari da kuma amfani da su a cikin harsuna.”
Collins, (2008) shi ma ya bayyana cikin Ingilishi cewa: “How sounds pattern and function in a giɓen language.”
Fassara:
“Ya shafi yadda aka tsara sautuka da kuma aikinsu a cikin wani harshe.”
A taƙaice, ilimin tsarin sauti ya shafi aiwatar da sautuka bisa tsari a cikin kalma. Wato ma’ana, yana nuna yadda ake amfani da sautuka ne a cikin kalma. Kuma kowane harshe na duniya da irin tsare-tsarensa ko kuma ƙa’idojinsa na yadda yake amfani da sautukansa a cikin kalma. Da wuya a samu tsari iri ɗaya a cikin harsuna biyu. Sai dai a samu irin sautin a cikin wani harshen. Amma kuma hanyoyin aiwatar da su sun bambanta.

Hanyoyin Zamantakewar/Aiwatar da Sautuka a Cikin Kalma
A Hausa, akwai hanyoyi da ake amfani ko aiwatar da sautukansu a cikin kalma. Su ne:
Rarrabewa
Rarrabewa ya shafi yadda ake raba sautuka a inda ake amfani da su daban-daban. Misali, wasali a Hausa ba ya iya taɓa zuwa a farkon kalma. Sai dai  a tsakiya ko kuma ƙarshe. Idan kuwa ya fito a farko, to dole akwai baƙin hamza kafinsa. Misali:
Igiya --- ?igiya
Ashana --- ?ashana
Agogo --- ?agogo
Agwagwa --- ?agwagwa

Zubin Kamantau (Minimal Pair)
Zubi ne na kalmomi biyu waɗanda suka bambanta da juna a waje ɗaya tak. Wanda hakan yana nuna cewa, dukkansu waɗannan sautuka biyun masu zaman kansu ne. Wato ɗaya ba ya wakiltar ɗaya. Misali:
Ƙota – ƙoda
Ƙusa – susa
Maki – mako
Ruwa – rawa

Zaman Zaɓi (Free Ɓariation)
Zaman zaɓi na nufin inda ƙwayoyin sauti biyu suka zo a waje iri guda na kalma ba tare da jirkita ma’anar wannan kalma ba. Wato ana iya amfani da kowanensu kai tsaye. Misali:
Kashegari    ko      washegari
Buri            ko      guri
Saura          ko      shaura
Walaƙanci   ko      wulaƙanci
Mota           ko      moto
Jiha             ko      jaha
Karin Sauti
Karin sauti yakan iya sauya ma’anar kalma dangane da abin da ake nufi. Misali:
1.     Maaraa (paddle) – maaraa (abdomen)
2.     Fitoo (come out) – fitoo (swim)
3.     Baaba (father) – baaba (aunt)
4.     Yaa ci abinci (He ate food) – Yaa ci abinci (He will eat food)
5.     Taa je kasuwa (She went to market) – Taa je kasuwa (She will go to market)
Naso
Naso shi ne tasirin wani sauti a kan lafazin wani sautin daban cikin kalma, a sakamakon haka, sauti guda kan nashe guda a wannan lamari. Akwai ire-iren naso kamar haka:
i.                   Cikakke da ragagge
ii.                 Na dama da na hagu
iii.              Na kusa da na nesa
Cikakke da Ragagge
Cikakke
a.      Motar haya -        Motah haya
b.     Rigar Bello  -        rigab Bello
c.      Hular dara   -        hulad dara
Ragagge
a.      Gidan Bala           -        Gidam Bala
b.     Keken Garba        -        Keken Garba
c.      Ƙanen Yakubu      -        Ƙanen Yakubu
Na Wasali
a.      Buki  -        biki
b.     Fushi -        fishi
c.      Mani -        mini
d.     Maku -        muku
Na Kusa da na Nesa
Na Kusa
a.      Abincin Musa       -        Abincim Musa
b.     Barci                    -        Bacci
c.      Motar haya           -        Motah haya
Na Nesa
a.      Masu -        Musu
b.     Buki  -        Biki
Leɓantawa
Leɓantawa furuci ne na goyo inda ake ƙara wa sauti kewayar leɓe, kamar wajen furta /kw/ da /ƙw/ da /gw/ waɗanda ake kira leɓantattun hanɗawa. Akan samu leɓantawa ne idan wasulan kurya suka biyo bayan bahanɗe ƙi-jima kamar /k/, /ƙ/ da kuma /g/. Misali:
a.      Mako -        makwo
b.     Saƙo  -        saƙwo
c.      Tukunya     -        tukwunya
d.     Mugu -        mugwu
Ganɗantawa
Ganɗantawa nau’i ne na naso wanda yake nufin ƙara furucin ganɗa ga baƙin da ba baganɗe ba bisa wasu sharuɗɗa. Baƙaƙen da aka fi ganɗantawa iri biyu ne, hanƙawa /s/, /t/, /d/ da /z/ da kuma hanɗawa /w/, /k/, /ƙ/ da /g/. Dangane da wannan sharaɗin kuma, shi ne “wasalin gaba.” Wato /i/ ko /e/. A sakamakon haka ne bahanƙe /s/ kan kamo /sh/, /t/ kan komo /c/, sannan kuma /d/ da /z/ kowanne kan koma /j/. Dangane da hanɗawa kuwa, /w/ kan koma /y/, /k/ kan koma /ky/, /ƙ/ kan koma /ƙy/, kuma /g/ kan koma gy/. Misai:
/s/      -        /sh/
a.      Ƙasa – ƙasashe     -        ƙasashe
b.     Ƙusa – ƙusoshi     -        ƙusoshi
/t/      -        /c/
a.      Wuta – wutate      -        wutace
b.     Buta – butoti         -        butoci
/d/      -        /j/
a.      Gida – gidade        -        gidaje
b.     Gada – gadodi       -        gadoji
/z/      -        /j/
a.      Kaza – kazi           -        kaji
b.     Maza – mazaze     -        mazaje
/w/     -        /y/
a.      ɓarawo - ɓarawi    -        ɓarayi
b.     wawa – wawawe   -        wawaye
Musayar Gurbi
Musayar gurbi kamar yadda sunan ya nuna, lamari ne inda sautuka biyu na kalma suke musaya muhalli a junansu ba tare da jirkita ma’anar wannan kalma ba. Wato ma’ana, sautin wannan wurin shi ne yake komawa wancan wurin, shi kuma wancan wurin ya koma wannan wurin. Misali:
a.      bagaruwa    -        gabaruwa
1    2                          2    1
b.     kusurwa      -        sukurwa
1     2                                        2   1
c.      mota           -        mato
   1   2                                          2   1
d.     saki             -        shika
  1    2                                           2   1
Bambancin Ilimin Gundarin Fruruci da Tsarin Sauti
1.     Ilimin gundarin sauti shi ne tushe na samin ilimin tsarin sauti. A ɗayan ɓangaren kuma, ilimin tsarin sauti shi ne tushe na ci gaban aikin ƙirar kalma, ginin jumla da kuma ilimin ma’ana.
2.     A wajen masana kimiyyar harshe, ilimin tsarin sauti babban fage ne na ilimi, sannan kuma ilimin gundarin sauti wani yankin fage ne na ilimin tsarin sauti.
3.     Ilimin gundarin sauti ya shafi yadda ake samar da sautuka ne na kowane harshe. Sannan kuma ilimin tsarin sauti shi kuma yana tsara waɗannan sautuka ne wajen bayar da ma’ana na wani harshe na musamman.
4.     Ilimin gundarin sauti yana mana ne kan “shin wannan sautin ya bi ta nan ko kuma bai bi ba?” Shi kuma ilimin tsarin sauti yana nuni da “shin idan aka saƙala wannan sautin a nan, a maimakon wancan, ma’anar za ta sauya?”
5.     Ilimin gundarin sauti yana la’akari ne da siffofin sautuka sannan kuma shi ilimin tsarin sauti yana la’akari ne da ayyukansu.
6.     A ilimin gundarin sauti “ƙwayar furuci” shi ne mafi ƙanƙanta. Sannan kuma a ilimin tsarin sauti “ƙwayar sauti” shi ni mafi ƙanƙanta.
7.     A ilimin gundarin sauti, ana amfani da baka biyu Ɗ  ɗ wajen gabatar da ƙwayar furuci. Sannan kuma a ilimin tsarin sauti ana amfani da sanda jirge / / wajen gabatar da sauti.

Kammalawa
Daga ƙarshe, an fahimci cewa, lallai ilimin gundarin sauti ya sha bamban da ilimin tsarin sauti. Saboda haka abubuwan da suka ƙunsa, amma sai dai kuma, suna da kamanci na sosai. Domin kuwa duk suna magana ne a kan sautuka. Sai dai shi ilimin gundarin sauti ya fi bayar da ƙarfi a kan yada ake samar da sautuka. Shi kuma ilimin tsarin sauti kamar yadda sunan ya nuna, ya fi mai da hankali ne a kan yadda waɗannan sautuka suke aiwatuwa a cikin kalma ko kuma zamantakewa a cikin kalma.