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Nazarin Waƙar Sarkin Tudun Falale Ta Sa’idu Faru Duba Cikin Mazahabar Markisanci

Wannan takarda na ɗauke da nazarin waƙar Sarkin Tudun Falale ta Sa’idu Faru. An yi amfani da Mazahabar Markisanci wajen wannan nazari.

Nazarin Waƙar Sarkin Tudun Falale Ta Sa’idu Faru Duba Cikin Mazahabar Markisanci

Sa’adu Malam Auwal

Gabatarwa

          Wannan aiki ne da ya shafi tarken waƙar baka ta Sa’idu Faru da ya yi wa ‘Sarkin Tudun Falale’ kwatanci/duba ga mazahabar Markisanci. Aikin ƙunshe yake da bayani kan tushen mazahabar, sassan nazarinta, yaɗuwarta wurare daban-daban. Uwa-uba kuma an fito da manufofin wannan mazahaba daki-daki an danganta su da abubuwan (maganganun) da ke cikin waƙar Sarkin Tudun Falale, tare da taƙaitaccen fashin-baki kan wasu ɗaiɗaikun misali, kamar yadda za a ga idan an shiga cikin aikin.

Tushe Mazahabar Markisanci

          Mazahabar Markisanci ta samo asali ne daga tunanin wani Bajamushe mai rajin neman sauyi a sha’anin tattalin arziki da zamantakewar al’umma da kuma siyasar duniya wato Karl Herreich Marɗ (1818-1883). Shi dai mafalsafi ne kuma masanin tattalin arziƙin ƙasashe na ƙarni na 19. Ya fito da wannan aƙidar ne a cikin wani littafinsa mai suna, The German Ideology (1845). Ya kuma haɗu da wani Bafaranshe Freidrich Engels (1820-1895) a Paris a shekarar 1844 da suka haɗa ra’ayoyinsu ga fito da matakan ko sharuɗan Kwamisanci (da suka koma na Markisanci daga baya) wanda wannan ya samar da ƙungiyar ta duniya, kamar yadda suka rattaɓa a cikin littafinsu mai suna, Communist Manifesto (1844). A cikinsa ne suka tattauna kan yadda gwagwarmayar neman matsayi ko muƙami a cikin al’umma ke sanya rikici wanda idan ya ɗore to sai a sami yin sauyi ga shugabancin al’umma. Daga nan sai talakawa su koma su ke shugabanci ta hanyar kafa gwamnatin kowa da kowa (sake-ba-ƙaidi), da kame sufiri da hanyoyin samar da kayayyakin rayuwa da aikin ƙwadago da sauransu. Wannan ne ya bada ra’ayin da ke magana kan tattalin arziƙi da zamantakewa da shugabanci (siyasa) da tarihin al’umma da kuma adabinta da ake kira da Markisanci (Dobie, 2009:87).

          Duk da cewa aƙidar Markisanci ba ta ra’ayin adabi ba ce kawai da farko, amma manufofin wasu ƙungiyoyinta an ɗora su kan adabi. saboda haka, an sami wasu ƙungiyoyi na matarkan adabi da suka fara amfani da hakan a Rasha a ƙarƙashin Joseph Starlin, da suka nuna cewa Markisanci na samar da sababbin hanyoyi na fahimtar adabi (Dobie 2009:87).

          Haka kuma, a cikin littafinsa da ya wallafa mai suna, Das Kapital (1867), Karl Marɗ ya nuna cewa ana auna tarihi ne ta la’akari da yanayin tattalin arziki da irin mallakar da mutane suke ciki-wato kamar yadda Ɗangambo (2008:2) dai ya nuna cewa adabi hoton rayuwa ne ko madubi ne na haskaka rayuwar al’umma ta hanyar adabinta (Reflection) da irin duniyar adabin.

Sassan Nazari Na Mazahabar Markisanci

          Mazahabar Markisanci ta tarken adabi na lura da wasu muhimman sassan nazari guda huɗu da suka ƙunshi irin halayen rayuwar al’ummar kamar haka:

A)  Ƙarfin tattalin arziƙin al’umma (Economic Power) misali, kamar a littafin Kulɓa Na Ɓarna ko Budurwar Zuciya, inda Attajirai suke cin zarafin ‘yanmata, ‘ya’yan talakawa kuma su zauna lafiya.

B)   Rikicin neman matsayi a al’umma (class struggle)

Misali, kamar a Kukan Kurciya, inda ake haɗuwa (meeting) a je can; a je nan, a ƙulla wannan a ƙulla wancan duk don a samu mulki.

C)   Abubuwa na zahiri da na ɓoye (na lahira) material and spiritual life).

Misali, kamar a Ruwan Bagaja ko Iliya Ɗan Maiƙarfi, inda ake bayyana abubuwa na haɗari da na mamaki. Wasu sukan zama na zahiri wasu ko na ɓoye (aljannu, mala’iku ko mutane masu ban mamaki).

D)  Aikin Fusaha da adabi da aƙidoji (Art, Literature and Ideology)

Misali, kamar a littafin wasan kwaikwayo na wasan Wasan Marafa, inda aka yi ta kawo abubuwan  da suka shafi kiwon lafiya.

Yaɗuwar Mazahabar Markisanci

          Mazahabar Markisanci ta samo sunanta ne daga wanda ya ƙirƙiro tunanin ko aƙidar, shi ne Karl Henriech Marɗ (1818-1883) kuma an ƙirƙiro ta ne a shekarar 1845.

          Waɗanda suka ƙirƙiro ta su ne shugabanta na farko Karl Henriech Marɗ da abokinsa Fredrich Engels da George Lucaks da Lous Althusser da Anthonio Gramsci da Joseph Stalin (Macey, 1965:240).

          Wannan mazahaba ta yaɗu daga Jamus zuwa Ingila a ƙarƙashin Reymond William da Terry Eagleton (Klarer, 2004:251). Ta isa Amurka ta hanyar Lentrichia da Fredrich Jamerson da Marɗ Hockeimer. Ta isa Frankfurt ta hannun Theordo Adorno da Harbert Mercuse. Sannan ta yaɗu zuwa wasu ƙasashen duniya bayan yaƙin duniya na biyu, musamman lokacin da wasu al’ummomi ke da’awar sauyi a ƙasashensu ta hanyar adabinsu.

Manufofin Mazahabar Markisanci

Wasu daga cikin manufofin wannan mazahaba su ne:

1.     Tana duba sha’anin wasu rukunonin jama’a da ake danne su ko ake ware su ko ake ɗora masu wani nauyin da bai dace ba, kamar Wariyar Launin Fata, ko Tauye ‘Yancin Mata ko Mulkin Mallaka ko Halin Baƙar Fatar Amurka ko Ƙyamar ‘Yan Luwaɗu da ‘Yan Madigo da sauransu.

A nan, sai dai a fito da rukunonin jama’a da ake danne su ko ake ware su idan aka kwatanta da abubuwan da ke cikin waƙar ‘Sarkin Tudun Falale’ ta Sa’idu Faru. Ga misalin hakan daga cikin waƙar:

“Zaki mai zama ga hilin Allah ga shi ga hili,

To wak ka san ya far mashi,

Kafin maza su shirya Mamman na Ali ya shirya,

Sun yi ɓaɓɓakar dutsi,

Sun yi gyangyaɗar dutsi,

Sun san ba su iya miƙai hannuwansu sun gaza,

Na Abdu ko da ƙarfin Allah kana shiga gidan”.

A nan ana bayyana yadda masu mulki suke nuna ƙarfa-ƙarfa wajen mulki ko a ƙi ko a so, sai sun yi abin da ransu yake so.

2.     Tana gano sababbin hanyoyin fahimtar dangantaka tsakanin tattalin arziki da adabi da dukkan abubuwan da al’ada take samarwa.

A nan kuma za a zaƙulo wasu wurare da suke da alaƙa da wannan ƙauli wato dangantakar tattalin arziƙi tsakanin adabi da dukkan abubuwan da al’ada ta ƙunsa. Ga misali daga cikin waƙar, inda Sa’idu Faru yake cewa:

“Mai fada ɗan Iyya,

Ga Sarkin kiɗanku ya daka

Na zo a ba mu doki wani suntube abin sukwa”.

A nan idan muka lura, kiɗa da doki na sukwa da aka ambata a cikin wannan waƙa dukkansu abubuwa ne da suka shafi al’ada.

Sai kuma inda yake cewa:

“Duk Sarkin da ka ga yai ɗinkin dagumi da karhuna

Indai ana ‘kiɗan tauri’ yaj jiya shiga yakai,

Duk sarkin da ka sayo fata ka gani cikin gardawa suna ta gardama,

In ana rawar dunu yaj jiya shiga yakai.

In ya ga an yi damun garin da za a ba su su sha,

Shi ka fara cewa “bari in jiya akwai suga”.

A cikin waɗannan baitoci an yi maganar ‘ɗinkin dagumi da karuna’ (tufafin Hausawa), kiɗan tauri da dunu (kaɗe-kaɗen Hausawa) da kuma damun fura (abincin Hausawa) kai tsaye dukkansu abubuwa ne da suka shafi al’ada, kuma sun bayyana a cikin wannan adabi (waƙa).

3.     Tana duba rikice-rikice na neman iko da na matsayi a cikin al’umma tare da tantance al’umma da tarihinta, musamman tarihin wasu abubuwa da suka shafi matsayi a cikinta

Kasancewar wannan waƙar baka ce ta sarauta, wato an yi waƙar ne a wani basarake (Sarkin Tudun Falale) don haka ba za a rasa wasu ‘yan rikice-rikice ba yayin da zai hau ko yake kan mulki. Ga dai wasu baitoci daga cikin waƙar:

Inda Sa’idu Farun yake cewa:

“Macijiya da Kunkuru,

Shawara guda sukai,

Da Bushiya da Beguwa,

Shawara guda sukai,

Da Kurciya da Hasbiya,

Shawara guda sukai,

Zoloƙuwa da Tinjimi

Shawara guda sukai

Duk babu wanda yazo Haji babu mai nufar zuwa”.

A nan ana fito da yadda magada suke rarrabuwa tawaga-tawaga don neman mulki.

 

Sai kuma inda yake cewa:

“Mai dama ya yi tunanin a naɗa shi mai garin Tudu,

Ya zo ina kiɗan Sarki,

Kai Hakimin Sarki duniya garai take,

Duk abin da ya amsa can ka ce ya sayi kuɗe”.

A nan kuma ana yin habaici ne ga waɗanda suke yin rikicin neman mulki tare da sarki.

Sai kuma inda yake cewa:

Ɗan aruguma ya faffaɗa maka Muhammadu,

Ko wurin Uwaye mata kuna ya tsattsere,

Ɗan marar abin wuya,

Ɗan karuwa duk ɓaci kaj jiya da kai muke’.

A nan ma ana zagin wani abokin hamayya ne cikin waɗanda aka ɗan taɓa rikici da su wajen gwagwarmayar neman mulki.

4.     Tana bayyana irin rikicin tattalin arziki da na mulki da zamantakewar al’umma tsakanin masu mulki da waɗana ake mulka (Talakawa), tare da la’akari da yadda adabi ke fito da rayuwar al’umma ta gwagwarmayar neman matsayi da riƙe shi a tsakanin rukunonin jama’a a cikin al’umma.

A nan ma za a zaƙulo wasu wuraren da suke da alaƙa da wannan batu daga cikin waƙar kamar haka, inda mawaƙin yake cewa:

“Ka riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammadu,

Sansanin gidan mai Saje shirinka ya yi kyau,

Sarkin Tudun Falale gogarman Magaji Umaru Ummaru,

Ba yau ba ko mazan jiya sun san kana da martaba”.

A nan ana bayyana gwagwarmayar neman matsayi ne da riƙe shi a tattalin rukunonin jama’a. Wato tun kafin ya karɓi mulki an san shi ba ƙaramin mutum ba ne. Tana amfani da fusahar fiɗar adabi mai ƙunshe da batun aƙidoji da fito da ma’anar shugabanci a cikin al’umma, da fito da yadda taurarin littafi ke mu’amula a tsakaninsu ta la’akari da tattalin arziƙinsu da yadda suke neman matsayin a al’umma.

          Kasancewar wannan matani na adabi da ake nazari ba littafi ba ne, wato waƙa ce ta baka. Babu wasu taurari da za a iya bayyanawa, sai dai a fito da inda aka ambaci wasu mutane kamar wanda aka yi wa waƙar da kuma wanda aka ba shi saƙo a cikin waƙar. Misali, inda mawaƙin yake cewa:

“Kafin maza su shirya Mamman na Ali ya shirya,

Ko da dai shirin Allah ai shirin Muhammadu,

Na zo na ishe ‘yan Sarki na zaɓi guda”.

          A nan an bayyana sunan wanda aka yi waƙar, wato ‘Mamman Na Ali’ ko ‘Muhammadu’.

Sai kuma inda yake cewa:

“Maifada Ɗan Iyya,

Ga Sarkin kiɗanku ya daka,

Na zo a ba mu doki wani suntuɓe abin sukwa”.

A nan an ambaci wani daga cikin ‘yan majalisar sarki ne.

          Sai kuma inda ake ambaton sunan sarautar shi Muhammadu, inda mawaƙin yake cewa:

“Sarkin Tudun Falale gogarman Magaji Ummaru,

Ba yau ba ko mazan jiya sun san kana da martaba”.

          Tana fito da yadda ake feɗe matanin adabi don fayyace irin ra’ayoyin da ke cikinsa, ta hanyar tarken matani, saboda keɓaɓɓun kalmomin tarken da jigon falsafarsa da sauransu.

          A nan za a iya cewa, jigon wannan waƙa shi ne ‘yabo’ domin a cikinta ana zuga sarki nekuma ana kambama shi. Ga wasu gunduwowi da za su tabbatar da hakan, daga cikin waƙar kamar haka:

“Ka riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammadu,

Ba yau ba ko mazan jiya sun san kana da martaba,

Sarkin Tudun Falale gogarman Magaji Ummaru”.

          A nan mun ga yadda ake yabonsa wajen riƙon gaskiya, har ma ake danganta shi da magabata masu gaskiya ma’abota mulki.

Sai kuma inda ake cewa:

“Zaki mai zama da ƙarfin Allah ga su ga hili,

To wak ka son ya far mishi,

Kafin maza su shirya Mamman na Ali ya shirya”.

          A nan ana koɗa shi ne ta hanyar fifita jarumtakarsa a kan sauran masu neman mulki, cewa ya fi ƙarfinsu.

Sai kuma inda ake cewa:

“Dogon sarki yana da ban sha’awa,

Ran da ak ka zo taro ya hi kyau da riguna,

Duk wanda ag gajere a aje shi gun rabon dawo”.

          A nan kuma ana yaba shi ne ta hanyar fitowa da siffarsa ƙarara kamar yadda aka ce ce shi dogo ne.

          A taƙaice dai waɗannan abubuwa da aka zaƙulo daga cikin waƙar Sarkin Tudun Falale ta Sa’idu Faru sun yi daidai da abubuwan da wannan mazahaba ta Markisanci take dubawa. Dukkanin manufar da aka bayyana, sai a ga akwai wasu batutuwa masu alaƙa ko dangantaka da su a cikin waƙar, kamar dai yadda aka yi ta bayyana su a cikin wannan aiki.

 

Madogara

Gusau, S.M. (2015) Mazhabobin Ra’i Da Tarke A Adabi Da Al’adu Na Hausa, Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano.

Sadi, S.A. (1979) “Tsokaci Kan Hanyoyin Nazarin Adabin Baka Na Hausa”. Kano, BUK.

Zulyadaini, B. (2000). Nazarin Waƙar Baka. Gaskiya Corporation ltd, Zaria.


 

RATAYE

Waƙar Sarkin Tudun Falale

Ta

Sa’idu Faru

Ka riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammad

Sansanin gidan mai Saje

Shirinka ya yi kyau

Sarkin Tudun Falale gogarman Magaji Ummaru

Ba yau ba ko mazan jiya sun san kana da martaba.

Ba yau ba ko mazan jiya

Sun san kana da martaba.

Ya riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammadu

Mai farin gidan mai Saje shirinka ya yi kyau.

Mai fada Ɗan’iyya,

Ga Sarkin Kiɗanku ya taka,

Mai fada Ɗan’iyya,

Ga Sarkin Kiɗanku ya taka,

Ya zo a ba mu doki wani sassaɓe abin sukwa

Ya zo a ba mu doki wani sassaɓe abin sukwa.

Ya riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammadu

Zaki mai zama da ƙarfin Allah ga su ga hili,

To wak ka san ya far mashi

Kafin maza su shirya Mamman na Ali ya shirya,

Kafin maza su shirya Mamman na Ali ya shirya,

Kada dai shirin Allah ai ashshirin Muhammadu,

Ko da dai shirin Allah aishiri Muhammadu.

Na zo na ishe ‘yan Sarki naz zaɓi guda,

Komai za mu yi da shi mu kai,

Na zo na ishe ‘yan Sarki naz zaɓi guda,

Komai za mu yi da shi mu kai,

Ya riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammadu,

Mai farin gidan Mai Saje Shirinka ya yi kyau,

Ya riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammadu.

Zaki mai zama ga hilin Allah ga shi ga hili,

To wak ka san ya far mashi,

Kafin maza su shirya Mamman na Ali ya shirya.

Sun dai yi ɓaɓɓakar dutsi,

Sun yi gyangyaɗar dutsi,

Sun ga ba su iya miƙai hannuwansu sun gaza,

Na Audu ko da ƙarfin Allah kana shiga gidan.

Sun dai yi ɓaɓɓakar dutsi,

Sun yi gyangyaɗar dutsi,

Sun san ba su iya miƙai hannuwansu sun gaza,

Na Audu ko da ƙarfin Allah kana shiga gidan,

Na Abdu ko da ƙarfin Allah kana shiga gidan.

Icce mai kama da ƙota,

Haka naj ji gun Badakkare,

Icce mai kama da ƙota,

Haka naj ji gun Badakkare,

Dogon Sarki yana da ban-sha’awa,

Ran da akka zo taro ya hi kyau da riguna,

Duk wanda ag gajere a aje shi gun rabon dawo.

Dogon Sarki yana da ban-sha’awa,

Ran da ak ka zo taro ya hi kyau da riguna,

Duk wanda ag gajere a aje shi gun rabon dawo.

Shi kai ma wanga dunƙule,

Shi kai ma wanga dunƙule,

Aw wurin da mata ciki,

Har tsumin gada ya kai,

An dai wurin da mata ciki,

Har tsumin gada ya kai.

Kwato kokuwa akwai mu raba,

Ɗan aruguma ya faffaɗa maka Muhammadu

Ko wurin Uwaye mata kuna ya tsattsere

Ɗan marar abin wuya,

Ɗan Karuwa duk ɓaci kaj jiya da kai muke,

Ɗan Karuwa duk ɓaci kaj jiya da kai muke.

Ya riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammadu,

Sansanin gidan mai Saje shirinka ya yi kyau.

Mai fada Ɗan Iyya,

Ga Sarkin kiɗanku ya daka,

Na zo a ba mu doki wani suntuɓe abin sukwa.

Macijiya da Kunkuru,

Shawara guda sukai

Da Bushiya da Beguwa,

Shawara guda sukai

Da Kurciya da Hasbiya,

Shawara guda sukai

Zoƙoƙuwa da Tinjimi

Shawara guda sukai

Duk babu wanda yaz zo Haji babu mai nutar zuwa,

Duk babu wanda yaz zo Haji babu mai nufar zuwa,

Ya riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammadu.

Mamman duk randa kay yi Sarki,

Rannan da ranmu can ƙasa,

Muhammadu duk randa kay yi tsarki,

Ran nan da ranmu can ƙasa

Mai damma ya yi tunanin a naɗa shi mai garin Tudu,

Ya zo ina kiɗan Sarki,

Kai Hakimin Sarki duniya garai take,

Duk abin da ya amsa can ka ce ya sayi kuɓe

Ka riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammadu

Sannu ɗan gidan Mai Saje shirinka ya yi kyau.

Sarkin Tudun Falale gogarman Magaji Ummaru,

Ba yau ba ko mazan jiya sun san kana da martaba,

Ya riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammadu,

Sannu ɗan gidan mai Saje shirinka ya yi kyau.

Duk sarkin da ka ga yai ɗinkin dajumi da kar guna

In dai ana kiɗan tauri yaj jiya shiga yakai,

Duk sarkin da ka sayo fata ka gani cikin gardawa suna ta gardama

In ana rawar dunu yaj jiya shiga yakai

In ya ga an yi damun garin da za a ba su su sha

Shi ya fara cewa “bari in jiya akwai suga”,

Ya riƙa da gaskiya Muhammadun Muhammadu,

Sansanin gidan mai Saje shirinka ya yi kyau.

Mai Fada Ɗan Iyya

Ga Sarkin kiɗandu ya daka

Na zo a ba ni doki wani suntuɓe abin sukwa.

Na zo a ba mu doki wani suntuɓu abin sukwa.

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