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Assessment of Indigenous Radio Broadcasters' Translation Strategies and Words Usage: A Study of Sobi 101.9 Fm Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

This article is published in the Tasambo Journal of Language, Literature, and Culture – Volume 1, Issue 1.

RABIU, Ridwan Akinkunmi

Department of English and Linguistics, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria
ridwan.rabiu@kwasu.edu.ng & rhidoh91@gmail.com
Phone Number- 09060070668

ONAOPEPO, Ibrahim Bamidele
Department of Mass Communication, Southwestern University, Nigeria 

AKANJI, A. DAUD
Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State.

ABIOLA, Olutope Lawrence
Department of Mass Communication, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Osun State.

Abstract

This paper discusses the translation style and methods adopted by Sobi FM 101.9 Ilorin broadcasters to find equivalent versions for some selected English lexis and structure, translated into the Yoruba language. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relevance of translation and trace the etymological foundation of the lexis and structure which compel radio broadcasters to use self-lexical coinage and neology. The work was carried out within the purview of Newmark levels of translation (level of naturalness, Referential, cohesive level) to trace the content and function of the lexis and structure. The theory adopted for this work is the knowledge gap theory; the main thrust of this theory is to bridge the language gap that exists in media through the use of the native language. Data for this research were gathered through the elicitation of a recorded news item from Sobi 101.9 FM Ilorin. Our research findings show that most translations from the source language (English) to the target language (Yorùbá) by broadcasters are self-invented, which could either suit the original version in the target language or not. It was observed that radio broadcasters adopt suitable translation methods to retain the content of messages broadcast in a bilingual program. We conclude our work by saying categorically that broad knowledge of the source language helps the productivity of a translator to transmit the message to the audience in the language without any vacuum or gap, and that radio broadcasters adopt any translation method in as much as the audience comprehension of the intended messages are the same with the target language.

Keywords: Translation, Lexis and structure, Indigenous Radio, Lexical function, and Content.       

Introduction

Since its introduction over a hundred years ago, radio has taken the heart of all the fundamental mass media functions including civic discourse, accountability, and socio-political awareness, and recently becomes a worthwhile medium in the sustainability of indigenous culture, particularly, in the colonized countries like Nigeria (Simon, 2017; Salawu, 2006). Radio is a revolutionary medium of mass communication that has repeatedly reinvented itself as new media came along. It has continued to serve as a companion medium that would keep people company at home, at work, and in the car (Hasson, 2005; Oyero, 2011).

This medium of communication is significantly suitable and can be described as an ideal means of mass communication in a third-world country like Nigeria. It is characterized by large coverage, very cheap to own and maintain without dependency on electricity power supply, and above all, with the indigenous radio revolution in Nigeria, its messages, have continued to break the barrier of illiteracy in form of language (Oyero, 2011; Salawu, 2006 & Folarin, 1990).

It has been observed by scholars that colonization, modernization, and misconception of civilization birthed from the aggressive interest in the development of the western Europe intervention and the Marshall Plan of the United States of America to the developing and underdeveloped part of the world counted as parts of the reasons for the dominant euro-imperial languages in media even though the majority of their population cannot comprehend these languages (Simon, 2017; Esekong, 2014). Many media studies have justified that the opium of communication everywhere around the world is shared commonness between the sender and the receiver, irrespective of the medium. However, the majority of the radio stations in Nigeria are licensed not only to use indigenous language as the main language of broadcasting. Hence, it is a mixture of both English and the local languages depending on the location and philosophy of the station (Adedeji, 2015).

Notwithstanding, the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) apart from the official language, casts news and rollout many Programs in other major Nigerian languages such as Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo. Meanwhile, the intended media objectives may not be realized if the majority of the messages are not packaged in the right languages. Citing Oyero (2011), considering the number of people in Africa who cannot communicate in the English language, the need to communicate with people in indigenous languages is inherent and cannot be under-emphasized.

A keen interest to bridge the gap of the language barrier and the desire to sustain native languages make it inherent for the introduction of indigenous radio stations across the globe, particularly, in a country with multiple languages and diverse cultural practices like Nigeria (Oyesomi K. O., Onakoya T., Onyenankeya K. & Busari A., 2020). According to Salawu (2006), the indigenous radio stations across the country have contributed to the promotion of a number of Nigerian languages through various message types and programs (maintain one constant spelling method i.e. either American or British. American spellings are used in some places in the paper) such as news, features, interviews, discussion programs, and chit-chats. The situation has however changed with some radio stations and some languages in Nigeria.

It is observed that though various studies have been carried out on Nigerian indigenous radio station and their contributions to the sustainability of local languages and in the areas of audience interest, there appears to be a gap in terms of approaches adopted by broadcasters and presenters in the use of semantics and translation styles from the English language to Nigerian indigenous languages. In this work, we aim to examine and analyze different translation strategies that broadcasters in Sobi 101.9 FM Ilorin usually adopt in their effort to translate English news items to the Yorùbá language, which is the native language of their domain, bearing in mind the relationship between language and culture in African society. This is so because the communication gap has been observed among listeners who have little knowledge of the broadcaster’s language and culture.

Social and psychological factors play an important role in this. Fishman (1964) ascribes the statement “who speaks what language, to whom and when”, to explain media language. Fishman’s observation explores the relationship between the three elements of translation study, which are the Source Language Target Language, and the Audience.

Radio and the Use of Indigenous Language in Nigeria

Radio as an electronic media is made up of distinctive language use which is majorly to educate, inform and entertain the populace (Aina 2003and Ifedayo 2014). Radio and other media claim to be the custodian of peoples’ languages and cultures. Radio presenters choose standard language, and literary inclined language as their preferred media language, to achieve their set objectives (Oyesomi et al., 2020).

The essence of this communication instrument cannot be ruled out in any radio program. When a language is not appropriately used, the listener may not understand the disseminated information and as a result, failed to be informed or misinform (Oyero, 2011; Salawu, 2006). According to Akanbi and Aladesanmi (2014), language employed in the media goes a long way in determining the audience strength and effectiveness of its service. When a language is appropriately used, the beauty of its content will be projected and it will definitely be accepted by the intended audience.

Radio being the most used traditional media platform in Nigeria gives birth to this work since ineffective translation style and methods will deprive a larger part of the Yorùbá population that only communicates in Yorùbá language as championed by Lawal (2015) who asserts that “we know that 80 percent of our people who do not speak English carry on the business of life and living on their farms and in the markets in their mother-tongue”. The ultimate goal of a language is communication. Studies have shown that listeners obtain better meaning and greater understanding from radio messages packaged in the indigenous language. Besides, they derive good feelings of enjoyment and a sense of satisfaction with radio programs when packaged in their tongue, as such, prefer radio programs in their Indigenous language to English language (Oyero, 2003 in Oyero, 2010). Our effort in this work is to examine and analyze translation strategies that are used by broadcasters to disseminate information to this audience that form the larger percentage of our society.

Review of Newmark’s Translation Styles

Various definitions have established the act of translation as a profession and a course of study, which centered on duplicating information said in one language into another language. The translation is primarily defined as the rendering of information presented in a text of an SL into TL, without any violation of the linguistics norms (source).

Newmark (1988) explains translation as rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way the author had intended. He explains that we cannot understand translation without explaining the attribute a translator needs to possess. One of the attributes is being a bilingual or perhaps a polyglot that can be endorsed as an authority in the two languages because of his translation style or methods.

Translation theory is the method of translation used for a certain type of text and it depends on the functional theory of language. The nature of a text in the SL determines the approach that a translator adopted in his or her translation. A text whose attention is basically on the function adopts a translation theory that is distinct from a content-based text or language.

Newmark (1988) explains different methods of translation. They include; word-for-word translation; literary translation; faithful translation: and a translation that reproduces the contextual meaning of the SL within the context of the TL structure. Others are Semantic translation: a translation that further caters to the aesthetic value such as the beauty and natural sound of the SL. Also, we have adaption: a translation used in translating all forms of plays. Other methods of translation include free translation, communicative translation, etc.

According to Newmark (1988), there are four levels of translation that a translator needs to compare, contrast and distinguish before arriving at the TL equivalence. They include; Source language level, Referential level, Cohesive level, and level of Naturalness. In this work, these four levels of translation will form the foundation upon which our analysis of Sobi 101.9 FM Ilorin broadcasters’ translation style and methods will be built on.

Translating: Content and Function

Translation stretches across all forms of communication, starting from sound, to text and discourse. Determining the equivalence in translation in lexes is from the semantic representation of either the content of the text or its grammatical functions. The translation seems to focus more on content, which can be easily accounted for since its goal is to re-interpret information (i.e. the context and pragmatic meaning) between two languages. But function exposes the behavior and relationship of the grammatical element in a discourse, which does not necessarily validate a good translation.

Kristin & Anne (2013), define content as a language element in which the meaning can be justified in a dictionary, while Function according to them, is a language element that exposes the uses of the language content. Their definition shows a viable interjection that only depends on one another before a constructive message can be passed with the use of any language.

Translating a functional word goes a long way because it relates more to a structure than a word. It is always a difficult task for a translator to access such linguistic structure to analyze the lexis while translating. The reason is that languages are different universally. Therefore, one needs to be critical, patient, and suspicious in order not to miss-interchange the lexis during an attempt to get the equivalence in translation. These two aspects of language will be examined in our analysis

Theoretical Framework: Knowledge Gap Theory

The knowledge gap theory was propounded in (1970) by Tichenor, Donohue, and Olien. The theory emphasizes the inequality in information acquisition between the privileged and ordinary members of society (Aina 2003, Gaziano, 2009). Citing Gaziano (2016), the theory systematically investigated the gap in knowledge and information acquisition with regard to mass media information with their knowledge gap hypothesis. He opines that “as the infusion of mass media information into a social system increases, specifically, in many colonized countries, segments of the population with higher socioeconomic status tend to acquire mass media information at a faster rate than the lowerstatus segments.

This is because the colonization of some countries has subdued many of the colonized countries to the tongue of their colonizers. This eventually dashed the earlier hopes raise by mass communication power to cover large and heterogeneous audiences irrespective of boundary, race, class, status, language, gender, etc. However, the gap in knowledge between these segments tends to increase rather than decrease.

The authors contend that the less advantaged would gain knowledge but that the more advantaged would gain more knowledge faster. The theory established that the media and other media presenters have a responsibility as well as freedom in their information-gathering and dissemination tasks. In other words, the theory is relevant to this work because it avails the indigenous media presenters the freedom to disseminate news content in the native language in such a way that can facilitate rapt understanding of the original content and bridge the knowledge gap that exists between the literate and the non-literate in the English language.

 Research Methodology

The study made use of Content analysis. It helps to understand the impact of certain changes in existing standard procedures. It focuses on a radio station with indigenous coverage and the focus is on the broadcasters’ translation method and style. This radio station has in stock a lot of programs designed for indigenous interests. The researchers selected 65 editions of the “Óńgbóná flifli” daily newspaper review in Yorùbá language on Sobi 101.9 FM, drawn from 3rd of June to 30th August from Monday to Friday within three months. A program that comes on air between 6:30 am to 7:00 am for headline review, and 8:00 am to 10:00 am for news details. This radio station was selected via the purposive sampling technique. What inferred the choice of the radio station was that Sobi 101.9 FM is the most preferred indigenous radio station in the Ilorin metropolis. Meanwhile, the selection of “Óńgbóná flifli” daily newspaper review was due to the need to translate from the English language to the Yoruba language which is the lingua franca of the people of Ilorin.

Data Analysis and Interpretation

In this section, data presentation and analysis of translated news items in Yoruba from the English language will be examined using Newmark’s four levels which are; Source language level, Referential level, Cohesive level, and level of Naturalness. Our analyses will involve dividing the translated texts in Yoruba into contextual and functional aspects of the translations.

Table 1a: Contextual Aspect of the Lexes

Referential Level

 

SL

Lexical Derivation

TL

i.

Electricity

Mọ-iná-mọ-iná

(Shine shine)

Mọ̀nàmóná

ii.

Motorcycle

A-lù-pù-pù

(Something that sound pupu)

Alùpùpù

iii.

Aso rock

Àpáta-Ásò

(The seat of power in Nigeria. The rock named Aso)

Àpáta ásò

 

There is a perfect referential denotation between the SL and TL. Mọ̀nàmọ́ná could be an object that reflects light in such a way as to brighten the environment, while electricity also has the same feature. Aso Rock translated as Àpáta Ásò has the same meaning which is the seat of government or presidential villa, but a different reference. Àpáta Ásò is “Rock Aso” directly translated from Aso rock. Also, there is a difference between the referential denotation of Motorcycle and Alùpùpù. The reference to Motorcycle is embedded in the appearance, while it is embedded in the act for Alùpùpù. (The target language employs the use of onomatopoeia i.e., the way the machine sounds in deriving its name).Level of Naturalness

 

SL

Lexical Derivation

TL

iv.

Waste management

Kó-ilẹ̀-kó-ìdọ́tí

(Waste packer)

 

Kólèkódọ̀tí

v.

Interim

Fi-ìdí-hẹ́

(Sit inconveniently /temporary)

Fìdíhẹẹ́

 

The TL forms have a perfect level of naturalness with the SL and they both have the same contextual meaning. “Kólèkódọ̀tí” is what TL native speakers will see as waste management because it conforms to the grammatical structure of their language. The same thing applies to “Interim” translated as “Fìdíhẹẹ́ which indicates partial or something not fully given. The translated forms capture all possible levels of translation and will propel smooth communication for the TL listeners or audience.

Table 1b: Functional Aspect of the Lexes

Referential Level

 

SL

Lexical Derivation

TL

i.

Electricity

Mo-ina-mo-ina                  

(Shine shine)     

 

Mọ̀nàmọ́na

ii.

Motorcycle

A-lù-pù-pù (Something that sounds pùpù)

Alùpùpù

iii.

Aso rock

Àpáta-ásò (The rock named Aso)

Aso rock

 

The reference or object is expected to influence the function of the lexis. The SL Motorcycle may not properly function as a noun, because the reference is describing an act, just like the TL Alùpùpù that describes the act. The same thing applies to Aso rock translated to Àpáta Ásò, but different in Electricity and Mọ̀nàmọ́ná. Electricity possesses the same reference as Mọ̀nạ̀móná, and does not affect their grammatical function not to remain as a noun.

Level of Naturalness

 

SL

Lexical Derivation

TL

iv.

Waste management

Kó-ilẹ̀-kó-ìdọ̀tí (waste packer)

Kólèkódọ̀tí

v.

Interim

Fi-ìdí-hẹẹ́

(Sit inconveniently /temporary)

Fìdíhẹẹ

 

Here, the level of naturalness concentrates on the naturality of the lexical function of the TL concerning its SL counterpart. In the translation above, Kòlẹ́kódọ̀tí/ Fìdíhẹẹ́ respectively expressed the naturality of the TL, but the lexical function of Kólẹ̀kódọ̀tí differs. Waste management could either be a noun phrase or a noun, while the TL is a derivative noun. Also, TL's contextual meaning is not sufficient to capture the context of waste management. Interim has the same lexical function (noun) as Fìdíhẹẹ́.

Table 2a: Contextual Aspect of the Structures

Referential Level

 

SL

Structural Derivation

TL

i.

Comedian

Ò-dá-ẹ̀rín-pa-òṣónú (Someone that brings a smile to an unhappy person)

Òdẹ́rìn ín p’òṣónú

ii.

Writer

Oní-gègé-àrà (Someone with a special pen)

Oní gègé àrà

iii.

Commencement

Na-ìyẹ́-bìbà (Spread wings openly)

Na ìyẹ́ bìbà

               

The TL forms are long and complete structures derived to illustrate and describe the contextual meaning of the SL form which happens to be lexis and phrase. At the referential level, the object jest, laugh for comedy, write or pen for News writer, are common to both SL and TL, but Na ìyẹ́ bìbà and commencement may not be the same because the first may refer to a bird or thing that fly, while the latter strictly means to start.

Cohesive Level

 

SL

Structural Derivation

TL

iv

Helicopter

Bàaĺù-a-bà-sí-ibi-tó-wùú      

(Flight that land anywhere)

Bàálù a bà síbi ó wùú

v

Ambulance

Ọkọ̀-gbé-òkú-gbé-oní-àárẹ̀

(Vehicle that carry the sick people)

Ọkọ̀ gbókùú gbáláàrẹ́

 

vi

House of representatives

Ilé-ìgbìmọ̀-a-ṣe-ojú-ṣe-òfin

(House containing those that represent and make laws).

Ilé ìgbìmọ̀ asojúṣòfin

 

Due to the lexical appearance of SL Helicopter and Ambulance, the translated version TL did not relate at the structural level, because they occur without SL influence. Only the House of representative influences the formation of Ilé ìgbìmọ̀ asojúṣòfin. However, they all possess a description of the meaning in the SL, as their context. The cohesion of the TL Ọkọ̀ gbókùú gbáláàrẹ is gbé, while Ile ìgbìmọ̀ asojúṣòfin is a and ṣe

Level of Naturalness

 

SL

Structural Derivation

TL

vii

Team captain

Balógun-ẹgbẹ́-a-gbá-bọ́ọ̀lù

(war leader of a football team)

Balógun ẹgbẹ́ agbábọ́ọ̀lù

viii

Cashless policy

Ìlànà-níní-owó-láì-fi-ojú-rí

(Ways of owing money without seeing it)

Ìlànà níní owó láì fi ojú rí

 

ix

Sandwich student

Akẹ́kọ̀ọ́-ìgbà-yìí-láàárọ́

(Student of the late hours)

Akẹ́kọ̀ọ́ ìgbàyí láàárọ̀

 

The formation of TL is a complete structure contrary to the SL which is a phrase. This is because at the TL level there is the usage of the verb “ni” which denotes a state of being unlike the SL version that lacks any action word. All the translated forms properly describe the contextual effect in the SL and this will enable readers or listeners to easily comprehend them. The TL “akẹ́kọ̀ọ́-ìgbà-yìí-láàárọ́ sound as if the student regrets attending school early, instead of showing denotation of evening student as portrayed by the SL.

 

 

Table 2b: Functional Aspect of the Structures

Referential Level

 

SL

Structural Derivation

TL

i

Comedian

Ò-dá-ẹ̀rín-pa-òṣónú

(Someone that brings a smile to an unhappy person)

Ò-d’ẹ̀rín-pòṣónú

ii

News writer

Oní-gègé-àrà      

(Someone with a special pen)

Oní gègé àrà

iii

Commencement

Na-ìyẹ́-bìbà

(Spread wings openly)

Na ìyẹ́ bìbà

 

The reference of the translated version at the structural level is not the same, because SL comedian and commencement are lexes that connote isolated meanings. TL structures can absorb possible objects as a reference. e.g., òdẹ́rín-ín pòṣónú could be referenced as the verb phrase break laugh, make laugh, cook laugh, but the comedian is mainly referenced as a verb laugh. The same thing occurs with commencement and Na ìyẹ́ bìbà. Reference nouns such as the noun news and verb write are for News writer, while the noun pen and verb write are for Oní gègé àrà.

Cohesive Level

 

SL

Structural Derivation

TL

iv

Helicopter

Bàálù-a-bà-sí-ibi-tó-wùú

(Flight that land anywhere)          

Bàálù a bà síbi ó wùú

 

v

Ambulance

Ọkọ̀-gbé-òkú-gbé-oní-àárẹ̀

(Vehicle that carries sick people)

Ọkọ̀ gbókùú gbálàárẹ̀

vi

House of Representatives

Ilé-ìgbìmọ̀-a-ṣe-ojú-ṣe-òfin

(House containing those that represent and make laws)

Ilé ìgbìmọ̀ aṣojúsòfin

 

Among the distinctiveness of the TL, forms are the structural appearance that is made up of cohesion. The cohesion helps in proper description and explanation of the contextual meaning of the SL a and o respectively, in TL “Bàálù a bà síbi ó wùú” are cohesive ties for Bàálù and wùú. The cohesive tie for TL “Ọkọ̀ gbókùú gbálàárẹ̀” is gbé anaphoric to Ọkọ̀, while Ilé ìgbìmọ̀ aṣojúṣòfin is a and ṣe, anaphoric to Ilé igbímọ̀

 

 

 

 

Level of Naturalness

 

SL

Structural Derivation

TL

vii

Team captain

Balógun-ẹgbẹ́-a-gbá-bọ́ọ̀lù

(warrior leader of a football team)

Balógun ẹgbẹ́ agbábọ́ọ̀lù

viii

Cashless policy

Ìlànà-níní-owó-láì-fi-ojú-rí

(Ways of owing money without seeing it)

Ìlànà níní owó láì fojú rí

ix

Sandwich student

Akẹ́kọ̀ọ́-ìgbà-yìí-làárọ̀

(Student of the late hours)          

Akẹ́kọ̀ọ́ ìgbàyí làárọ̀

 

 

The functionality of the TL structure is perfectly determined by the level of naturalness. All the grammatical class of cohesive tie conforms to TL structure. Also, the chosen lexes used in the structure unveil the language intuition of TL native speakers, listeners, and readers.

Result Analysis

This section shows the translation methods and styles used by the broadcasters. To know the level of denotation on each translation, the tables are content/function lexes and content/function structure. CL, TM, CF, RL, and LON respectively mean content lexis, translation methods, content function, referential level, and level of naturalness. The Roman numeral ‘i’ to ‘ix’ indicates the position of each data analyzed above.

TL: Content and Function aspect of the Lexes

 

CL/ CF

Trans. Style

Function Effect

TM

Denotation

Meaning

 

RL

i.

Description

Noun

Semantic

Form of energy

ii.

Description

Noun

Semantic

Two-wheeled vehicle

iii.

Imitation

Noun

word for word

Nigeria govt. house

LON

iv.

Explanatory

Noun

Communicative

Control unused material

v.

Description

Verb

Communicative

temporary period

 

The above table shows the way TL is presented, in conformation to its tradition. It unveils the grammatical categories for each translated version, by highlighting the meaning which the method of translation used could result.

 At the referential level, the translation style that is used for the lexis whose function as a noun describes and imitates the original function of the translated object. The translator derives his intention from the object performance in the real world as represented in the denotation meaning. Mọ̀nàmọ́ná, Alùpùpù respectively describe shine, and motorcycle’s sound which is the way they work, while Àpáta Ásò imitate Aso Rock lexical pattern and describe the look of the object.

For the level of naturalness, the translation style for both lexes is explanatory and descriptive in nature. Kólẹ̀kódọ̀tí directly explains the subject of Waste Management, and Fìdíhẹẹ́ also describes the interim. Aside been a noun and verb, both translated versions are communicative because they can easily be broken into words to form a complete grammatical sentence. i.e. Fi ìdí hẹẹ́, kó ilẹ̀ kó ìdọ̀tí.

TL: Content and Function aspect of the structure

 

CS/ FS

Tran. Style

Function

effect

TM

Denotation

Meaning

 

RL

i.

Description

Noun

Semantic/ communicative

To make comedy

ii.

Description

Noun

Communicative

To write

iii

Description

Verb

Communicative

To commence

 

CL

iv

Explanatory

Noun

Semantic

Aircraft

v.

Description

Noun

Communicative

vehicle caring sick and corpse

vi

Description

Noun

Communicative/faithful

house to make law and order

 

LON

vii

Description

Noun

Faithful

leader of a football team

viii

Description

Noun

Communicative

spending invisible money

ix

Description

Noun

Communicative

evening student

 

The above table shows the translation style, methods, and functional effect of TL. The information explains the denotation meaning, method of translation, and grammatical function which is determined by the subject of the structure. The translation style used at the referential level describes the function of the translated object as given in the structural derivation. Ò dẹ́rìn-ín pòsónú, Oní gègé àrà, and Na ìyẹ́ bìbà tell us what a comedian, writer and to commence do in actual sense. Also, the translation style, the cohesion and the level of naturalness are descriptions and explanations of the SL. The major significance here is that the grammatical functions for all the structures are nouns and the translations are majorly communicative. That is, they naturally fit into the SL intended meaning, unlike those that are semantic, and faithful that also fit but do not naturally fit into the SL intended meaning.

Conclusion and Recommendations

In this work, we have established that translation as an instrument used in duplicating messages from one language into another language mostly occurs with neologisms of all kinds for lexes and structures. We also discovered that equivalent translation is not always guaranteed, most especially when translating from English to Yorùbá. The reason which is clearly stated in our data analysis unveils that Yorùbá TL version did not properly project the SL form because of the difference between both languages' traditions. Hence, radio broadcasters use their intuition to retain and blend the information in the TL, when translating.

Also, it was shown that not all translation methods used by radio broadcasters are communicative. Many of them are semantic, literary, faithful, and word-for-word translations. The methods they adopt usually depend on their level of exposure to the SL and the TL. This paper encourages radio presenters to rely more on the tradition of TL when translating, rather than capitalizing on the act of the words and structures of SL. By so doing, TL will become revitalized and all extinct words that depict exact cultural traits of the TL will be accessible to old and most especially young speakers of Yorùbá language.

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